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Stick to the point of giving your sons a really useful ceeded in getting admission for his early instructress The French political agents in the proper quarters education. Let them by all means be instructed in and sister into a convent in Bremgarten. For him- were instructed to exert themselves to discover, if English literature, science, and mathematics, which self, he was told there was nothing for him but to possible, his place of refuge. Attention was particumay be done at little expense. We live in a new wander in the mountains, taking care to stay but a larly directed to Prussia and Poland, in one or other world, in which these branches will work wonders in short time in any one place, until circumstances of which countries he was thought to be. But these getting young men forward.

should become more favourable. The Duke of Char- efforts were baffled, and were finally succeeded by an

tres, satisfied with having placed his sister in security, attempt of a different character, making such an LOUIS-PHILIP-HIS LIFE AND

followed this judicious advice. Alone and on foot, appeal to the feelings of the son and brother, as left

almost without money, he began his travels in the him no hesitation in accepting the offer of a more ADVENTURES.

interior of Switzerland and the Alps. Every where distant expatriation, which was made to him. A comTHE present King of the French is a most remarkable he was seen contending with courage against fatigue munication was opened between the Directory and the man, not more in the vigour which he shows as the and poverty, But his resources were entirely ex- Duchess of Orleans ; and she was given to understand, occupant of a difficult political situation,

than in the hausted; and being recalled to Bremgarten by a letter that if she would address herself to her eldest son, and extraordinary adventures through which he passed in from M. Montesquiou, he obtained, through the in- prