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misery of human kind, until, at the last, the agent The Giant's eyes glittered, and he seized the gun you will live or die with him, beg with him; put yer
“ Hear me, for
arms round him, Ally ; say the prayer I taught ye ; considered it to be his duty to save what remained for again, but his wife grasped his arm. the benefit of the absent landlord. Had Mr Russel the last time, John,” she exclaimed ; “ hear me. Sup- I've strength for it all, Jolin, darlint. May the Al
mighty bless you !-- your peaceableness has given me been in Ireland at the time, he would doubtless have pose you war left by the landlord in this house, with strength ; I'm able for it all, if you'll keep quiet. My softened this last trial; but he was in England or so little land, with no money, with not so much as the husband will be an example to the whole counthry; France, or somewhere far away, and requiring all the price for seed potatoes, every thing going to rack and all will see what he is now; they thought him a disrents, which had now been long unpaid. ruin, what would you have? what good would it do turber of the law; they will find their mistake." She
closed the door, paused a moment, and then, as if When heavy distress comes upon a man, unless his you? You've neither means nor money to keep us
afraid of a sudden outbreak, turned the key upon it, mind be very highly strung, he will yield to the dangerous from starving ; all we had is gone-gone-in the law! and removed the gun. “Kind neighbours, and dear and evil advice which, in better times, and with happier and you would end all by breaking the law, and trying friends," she said, advancing to the open door, “my husfeelings, he would have spurned. John Leahy was not to keep what isn't your own.”
band and I are for ever obliged to ye for yer kindness; strong-minded, and his poor wife's most bitter trial was “ What do you mane by that !” exclaimed John, we shall soon be far away from ye, but we shall never
forget ye; we know that the agent is acting for the to see him gradually drawn into the vortex of the dis- fiercely ; “not my own ! these walls not my own !"
best, in doing his duty for his employer. Boys and
“Not now when you can't pay for them,” she ancontented. Of such, who so abound in the neighbour
girls, just is just, and it's fitter he should have it, than hood of Limerick, he was acquainted with many; and swered calmly. Alice's observations led to the belief, that, unless he “ Blessed father!” he said, “ and is it you that send such as pe all know who. We thank ye kindly, but emigrated, he would become a worn-out and morally the reproach to my heart ?—is it you that but just those that are coming. We take ye to witness, kind ruined man—that his life would be the last sacrifice to this minute tould me what you war, to show you'd be friends, that we offer no opposition; we have no one to s the law.” This idea haunted her by day and night ; '11 only make me worse.
so no longer is it come to this wid ye? But that blame but ourselves--not even the law my husband
What have I now to care thought long ago to get the betther of; for its nature and whenever the remnants of their prosperity were for?"
is to take advantage where it can, and we can't expect seized, Alice Leahy resolved that the emigration often
“ Yer character, John. The worst any could say of any thing to go against nature. Thank ye kindly, hinted at, often debated, should take place. The arrival ye was, that you war too fond of law !—but if ye keep Mrs Doolan, but let the stones go ; a woman's best of what she knew must come, and that soon, was commu
arms are a prayer and a blessing, and you'll all give yer landlord from his own share, who then can say
us those before we lave ye." There was something so nicated by the entrance of two of “the neighbours," John Leahy's an honest man? The land is his ; we different from any thing the kind-hearted but wrongwhile she was dressing her child. “The agent's care cannot pay for it; he never was hard upon us when headed people expected in all this, something so brave taker," they said, "and two or three more with him, we tried to pay ; but, in spite of his advice, look what in a weak delicate-looking woman stifling her feelings, were coming ; John Leahy must guess for what, but you did yourself. Look, John: I have a friend who and resolving to give up every thing, because it was they would stand by their 'ould comrade to the last; will give us enough to take us away from the ould just to do so, particularly when (according to the opithey'd never see him wronged; there were many more place in dacency-enough to take us to another land. nions of their defenders) they might have repelled the of the same mind, to whom he had only to lift up his No one can say then, this was a rogue's house. In invaders, and fought it out-there was something so
unusual in the dignified bearing of the still beautifinger."
another land we can live and work. What matters ful Alice, that even Mrs Doolan let the stones she had
our poverty there !—no one will be to the fore to re- gathered slide out of her apron on one side, as if John Leahy turned pale as death at this informa- member our riches. John, agra! the landlord bore ashamed of her intention, while the men still persisted tion, but took down and prepared to load an old gun, with us long ; he saw the farm going to destruction, in their entreaties to let them have one fight for her which, rusty though it seemed, was quite able to do and he wasn't like many another, wishful to turn out any way before she'd quit them for good and all. mischief. One of the men ran to secure the pigs in ould residenthers for new. John, arourneen ! re
They also (as the distrainers were now at the gate) their sty, and the other showed he had not come un member, in this bitther time of trial, remember called loudly to John Leahy to come out, but the
heartbroken man heard them not, overcome as mucha armed.
that the landlord stuck to us longer than we stuck to by the reason and eloquence of his wife, as by the Little Alice screamed, and clung to her trembling
him.” mother. For an instant that mother's brow, cheek, Me, you mane me!" interrupted the Giant, sul- pent-up but most powerful feelings of his nature.
Ashamed ---ruined - the innocent caresses of his throat, were suffused with crimson ; she then became kily.
child wrought his heart to agony; and pressing the
“Then let it stand so," she said, “and still you know little creature to his bosom, he gave way to those white and rigid like a corpse ; and her husband, for
it's the truth. John, rouse up the pride of an honest desperate sobs which storin the frame of a strong getting all but the love of his youth, caught her to his heart! We may hould out for two or three months, man, but seldom, perhaps never, more than once in bosom.
but in the end we must quit. We saw that before you a whole lifetime. John Leahy, stimulated by bad “ Let 'em do what they like!” he exclaimed, dash-owned to it the other night. Do not let blood be spilt advisers, had refused on more than one occasion to ing down the gun; “ let them do what they like, now
when you can hinder it. This isn't like a hard land- yield possession to the agent, with whom, indeed, he had she is dead."
lord,” she repeated, gaining strength from justice. never been on good terms. If Mr Russel had been in
“ I tell ye, John, I've turned every thing over in my Ireland, though he could not prevail on him to abandon “ No-no-no-only wait till the breath comes own mind; it can't be helped ; give up at onst, bravely. law, he would have preserved his influence over him, back," murmured Alice; "wait;" and, gulping down It is brave to resign like a man.”
and that would have prevented much that was painful. some water, she summoned her mental strength, which ing; I can't part the counthry,” he said, looking round
“I can't part the counthry, Alice ; it's no use talk- As the men advanced, they perfectly understood they was great, to aid the little that remained of bodily and speaking through his clenched
teeth. " I did astonished when Mrs Leahy advanced to the gate, and
were engaged in a service of danger, and were greatly power. “ John Leahy,” she said, grasping her hus- what you wanted three days ago. I made every in- said they might enter. The peasantry could hardly band's arm, and looking in his eyes with the pure and quiry as you wished, but I can't part the counthry, be prevailed on to depart ; they clamoured to see the earnest intensity of wedded love; “ John Leahy, across the fields, the sod I was born on, or the people !".
poor farmer, but his wife's presence of mind, and the that door, now twelve years ago, I came a young bride,
“ And why should you ?" exclaimed James ; “ aint power which conscious integrity invariably gives to a young loving bride, resting my whole heart, and, windfall of the law shall set foot in it while we stand through as trying a scene as it ever fell to the lot of we all ready to stand by ye to the last ? Sorra a
those who otherwise would be powerless, carried her maybe, too much of the safety of my soul, on you. I here.” Alice took no notice of these words, but look woman to endure. She told them he would thank have borne you five childre, of which this was the first, ing at her husband tenderly, and pressing his hand them tomorrow; the women clung to and embraced and God willed should be the last; the rest are in between hers, she replied, “ And do you think that I her, saying she was fitter for heaven than earth ; the heaven! Don't look so, John Leahy; have a mite do not love the counthry? wouldn't I lay my life men, while they cursed their disappointment, and
down for it? I don't want to lave it because we're insulted the distrainers as much as their kindly dread more patience, till my heart beats easier, and I'll go prospering in it, but because we should burthen it, like of hurting Alice's feelings permitted, declared she was on.”
too many others. I love it as much as you, and if you an angel, and called down blessings on her head ; and Several of the neighbours now crowded in at the will stay, let it be still in peace and honesty. Make the necessary officer of the law, a strong but well door, although the “ distrainers for rent” were not, no resistance.”
" battered" specimen of human nature, who had renor could not be, in sight for nearly half an hour ; but house, maybe, the property of Abel Carr! I'd-I'd”
“ Stay!" he said ; “what! stay to see this very ceived and returned many a sound drubbing, removed the news had spread, and the people are ever ready at
his hat, and waited to think over what was the mildest
“Let us go, then ; I have more to lave behind than way of performing his duty. When she had seen the a rescue. Several of the young men had stout sticks, you,” said his wife.
last of their faction depart, when the strong necessity and the women, whose most acceptable service in the
“ The bones of all belonging to me are in the ould for exertion was over, her woman's heart fainted as it sight of heaven is that of being peace-makers on earth, churchyard,” he answered, much softened ; “but where had done before ; and one of the men, not so accus
will mine rest ?" had their aprons full of stones. Seeing Alice half
tomed to scenes of misery as the others, departed kneeling at her husband's feet, while he endeavoured my brothers, my sister, my ould mother, and she I
“ With mine," was the reply. “But, John, I lave without intimating his intention to his companions, to raise her again to his bosom, they withdrew, and
to tell the agent how peaceably they had obtained never can see afther we go. They will hear her last possession, and of the extraordinary conduct of Alice. remained outside ready for action. “And now, John,” prayer, receive her last blessing; and though you “ It was the finest example set to the counthry," he she said, “ let me ask you how often I have been know how I love her, I am content to be far away said, “ for years, and surely his honour would be as wanting in love or duty to you during them years ?" from her at the last moment, to be with you. My coun
mild as he could, considering.” “ Never !” he exclaimed, passionately ;
try is where you are, John. My”-
into the open air, where, poor little maid! she
Alice found her husband in a state of stupor, and sent onst, if this hour, as it may be, is my last-never, rupted James ; « don't be trainped in the briars, John had held such long converse with her dog. Never did disnever onst." Leahy ; we'll all stand by ye.”
trainers perform their duty with such tardy steps; and “ The past is past; ye can't think but that this
The Giant's powerful frame quivered like that of the agent, with the trust which Alice Leahy's noble conplace, these walls, that little bed where I watched the
a girl in an ague fit. Strong as he was, he trembled, duct merited, sent word to those he employed, that
not from fear, but emotion. dying, as I had done the living hours of our babbys,
if they pleased they might remain there for a few days.
“ But for the landlord's claim, it would go to such Leahy went through the form of giving up his house, with are all in my heart ; but, John Leahy, the memory of as Abel Carr," whispered Alice, wisely.
a stolid frame, and an eye moveless, and almost rayless. that, and every thing else, is all we'll have left of it to “ You are right, Alice," replied her husband; “I his wife saw, and trembled, for she knew that with a take to a foreign land, and”—
own it; and now all's gone, I take yer advice. Hide violent temper this appearance was far more dangerous Stop, Alice, stay ; inside these walls I was born ; where that I can't see or hear 'em ; let 'em have posme somewhere," said the heart-broken man ;
than rage. He then quitted his dwelling, and sat down
beneath the shadow of an old tree that grew on the inside these walls I will die; and let him who dares to session; and then, when all's gone!' Oh, Alice, Alice!" Opposite side of the road, and which many a time he had put me out, take what he'll get." he added, as, staggering into the bedroom, he fell on
the agent's offer. It was a frightful proof of the growth “ Hurra!" exclaimed the man (James Thurles by his face upon the bed. “Oh, Alice, to think it should
of evil, for his obstinacy seemed to have returned four name) who had brought the news ; “I knew Johnny come to this !-1, onst so proud, so independent, so fold. He sat down on a wide flat stone, and insisted upon the Giant had blood in him yet, for all that the law high in myself! Thank the neighbours. But, my Alice sitting at one side, and his child at the other, he drew out ; I knew that. Shout, boys and girls, shout! God! I cannot let it go-I must”
would suffer none other to approach him, and spurned the
“ Ally, come here,” said Mrs Leahy to her child ; poor dog even, that crouched to his feet---spurned it we'll not have a straw of his thatch touched.” “ Ally, come here, and keep with yer father; tell him away more than once; but the animal still returned, and
at last softened his sternness by licking away the tears bours. The Irish peasantry have suffered so desperately | as it is fruitful, and prudent as it is brave ! Oh, lanna
The evening drew towards its close, and the warm thongh it seldom makes them forget the rites of hospi- and yer people poor? Isn't it the mistakes of the law ?
“ I'll tell them,” resumed John Leahy, “when they
BY N. P. WILLIS.* on his wife's bosom, and he slept.
knew his child-knew even poor Bran, who looked with his Little Alice had been long asleep, but the wife and sad earnest eyes into his master's countenance. She had THE “ Pencillings by the Way," published by Mr N. mother
could obtain no repose. She recalled the days disposed of the articles of furniture, which Mr Russel, in- P. Willis, a few years ago, originally, we believe, in entreaties she had used to avert the consequences of as to meet his observation on his recovering his conscious the New York Mirror, and afterwards in a handlitigation---the hardness and perverseness of her husband, ness; and he closed his eyes in refreshing slumbers, with some London-made book of three volumes, was one who would go through any thing " for satisfaction.” The out apparently
reverting to their changed circumstances. of those productions which many rail at, but all crisis had arrived, a crisis rendered still more painful by Abel Carr, though he knew his unfortunate opponent had the obstinacy of him who at that time
was as an oak nothing more to lose, would have caused him to be ar- read. The accounts which the author gave of his resting on a reed for support. Although her brothers rested for the last law expenses, if he had dared; but residence in private houses, and his conversations with had promised her the means necessary for emigration, there are few instances on record where the hearts of eminent persons, were exclaimed against, and justly so yet the future was as dark as the night-clouds that both rich and poor so completely united in admiration as we think, as constituting a very grave breach of prolowered above their heads. The moon broke through the of the enduring virtue of a simple unpretending woman, obscurity, and its beams fell upon her husband's face; as in the case of Alice Leahy. The poor revelled in the priety; but, nevertheless, the liveliness of the author's she could see huge drops of moisture, the heat-drops of idea that Abel was not only beggared in reputation, but style, the truth and force of his descriptions, and the cause of her affliction, the cause of their
mutual took every opportunity of pointing out to those who conversations he reported, made his book one of the fevered brain, standing on his brow; he had been in pocket; and those who wished well
to their country the interest generally felt in the persons whose ruin. She knew it well; and yet in the first beatings of were fond of going to law, the curious fact of two men, maiden love, in the deep earnestness of matronly duty the vanquished and the vanquisher, on the verge of star- | the most amusing which have been published for and devotion, not even when she took her first born from vation. But for his wife's admirable conduct, Leahy, many years. Mr Willis has again more recently her bosom to place it in its father's arms, not even then with many fine natural qualities, would in aji human crossed the Atlantic, and resided for some time did she love him so devotedly as at that moment. This probability have suffered the penalty which awaits knowledge made her draw her husband more closely crime; and Abel Carr's success, independently of the amongst us ; and as his pen is an active one, we have to her heart, and bless God that had still left her her losses he too had suffered by paying " costs," was sacri- the result which was to have been expected in a protwo treasures. She closed her eyes in thankfulness and ficed by the fury of those who, whatever their motive duction, of which the title has been described above. prayer, and might have slumbered; but a low sullen might have been, had no right to judge and execute Were we disposed to dwell upon the analogies begrowl from Bran arrested her attention. She looked judgment. down at the dog, and saw his eyes were turned in the
tween time and space, we should compare the ocean direction of a little dell on the right-hand side; she It was a fine summer evening, and
John Leahy's health that divides England from America to the centuries looked along the line, and discovered at first a palish was comparatively restored; the next day he was to that separate generations. An American's account of light, succeeded by a red glare ; then spiral tongues of leave for ever the land of his fathers. Alice and their fire ran into the air, and a wild haloo came on the breeze; child accompanied him midway up a mountain which the mother country appears like the judgment of posthen the fire brightened, then quenched; then the dull commanded a view so extensive, that the farm which had terity, and an Englishman's description of the United heavy smoke showed like a funeral pall above the light once been his seemed but as a patch of very small ex- States seems like glimpses at our great-grandchildren. below. She felt her heart sink within her; she could not tent; he shaded his eyes with
his hand so as to intercept In both cases “ distance lends enchantment to the be mistaken as to the direction of the fire, and she sud- the rays of the setting sun, and enable him to take a denly remembered the words, uttered by one of her farewell look of all he had known so long and loved so view,” and curiosity checks the spirit of criticism. neighbours when he saw her resolve to have no disturbance well. Neither husband nor wife spoke, but they both The Pencillings by the way, in spite of all draw. traced the direction of the flames, and well knew that he had sunk in the not far distant ocean that was to bear backs, were useful in letting us see ourselves as the fire was the burning of Abel Carr's house. Ripe for them to another land ; and then, while the whistle of others see us ;” and the
Loiterings of Travel are chiefly mischief, and not content to leave all to the wisdom of the plover and the low of the kine were yet upon the valuable for setting before us objects so familiar, that him who returns the poisoned chalice to the poisoner, air, they descended together, little Alice and Bran they escape our own observation. How true is the Carr; and their “punishing” would indeed have added
to for a four-leaved shamrogue that was to bring her luck picture of that great London thoroughfare, the the annals of crime and violence which disgrace the in “ furrin parts,” and Bran to sniff at every rabbit-hole Strand :country, but for the interference of the horse-police; that was not concealed beneath the prickly furze.
“ You would think London Strand the main artery of they arrived hardly in time to save the life of the wicked
“ Alice,” said
John to his wife, when they were turn the world. I suppose there is no thoroughfare on the face man, who had so continually provoked the evil spirit of ing into
the bohreen leading to their
place of rest for the of the earth where the stream of human life runs with a litigation which dwelt in the Giant's bosom.
The agitation of Alice was extreme, yet she did not your brothers and your friends, I should not have had tido so overwhelming. In any other street in the world dare to awake her husband. The glare of light was fad wherewith to begin life again in another land and I find you catch the eye of the passer-by. In the Strand,
man sees another, except as a solid body, whose contact ing; when a voice from behind the tree I have mentioned you war right; I could not have borne with it here."
is to be avoided. You are safe nowhere on the pavewhispered, “We've hot the right nail on the head now,
“The Lord above is very good !” she answered, though ment, without the vigilance of your senses. Omnibuses Mrs Leahy, any way." But the words were hardly spoken sobbing bitterly. when a couple of the horse-patrol were heard galloping
“ Look!” he exclaimed, “if I hear you cry that way, beset the street. Newspaper-hawkers, pickpockets, shop
and cabs, drays, carriages, wheelbarrows and porters, along the road; they drew up opposite
, and a perpetual and selfish crowa, Leahy arrested
with her husband on suspicion of having like these, we will remain, although I work as a day- in a shop-window, you arrest the tide of passengers, who originated the fire.
“ They will be the last,” she said, meekly. "I have immediately walk over you; and if you stop to speak they pleased; for before the following morning had tho- right; she said she was proud of me; and sure that is a They might have charged John Leahy with any crime bid my mother farewell ; and she, John, she said I did / with a friend, who by chance has run his nose against
, rather than man's, the , roughly dispelled the shades of night, the unhappy man proud hearing for a child from a parent's lips. You shall If you would get into an omnibus, you are quarrelled for
and are made to understand it by the force of jostling. was enduring the phrensy of a brain fever. Nothing not have to reproach me with the weakness again.” could exceed the interest created throughout the coun
by half-a-dozen who catch your eye at once ; and after try by this event. Mr Botherum himself stept out of his Alice. Even this morning when you war putting
in the crimination, you are most probably embarked in the
“Me reproach you with weakness,” he replied ; “no, using all your physical strength, and most of your disusual practice on the occasion, and declared " that so
that we had for years, and convinced was he of the incapability of Alice Leahy's goodness of Mr Russel left us, your eyes war dry, and wrong one, and are going at ten miles the hour to Black
, much less a --vinced was he that though John Leahy might have com- put up my tools myself
. And now, Alice, setting a case
even cheerful, and I wondered at yer strength. I couldn't wall, when you are bound to Islington.” mitted a breach of the law in defending his own house, that you war not strong-hearted, where would I be?”.
As a contrast to this most crowded of crowded nothing could have induced him to do the cowardly deed of an incendiary, that he would, if it came to a trial, said.
We shall be happy together wherever we are," she streets, let us turn to the quietude of Cranbourne
Alley. undertake their defence without professional fee or re
" Plaze God," replied her husband. “But, Ally, be
“ I like Cranbourne Alley, because it reminds one of ward. Irish interest once excited is not satisfied
with twixt ourselves, if I was beginning life again, i'd go to Venice. The half daylight between the high and overdip service; the neighbourhood was in a state of fermen- law altogether in a different way to what I ever did hanging
roofs, the just audible hum of voices
and occupa: tation during the few hours the Leahys were incarcerated; the peasantry gloried in the bare idea of effecting before."
tion from the different shops, the shuffling of hasty feet
“ Oh, John!" exclaimed his wife, pained but not sur- over the smooth flags, and particularly the absence of a rescue, but it was not needed. There was no evidence prised at his mind still being clogged by the old leaven, horses and wheels, make it (in all but the damp air and against them; the state of the poor fevered man spoke for and too thoroughly acquainted with the windings of the the
softer speech) a fair resemblance to those
sages in the rear of the canals between St Mark's and sent to convey them to “ a neighbour's house," observed, bear even death before you'd go to law !" discharged, she, while supporting his head on the car -Oh, John, sure you've taken your Bible oath to me, to the Rialto. Then I like studying a pawnbroker's win: in the thankful spirit of a true Christian, “ that no evil but had good in it. Sure it was a blessing he wasn't you're right, Alice, darlint. Warm blessing of my heart !
“Ay," he replied, “ and for your sake so I would, and abound here. It is a good lesson in humility to an author
to see what he can be bought for in Cranbourne Alley.t right in himself to feel the disgrace such a suspicion you are right; and to-morrow, plaze God, the neighbours Some ‘gentle reader who has paid a guinea and a half would bring on liim." Her excellent spirit was not weary who will set us on our way, when they see a man onst so of well-doing; she nursed him through that fearful malady with untiring fortitude; she refused to accept prosperous obligated to quit his native counthry, reduced shillings you may have the three volumes as good as the agent's offer, and return, till he was recovered, to so that but for charity”
new,' the shopman showing, by his civility, that he is their old home. It would be only breaking her heart wife. “ Not charity, sure the generosity of our own
“ Hardly charity, John,” said his delicate-minded pleased to be rid of them on these terms. If you would entirely," she said, “ to go back to and then leave it,
console yourself, however, buy Milton for one-and-sixand thouglı she did not say so, she knew that Mr Russel “betther than us have wanted it and had it, and but for it which she must do, for they had no means to keep it on;" people* maybe is bounty, but not charity, John; though, pence,
and credit your vanity with the eighteen-pence of even if it was,” she added in a more subdued tone, the remainder.” himself could not afford, even if he had the inclination, to my heart would never warm to Ireland as I know it will visitors to London, for the denizens of the metropolis
The sight-seers of a bygone age, that is to say, the let them bave such a house rent free ; besides, slie remembered, that, owing to her husband's love for law, persisting knows the beating of 'my heart, and the prayers of my
to the last hour of my days. The Lord of heaven, who so obstinately ir
. his course against liis landlord's well soul, look down upon it ! ---bless it with peace !---increase founded opinion, he had completely worn out his patience, its power !--turn its enemies into friends !---make it wise
* London, Longman and Company. and that he must feel as if a firebrand were quenched
+ [This is a mistake; there are neither book-stalls nor pawnwhen “ Johnny the Giant" left the country. Nor would
brokers in Cranbourne Alley, though there are several in the she accept shelter in any of the cottages of her neigh
* Irish relations.
trast with his fiery nose, forehead, and cheeks. His at this era, of a delegated head, an apostolic vicar | mended to his hearers so to demean themselves as “to
are in nine cases out of ten unconscious of the won him. We were sitting over our wine when White Cloud serpents, and other emblematical figures abounding in ders by which they are surrounded, always included and the Sioux-killer
came in with their interpreter every part of the city, he would draw comparisons, in Bedlam in the list of places which they deemed it naval undress uniform, whose face the Sioux-killer scru
an allegorical but not very ambiguous style, between necessary to visit. Every reader must recollect the tinised very sharply. They smiled in bowing to Power, the glorious times which witnessed the erection of exquisite picture of that abode of misery given by our but made very grave inclinations to the rest of us. The these monuments, and the degraded period in which own Mackenzie in the Man of Feeling. It is curious shief took his heat, assuming in recycelect and diem fierd he and
his hearers were condemned to live. Growing to compare it with Willis's description of the present terview; but the Sioux-killer drew up his legs, resting bolder day by day, he ventured upon open denunciainmates.
them on the round of his chair, and with his head and tions of the tyranny of the nobles, and inflamed the " On the end of a bench in one of the courts, quite undivided attention to the study of Power and his friend. passions of his audiences by dwelling on the bitter apart from the other patients, sat the youth who came up two hundred miles from the country to marry the drank with great relish, though the Sioux-killer provoked were blinded enough to be totally insensible to the
Tumblers of champagne were given them, which they subject of their wrongs. Strange to say, the nobles queen! You will remember the story of his forcing a little ridicule from White Cloud by coughing as he serious and dangerous tendency of Rienzi's proceedhimself into Buckingham Palace. He was a stout sandy: swallowed it. The interpreter was a half breed, between ings. Every thing “ plebeian” was so utterly despised haired sad-looking young man, of perhaps twenty-four; and with his arms crossed, and his eyes on the ground, had been reared in the Toway tribe, but had been among by them, that many of them actually came in person he sat like a statue, neve moving even an eyelash while the whites a great deal for the last five years, and had to listen to his political lectures, looking upon him we were there. There was a very gentleman-like man picked up English very fairly. He told us that White with his hand on the bar in a gait that would have suited Cloud was the son of old White Cloud, who died three much in the same light as they did Punchinello, or the most finished exquisite of a drawing-room---Mr Davis, years since, and that the young chief had acquired entire the common buffoons
of the carnival. It is even said who shot (I think) at Lord Londonderry. Then, in an
command over the tribe by his mildness and dignity. that Rienzi, taking a lesson from the elder Brutus, upper room, we saw the Captain Brown who shook his much against the
will of the tribe ; but he commenced
He had paid the debts of the Toways to the traders, very who feigned madness till the hour came for the delifist in the queen's face when she went to the city, really by declaring firmly, that he would
be just, and had car
verance of his country, condescended to enter the a most officer-like and handsome fellow; and, in the next ried his point. He had come to Washington to receive Colonna palace by invitatiốn, to amuse the company room, poor old Hatfield, who shot at George III., and has
a great deal of money from the sale of the lands of the with his threats and predictions. The abject state of
a lant dragoon, and his face is seamed with
scars got in tribe, and the distribution
of it lay entirely
to which the nobles had reduced the people, ing poetry on the death of his birds and cats, whom he council, and object to his measures; but when White could not be more glaringly shown than by such a has outlived in prison---all the society he has had in this Cloud spoke, he had dropped his head on his bosom, and circumstance as this.
submitted. This information, and that which followed, long and weary, imprisonment. He received us very
When an embassy was sent from Rome to the was given in English, of which neither of the Toways canary, showed us his poetry, and all with a sad, mild, the Sioux-killer should have known him in his citizen's enough over the people to be appointed one of the courteously, and called our attention
to his favourite understood a word. Mr Power expressed a surprise that papal court of Avignon, Rienzi had acquired influence subdued resignation, that quite moved me. In the female dress. The interpreter translated, and the Indian said thirteen deputies representing the order of the comwards I saw nothing very striking except one very noble in answer, • The dress
is very different ; but when I see looking woman, who was standing at her grated window a man's eye, I know him again.'
mons. At Avignon, he attracted notice by his bold entirely absorbed in reading her Bible. Her face ex
He then told Power that he wished in the theatre to and ready oratory, and there he also met a congenial pressed the most heart-rending melancholy I had ever witnessed. She had been for years under the terrible raise his war-cry, and help him to fight the three bad- spirit in the poet Petrarch. On returning to Rome, belief that she had committed the unpardonable sin, looking men who were his enemies (referring to the three Rienzi continued his former practices, but the pressure and though quiet all the day, her agony at night becomes bailiffs in a scene in Paddy Carey)."
of poverty for a time chilled his aspiring hopes, and he terrible. What a comment on a much practised mode of preaching the mild and forgiving religion of our Saviour!
was absolutely reduced to seek the charity of an hos
RIENZI, THE TRIBUNE. As I was leaving one of the wards, a young woman of
pital. With the appointment of apostolic notary, nineteen or twenty came up to me with a very polite In one of the meanest districts of the city of Rome, a which yielded him a fair income, his spirit revived, curtsey, and said, "Will you be so kind as to have me quarter inhabited only by humble mechanics and and he recommenced his daring addresses to the released from this dreadful place?" I am afraid I can- Jews, was born, in the early years of the fourteenth people. Still the nobles remained in supine blindness, arm with a most appealing earnestness, perhaps you century, Nicholas Rienzi Gabrini, commonly called allowing the orator to ripen the minds of the people will on Monday; you know I've nothing to pack. The Cola di Rienzi, the last of the tribunes, or popular for any outbreak. An accident brought on the crisis. matron here interposed, and led her away, but she kept magistrates, of Rome. He was the son of an innkeeper Rienzi's brother was assassinated, and the survivor her eye on us until the door closed. She was confined and a washerwoman; and in those days, when all the loudly demanded vengeance. But the murderer was there for the murder of her child." These specimens will suffice to show the nature of the
avenues to power and distinction were exclusively protected by the Colonna influence, and Rienzi found facts which the Loiterer has recorded in his Travels ; occupied by the families of the great, it might have his appeals fruitless. From this hour he was resolute he has however interspersed them with many poetic his life in the obscure and lowly sphere which had of the nobles. It was in the middle of May 1347 that
been anticipated that young Rienzi would have passed in his design of immediately overturning the power fictions, which, however beautiful, are less interesting witnessed his birth. But his parents, either in conse- he entered on the first step towards the completion of than the realities which English life presents to the observation of an intelligent foreigner. We would quence of some early promise in the boy, or through his object, by assembling on Mount Aventine, at midgladly exchange the poetry and romance of the three
some accidental cause, were induced to bestow on him, night, a body of one hundred citizens favourable to
at the cost of great privations to themselves, the rare his purpose. volumes for another such picture as that of the Indian
“Friends and fellow-citizens,” said Chiefs at the Washington Theatre, and their subse- gift of a liberal education ; and nature had endowed Rienzi, “ the blood of my slaughtered brother cries quent interview with Mr Tyrone Power, a portion to advantage. The writings of the ancient historians but it is your wish and mine to procure the inestimable
him with the talents necessary to turn his opportunities for vengeance, and would justify a severe retaliation ; of which we shall extract for the amusement of our
and orators of his country formed the favourite study blessings of liberty without involving our country in readers. “ The dress circle of the theatre at Power's benefit mains he saw emblems of her past glory that fired his your wishes
, the establishment of the good estate (the of his youth, and in her magnificent monumental re- bloodshed and confusion. The accomplishment of not long since, was graced by three Indians, in full costume—the chief of the Foxes, the chief of the Toways, fancy and nursed in his breast the spark of patriotism. speaker's favourite phrase), is rapidly advancing, if and a celebrated warrior of the latter tribe, called the
But the Rome of Rienzi's early day was sadly diffe- you have only fortitude and forbearance enough to Sioux-killer. The Fox is an old man of apparently fifty, rent from the Rome of elder times. It had long lost exert the power you possess with spirit, perseverance, with a heavy aquiline nose, a treacherous eye sharp as an eagle's, and a person rather small in proportion to his the political empire of the world; and even the pon- and moderation. The strength of our oppressors is head and features. He was dressed in a bright scarlet tifical power, which had in some measure compen- imaginary; they are without union, without virtue, blanket, and a crown of feathers, with an eagle's plume, sated the loss of imperial rule, had been reft from without resources.”
Rienzi ended his harangue by same deep, hue. His face was painted to match, except the city, the Popes having transferred their court announcing his intention of immediately assembling his lips, which looked of a most ghastly sallow in con and government to Avignon. Rome could only boast, the people, unarmed, by proclamation, and recomtomahawk lay in the hollow of his arm, decked with feathers of the same brilliant colour with the rest of his or viceroy, in whose hands was lodged the osten- prove to the world that a few precious drops of Ro
man blood were still circulating in their veins.” drapery. Next him sat the Sioux-killer, in a dingy sible dominion of the city. But the nobles were its blanket, with a crown made of a quantity of the feathers true governors; the great families of Colonna, Ursini,
Next day, accordingly, a proclamation was made
over the whole city, by sound of trumpet, calling on features almost entirely. He is very small
, but is famous and a few others, held the whole authority, virtually, all the people to assemble before the church of St for his personal feats, having among other things walked in their hands. Grossly they abused their power, sub: Angelo on the following evening, to provide for the one hundred and thirty miles in thirty successive hours, jecting the citizens to the cruellest oppression and “ restoration of the good estate.'
The nobles still reand killed three Sioux (hence
his name) in one battle tyranny, outraging systematically the honour of their mained inactive, and seemed totally ignorant of the pact and wiry-looking, and his eye glowed through his families
, and corrupting at will the course of justice. tion is confirmed by the circumstance of the Pope's · veil of hen feathers like a coal of fire. Next
to the Such was the condition of Rome in the early years of vicar, the Bishop of Orvieto, consenting to be present “Sioux-killer' sat • White Cloud,' the chief of the Toways; the fourteenth century. his face was the least warlike of the three, and expressed
at the proposed assembly before the church of St Ana good nature and freedom from guile very remarkable
Young Rienzi saw and deeply deplored the evils of gelo. During the whole of the night preceding that in an Indian. He is about twenty-four, has very large his country. A disinterested desire to relieve it from meeting, Rienzi and his friends were occupied in the features, and
a fine erect person, with broad shoulders its oppressors sprang up in his breast, and he began in celebration of masses, in order to propitiate Heaven in and chest. He was painted less than the Fox chief, but
favour of their enterprise. When the appointed hour of nearly the same colour, and carried in the hollow of a remarkable manner to pave the way for the accom
came, an immense crowd had assembled. Not only his arm a small glittering tomahawk, ornamented with plishment of that great end. At accidental meetings the whole space before the church, but the windows blue feathers. His head was encircled with a sort of of the people, whether in large or small bodies, he and roofs of the adjoining houses, and every place turban of silver fringed-cloth, with some metallic pen- allowed his voice to be heard, and took every occasion which commanded a view of the spot, were covered or handsome, was partly open on the breast, and dis- to recall to the remembrance of his hearers the glories to calculate or tell. After a sufficient time had elapsed closed a calico shirt, which was probably sold to him by of their ancestry. Alluding to them, he would cry, to stimulate the curiosity of the people to the highest a trader in the west. They were all very attentive to “ Where are now those Romans? their virtue, their pitch, the doors of the church were thrown open, and the play, but the Fox chief and White Cloud departed justice, their power? oh! why was I not born in those Rienzi
, bare-headed, and dressed in complete armour; great deal at some of Power's fun. The Sioux-killer sat happy times?” Being a fluent and energetic speaker, presented himself to the crowd, having on his right between them as motionless and grim as a marble knight Rienzi speedily became a favourite with the populace, hand the papal
vicar, and behind him the principal dining with Mr Power, who lived at the same hotel with and his addresses to them in the streets grew more and carried by men attired in purple and gold. On these the Indian delegation; and while at dinner, he received more frequent. Daily he would assemble bands of them banners were emblazoned allegorical figures of Justice, a message from the Toways, expressing a wish to call on around him, and, pointing their attention to the lions, Liberty, and Peace. A procession, accompanied by
martial music, now commenced, the whole assembled to effect the overthrow of the tribune. He obtained been able to endure prosperity, he might have left multitude following in the wake. Being gifted by information of the plot,
and, inviting the heads of it behind him one of the most glorious names in hisnature with a tall and handsome person, Rienzi played to a banquet, he seized them all and threw them into tory. Petrarch, the poet, was his friend, and has his part nobly and dignifiedly in the pageant, and the prison. But he either wished merely to show them expressed high admiration of his character and abiadmiring populace, ignorant of what was to be done, his power, or dared not carry his first stern intent into lities, as they were developed in his early career. yet hopeful of good, sent up loud and lengthened shouts execution ; for, after detaining them for a night in of applause. On reaching the Capitol, Rienzi ascen. mortal fear, and preparing every thing for their exe
PHYSICAL AGENTS AFFECTING MAN. ded a lofty balcony, from which he addressed the cution, he suddenly changed his tone, and became the people. Assuming that they were fully masters of the supplicant for their lives with the council of the people, In the arrangement of the system of the universe, the
THE ATMOSPHERE OF CITIES. city, he congratulated them on the bloodless victory pledging himself for their obedience and submission they had gained. Charmed by his noble appearance thenceforward. Of course, at his word, the barons human being has been obviously left, to a great extent, and his captivating eloquence, the people raised a were liberated, but they were not the men to pardon the creature of circumstances ; or, in other words, has shout, exclaiming with one accord, “Rienzi shall be the deadly alarm into which they had been thrown. been placed under the domination of certain general king !”
Meanwhile, the nobles looked on in stupor, yet un- country estates, raised their vassals, and marched laws, the operation of which may be so far modified by conscious whether they were in danger or not. Stephen against Rome. The great bell of the Capitol sounded circumstances, as to render him more or less comfortColonna brought the matter to a decision. Absent the alarm, and Rienzi had still influence enough to able and happy in his earthly position. An incalcufrom Rome at the time of this great meeting, he rouse the citizens to resistance. A battle took place lable amount of evil has resulted in past times from hastened to the city on hearing of it, and when within the walls, and the barons were routed. Seven the prevalence of an opposite opinion. That species Rienzi sent a messenger to the Colonna palace, its of the house of Colonna fell on that occasion, and the master declared that at his leisure he would cast the triumphant tribune, who had shown but little military of piety, which induces man to sit down and fold his mad notary from the windows of the Capitol. On prowess, was inhuman enough to refuse them the hands under the visitation of disease and other variereceiving this message, Rienzi rang the great bell
, honours of burial. The maidens of the family at ties of suffering, in the belief that he is thus showing and gave the alarm. A great crowd of citizens rushed length interred the bodies of their kinsmen, and their a laudable resignation to the will of heaven, is at once pelled to fly with
precipitation to his country castle of for that ancient house, stirred up a more general feel at variance with the principles deducible from an Palaestrina. A general order was issued, commanding ing of bitterness against the tribune. all the nobles to follow his example, and they, stunned Rienzi did not long enjoy
his success over the nobles. observation of his laws, their mode of working, and by the unanimity of this movement, obeyed with haste The pope, disgusted, like others, by his arrogance, their consequences. The race of man have been suband in silence.
and irritated by the treatment shown to one of his jected to few evils for which a remedy, partial or The author of this remarkable revolution, which legates, fulminated a bull of excommunication against complete, has not been provided ; and nothing can freed the Roman citizens at one blow from the pre- him, and soon after Count Pepin de Minorbino introsence of all their oppressors, would not assume the duced himself into Rome with one hundred and fifty more perfectly display the benevolence of the Creator, title which, in the warmth of their gratitude, the soldiers, and took possession of it with the greatest than the fact that such is the case. The world is at people would have
freely accorded to him. He declared case. It is true that Rienzi, as usual, tolled the great last becoming sensible of this great truth. Disease, that he would not bear an appellation which a Tarquin bell of the Capitol for hours together, but no man rose and other physical evils, are now traced to their true and a Nero had disgraced. After a time, however, to aid him, and, without a blow being struck, he fell source—the neglect, namely, or violation of the geneseeing the necessity of having his authority sanctioned into the hands of Count Pepin. The tribune showed, ral laws under which man has been placed. This in some regular form, he consented to take the title of it is said, great pusillanimity, and abdicated the govern subject well deserves the most minute attention that tribune, which in ancient days indicated a guardian ment, weeping over the ingratitude of his countrymen. can be paid to it; and as we have now before us of popular privileges. But the power of Rienzi He was thrown into the Castle of St Angelo, and was various documents exhibiting the results of practical was really that of a dictator, and it is admitted by soon as much forgotten, seemingly, as if his short reign investigations made into it in Great Britain, some all historians, that he at the outset wielded it ad- of a few months had never taken place. mirably. He introduced new and excellent laws, Count Pepin restored the authority of the aristo- space may be devoted to the consideration of the quesreformed the finances, extinguished sanctuaries and cracy and the church, conciliating the people, however, tion in detail, although we have already noticed cersuch-like privileges, and, in short, established an en- at the same time, by the election of a new civic tribune tain branches of it in a detached manner. tirely novel order of things. “A den of robbers (says with a degree of nominal power. Things speedily Air and food are the supporters of man's existence, one historian) was converted to the discipline of a returned to their former condition. The nobles re- and it is plain that a proper supply of these, as regards camp or a convent ; patient to hear, swift to redress, sumed their cruel tyranny
over the people, and rob- quality and quantity, is the great desideratum for the inexorable to punish, his tribunal was always accessible beries and assassinations became again frequent, or maintenance of his physical well-being. The air we declares
that “ in this time the woods began to rejoice years matters remained thus, and the wearied people breathe is liable to be affected by causes of two kinds, that they were no longer infested with robbers ; the began to think with regret of the energetic rule of those which affect its quality, and those which affect oxen began to plough; the roads and inns were re- Rienzi, and to remember nothing of him but his vir- its temperature. In both these respects the atmoplenished with travellers ; trade, plenty, and good tues. Meanwhile, what had become of the fallen sphere may be so deteriorated, as to be rendered injufaith, were restored in the markets; and a purse of tribune? After a month's durance in St Angelo, he rious to human health and life, and this is especially gold might be exposed without danger in the midst of had made his escape in the guise of a monk, and wan, the case when both influences operate at once, as they the highway.”
dered through various cities of Germany, Italy, and too often do. The aggregation of a multitude of huRienzi behaved generously, perhaps not wisely, to other countries, endeavouring to gain the friendship wards the banished nobles. He soon recalled them of various princes and potentates. At length he man beings in one spot, is, of all others, the most to the city, exacting only from them an oath of alle- boldly presented himself at the court of the emperor common cause by which the healthful properties of giance to the new government and to the church, Charles IV., and was sent by that monarch to Avig- the air are impaired or destroyed. The establishment which he had judiciously taken pains to identify with non, in the condition of a captive. Pope Clement of this fact, the examination of the mode in which the his own cause. The haughty nobles felt deeply their kept him in prison, but on the succession of Pope Inno- noxious influences are exerted, as well as the considehumiliation, yet fear constrained them into obedience. cent, new hopes dawned on the deposed tribune. La- ration of the applicability of effective remedies, demand A simple Roman citizen of the period, speaking of menting the troublous and disordered state of Rome, the first place in a discussion of this kind. It seems their condition and feelings, says, “ Bareheaded, their Innocent
was advised to send Rienzi thither, as being impossible, even if it were acknowledged to be proper, hands crossed on their breast, they stood in presence the only man who could restore peace to the disturbed to prevent mankind from associating in one spot in of the tribune with downcast looks; and they trembled, city of St Peter. Rienzi, it may be believed, joyfully great numbers; and, therefore, the manner in which good heavens ! how they trembled!" These and other accepted the charge. After swearing allegiance to they can do this with the greatest safety, or rather triumphs rendered the head of Rienzi giddy. At no the papal power, he set out for the scene of his glories, with least detriment to themselves, becomes a matter time was he distinguished for cool reason and self- his follies, and his fall.
of the deepest importance. command, and ere he had been elevated a month or The re-entrance of the senator Rienzi, as he was
In the First Annual Report of the Registrar-General two, he grew ridiculous for pride and ostentation. now styled, into Rome, was a scene of triumph and of births, deaths,
and marriages, an appendix
appears, His acts and decrees were headed, “ Nicholas, severe rejoicing. For a time 'afterwards, hopes were enter-containing accurate statements of the mortality of and merciful ; deliverer of Rome ; defender of Italy; tained that he would be a blessing to the city; but great towns, when compared with that of country friend of mankind, and of liberty, peace, and justice ; these hopes proved fallacious. His own character, we districts. Mr Farr, the able preparer of these statehimself in a parti-coloured robe of velvet, lined with worse during his exile. He had become intemperate, in England, including Manchester, Liverpool, Birtribune august!!! On public occasions, he clothed are informed, had undergone a serious change for the ments, drew his calculations
from thirty-two metrocarried a sceptre of shining steel, crowned with a globe now presented a bloated swollen appearance, indicating counties of Cornwall
, Devon, and others,
containing white horse , the emblem of royalty ; the great banner a delegated servant of the Pope-scarcely
a trusted nearly an equal amount of population. The deaths of the republic was held above his head ; fifty halber- one. The barons were all more inimical to him than in six months from twelve principal classes of diseases, diers and a troop of horse attended him; his trumpets ever ; and hence it was, that Rienzi's new reign was a are contrasted in the following table :and tymbals were of massive silver ; and at every step continued scene of tumult during the four months that
In London and 24 In rural disof his march handfuls of gold and silver were scattered it lasted. At the end of that time, a disturbance,
other towns, con- tricts, contain
taining a popula- ing a population among the people. His love of pomp, however, was fomented by the nobles, broke out, and an angry mul
of 3,500,000 carried to still greater lengths. He caused himself to titude besieged the Capitol, where Rienzi had taken Epidemic, endemic, and be created a Kuight of the Order of the Holy Ghost, up his abode. The senator was deserted by his guards ;
6,045 under circumstances of splendour unequalled since the yet, in that last hour, he made a vigorous effort to of the nervous system, days of the empire. On another occasion he had him- regain his authority. With the banner of liberty in
respiratory organs, self crowned with seven crowns of different metals his hand, he presented himself on the balcony to organs of circulation, and leaves, representing the seven gifts of the Holy address the people. Had they listened to him, the digestive organs, Spirit. The degree to which his reason was affected charm of his eloquence might still have moved them;
urinary organs, by his elevation, may be conceived by his having the but the noise drowned his voice, and stones and arrows
organs of generation, folly to summon before him the two rival emperors of were directed at his person, and on being struck in
organs of locomotion,
integumentary system, Germany, and Pope Clement, “commanding" the the hand, he retired weeping. It was evening ere the Of uncertain seat, latter, at the same time, to “reside in his diocese of rioters forced their way into the building, where they Rome.” Unsheathing his maiden sword, also, on the seized their former idol as he attempted to escape in
Violent deaths, occasion of his knighthood, he“ thrice brandished it to disguise. They dragged him into the street, and for
Not specified, the three parts of the world, and thrice repeated the one whole hour he stood in the midst of them, pale,
29,693 extravagant declaration, ' And this, too, is mine !!” silent, and motionless. There was still a nobility in All this from the man who, but a few years before, his aspect which restrained the mob from injuring the increased mortality in large communities; and
This table completely establishes the general fact of was known to every one to have had but one garment him. But one individual finally struck him with å in the world, and to have begged for bread at the gate dagger, and the charm seemed broken. A thousand the immense share which the atmosphere has in caus
when the matter is still more closely inquired into, of a house of charity, was most vexatious, even to his blows followed, the most of them borne by a lifeless ing this augmentation appears with equal clearness. firmest supporters among the people. To the barons corpse.
The classes of disease upon which the difference beit was intolerable, and, forgetting their private feuds, Thus fell Rienzi the tribune, a man of extraordi-tween the mortality of towns and country districts the houses of Colonna, Ursini, and others, conspired nary endowments and extraordinary fate. Had he chiefly hinges, are precisely those in which the air is
tion of 3,553,000.
219 460 262
62 4,396 2,924 1,370 1,104
55 3,730 3,102
most influential. In the first three classes of disease, | defective, that " the stench is abominable” and inces- proof were wanted, reference might be made to other for example, marked in the preceding table, the mor- sant. Here “ the fever (a recent complaint) was ex; cities besides London. In Edinburgh, the attention tality is shown to have been doubled by the concen- tremely mortal, and raged in almost every house." of the public has been recently directed to the pernitration of the population in cities, and the increase is of other parts of Whitechapel, Dr S. Smith gives a cious effects of the system of irrigating lands in the not much less as respects the diseases of the lungs. similar account. “In Johnson's change there is no vicinity with the filthy fluid refuse of the city, as it The deaths from consumption and typhus, diseases drainage of any kind, a great accumulation of filth, passes on its way to the sea. It has been distinctly that appear to have a peculiar dependence on atmo- and the sense of closeness is stifling.” Here a cess- proved, by the testimony of numerous persons, prospheric influences, aro stated by Mr Farr to have pool overflowed recently, and was left unheeded. “In fessional and otherwise, that the dwellings in the been increased in towns in the respective ratios of 39 | the house next the cess-pool a malignant fever broke neighbourhood of these foul stanks are rendered exand 221 per cent.
out after this, and extended to almost every house in tremely unhealthy, low fevers and various other disOn the whole, the results of his observations have the courts." The whole district of Whitechapel, in cases being the result to the occupants. Other cases led Mr Farr broadly to assert that the “ source of the truth, was in a very bad condition, and, in consequence, might be pointed ont, but it would be, we believe, s higher mortality is in the insalubrity of the atmo- “ fever raged dreadfully in the whole of this district, work of supererogation; and the question with us sphere.” Other causes certainly aid, however, in no six persons of a family being frequently ill together, should now be—the evil being admitted—how is it to inconsiderable degree, in bringing about this general all in one room, and four in one bed.”
be remedied ? Drs Kay and Arnot give the followresult. But if we think for a moment of the usual At the present moment, it is our wish simply to ing directions upon this important subject, and we effects produced by a dense population on the atmo- exhibit
the consequences of local insalubrity in the would press them as strongly as possible on the public sphere, we shall find strong cause to coincide with the atmosphere, without referring to the concurring in attention. “The means of removing completely the opinion above expressed. Every human being expires fluence of other causes, such as personal and moral noxious animal and vegetable matters brought to or about 666 cubic feet of air daily, and the gas so ex- habits, &c., which will be alluded to in another place. produced in cities, evidently are : pired, if it were collected in a reservoir, would destroy From an accurate examination of all the districts of 1. A perfect system of sufficiently sloping drains or any animal compelled to inhale it, man himself among London, Drs Arnot and Kay found disease to be gene- sewers, by which, from every house and street, all the number. Every one will remember the horrible rated and fostered by the subjoined circumstances, all fluid refuse shall quickly depart by the action of graillustration of this truth, afforded by the Black Hole of them of the kind now under consideration. 1. Im- vitation alone; the streets, alleys, courts, &e., being catastrophe at Calcutta, where, out of one hundred and perfection or want of sewers and drains in the parish moreover well paved, so that the refuse may be easily forty-six human beings shut up at night in a single or district. 2. The existence of uncovered or stagnant distinguished and detached. close room, only twenty-three came out next morning drains or ditches, containing vegetable and animal 2. A plentiful supply of water to dilute and carry alive. These persons perished from being made to matter in a state of decomposition. 3. Open stagnant off all such refuse, and to allow of sufficient washing breathe the same air over and over again. This single pools of water rendered putrid by the admixture of of streets, houses, clothes, and persons. cause, then, it is obvious, is in itself capable of pro- animal or vegetable substances. 4. Undrained marsh- 3. An effective service of scavengers to remove reducing the most deleterious results. When we add land. 5. Accumulations of refuse, either thrown from gularly the rubbish and impurities which water cannot to this the effluvia arising from putrifying substances, the houses, or otherwise collected in the streets, courts, carry away, and fit receptacles for such matters until animal and vegetable ; the emanations from streets, and lanes. 6. Lodgement of filth in large cess-pools removed. stanks, and sewers; the products of combustion, and and privies, in situations where the inhabitants are 4. Free ventilation by wide streets, open alleys, and tho smoke of fires, both of which are in themselves exposed to the exhalations. 7. The situation of slaugh- well-constructed houses, to dilute and carry away all poisonous ; with all the thousand noxious exhala- ter-houses in densely peopled districts, among narrow hurtful aëriform matters. tions which man's babits and occupations assemble streets, and the defective regulation of these establish- 5. Keeping as distant as possible from the people around him; we shall find city air, in its unmitigated ments. 8. The state of some of the public burial, the practice of all the arts and processes capable of impurity, to be a thing which people might well Ayfrom grounds, in thickly peopled districts. 9. The want of producing malaria or tainting the air. Hence the with terror and dismay.. In the open country, all ventilation in narrow alleys and close courts inhabited situation of cattle-markets, slaughter-houses, cowexhalations of this destructive nature speedily mix with by the working-classes.
houses, tripe-shops, gas-factories, burying-grounds, and the currents of the atmosphere, and are diffused so as In the Fourth and Fifth Annual Reports of the the like, should be determined by competent authoto be perfectly harmless. But instead of one inhabi- Poor-Law Commissioners, Drs Arnot and Kay, by a rities. tant to the square mile, which is about the density of specific reference to the state of health in the various Preventing the great crowding of the lodging the population in the plains of Asia, - locate (says districts of London, exhibit individually, and in detail, | houses of the poor." the Report already quoted) 200,000 individuals upon a the destructive nature of each of the nuisances now The greater number of these suggestions are capable square mile, as soldiers in a camp, and the poison will enumerated. In almost all of them, it will be noticed, of being carried into practice with ease by any combe concentrated 200,000 fold ; intersect the space in the cause of the noxiousness is the evaporation of munity, particularly if the work be pursued step by every direction by 10,000 high walls, which overhang putrescent animal and vegetable matter. On this point step. The alteration of existing streets and alley's the narrow streets, shut out the sunlight, and
inter- Dr Southwood Smith remarks, that it has now been built upon a crowded and injurious plan, could not be cept the movements of the atmosphere ; let the demonstrated, by“ direct experiment," that, in cer- effected, certainly, excepting by very slow degrees, yet rejected vegetables, the offal of slaughtered animals, tain situations in which the air is loaded with exhala- every opportunity of amendment of this kind ought the filth produced in every way, decay in the houses tions from marshes and stagnant pools, the
matter to be seized. Those suggestions
that refer to the conand courts, or stagnate in the wet streets ; bury the they convey is poisonous, and “ consists of animal and struction of sewers, the cleansing of streets by an dead in the midst of the living ; and the atmosphere vegetable substances in a high state of putresceney. effective body of scavengers, and the supply of water, will be an active poison, which will destroy, as it did If a quantity of air in which such exhalations are pre- might be followed up at once in those cities where in London formerly, and as it does in Constantinople sent be collected, the vapour may be condensed by they are required, and most assuredly public funds now, 5 (and a fractional part] per cent. of the inha- cold and other agents ; a residue is obtained, which, could never be more judiciously expended. In the bitants annually, and generate, when the temperature on examination, is found to be putrescent ani- closes and common stairs of the Scottish metropolis, a is high, recurring plagues, in which a fourth part of mal or vegetable matter. This matter constitutes most complete change of affairs is needed. As much the entire population will perish.”
a deadly poison. A minute quantity of it, applied to putrid matter, animal and vegetable, is lodged about But notwithstanding all this formidable array of an animal previously in sound health, destroys life, one of these as might disseminate poison through a anti-salubrious agencies, to which a city atmosphere is with the most intense symptoms of malignant fever. whole neighbourhood ; and what that poison can do, exposed, observation and experience give us the com- If, for example, ten or twelve drops of a fluid con- Dr Smith has told us. These are the things which forting assurance, that health
will be little more im- taining this highly putrid matter be injected into the render such a disease as typhus terrible, and make paired upon one than upon a hundred square miles, if jugular vein of a dog, the animal is seized with acute cities suffer from it to the extent of 122 per cent. proper means (and these means are at command) be fever; all the ordinary symptoms speedily follow; and above the ratio of its fatality in the country. With employed for supplying the two hundred thousand in a short time the dog is actually seized with the black open streets, clean and well paved, with close and prodwellers thereon with pure air, and for removing the comit, identical in the nature of the matter evacuated perly acting sewers, with abundance of water, and a principal sources of poisonous exhalations. To a cer- with that thrown up by a person labouring under the few other provisions, plague or pestilence would find it tain extent, this is done in almost every great city. yellow fever (that disease so fatally prevalent on the difficult to effect a lodgement. Those parts of them, at least, which are of modern marshy coasts of a hot clime). By varying the in- The condition of individual houses, their manner of construction, enjoy many provisions, pointed out by tensity and the dose of the poison thus obtained, it is ventilation, and the state of the atmosphere within experience, which obviate the tendency to insalubrity possible to produce fever of almost any type, and them, will form the subject of a succeeding paper. in the atmosphere; and the beneficial consequences of endowed with almost any degree of mortal power." these provisions appear most strikingly, when the state In marshy, boggy grounds, the poison is chiefly of a of health in these quarters is compared with that in vegetable character ; in cities it is principally animal When Mr Bruce of Kinnaird returned from his many
A TRAVELLER BELOW GROUND. the old districts, where the wide streets, the free house in its nature, or contains a mixture of both. In either years' absence in Barbary and Abyssinia, to his country hold ventilation, the plenteous supply of water, and case, were it not for the radiation of caloric from the mansion on the carse of Falkirk, he was greatly dissatisthe well-constructed sewers, that form the essential earth which rarifies the lower air and carries it up-fied with the way in which his collieries had been sources of advantage in the modern divisions, unfor-wards, aided by that force of diffusion, as it has been wrought. After some stormy disputes with the indivitunately do not exist. The mean annual mortality, termed, which a benevolent power has bestowed on all duals who had leased them, he agreed to submit the in a variety of the districts of London, is stated as gaseous bodies, the effects of these putrescent exhala- matter to a committee of experienced coal-engineers, who follows :
tions would be fatal beyond conception; as it is, there accordingly met at Kinnaird, inspected the mines, and ANNUAL DEATHS AMONG 1000 FEMALES IN can be no doubt that the varied diseases affecting those used every endeavour to form an impartial judgment. Whitechapel,
who breathe the tainted air are merely the result of Conversing one day with these gentlemen, he challenged Shoreditch,
St Pancras, Bermondsey,
the varied nature and intensity of the poison, acting something which one of them said respecting the condiHolborn,
on different constitutions and under different circum- tion of the mines ; whereupon the engineer said that, if St George, Southwark,
stances. “But it would be a most inadequate view of Mr Bruce was not afraid, he might go down and satisfy Strand, St George, Hanover the pernicious agency of the poison, if it were sup
himself on the point by personal investigation. The word Stepney, Square, 173
“afraid” startled the ear of the traveller, whose composed to be restricted to the diseases commonly proIt is to be observed here, that some of the new duced by its direct operation. It is a matter of manding figure and bold demeanour had been the chief
means of bringing him unscathed through so many dansuburban districts are not less unhealthy than the constant observation, that, even when not present in
“ Afraid !" said he, in his magnificent way: “ sir, closest old ones. This has been clearly traced to the sufficient intensity to produce fever, this poison, by do you think I would be afraid to go down into my own undrained marshes and other similar nuisances to disturbing the function of some organ or set of mines ?” He immediately proposed to go down with which the comparative paucity of inhabitants exposes organs, and thereby weakening the general system, them next day, and they as eagerly took him at his word, the suburbs. But in every case, it may, safely be acts as a powerful predisposing
cause of some of the determined to punish him a little for the unreasonable averred, the mortality is in exact proportion to the most common and fatal maladies to which the human way in which he had disputed many of their statements. condition of the district as regards ventilation and body is subject.” Diseases of the digestive organs, He speaks of Nubian sands,” quoth one to another cleanliness. We have before us, for example, Dr and diseases of the lungs, form a large proportion of that evening ; “ we'll show him something worse to-morSouthwood Smith's report on Whitechapel, a region our annual mortality. As for the latter class of row, if I am not mistaken.” Next day, accordingly, the fatally prominent in the preceding table.' Describ- maladies, it is obvious that vitiated air must further illustrious traveller appeared at the mouth of the pit, ing parts of this district, he uses the following lan- and foster them to an excessive degree, and no one clothes proper to the occasion, down he went, along with guage :-“In Baker's alley the houses are dark, gloomy, who lives (says Dr S. Smith) in a marshy or malarian his corps of engineers. The strata are not there very and extremely filthy. Between the wall and the district, is ever for a single hour free from some dis- thick at the best, and many of the
wastes were considerhouses there is a gutter, in which is always present a ease of the digestive organs.” guantity of stagnant fluid full of all sorts of putrify- We have now sufficiently established the fact of the pleasant walking through Mr Bruce's mines. Neverthe
ably crushed or fallen in. It was therefore by no means ing matter, the effluvia from which are most offensive, great mortality arising from the respiration of vitiated less, as had been concerted amongst them, on they went, and the sense of closeness extreme.” In this same air, and explained the nature of the poison generated up one waste, down another, leading the unfortunate alley the interior arrangements of the houses are so so abundantly in and around large cities. If further Abyssinian such a dance as never traveller danced before,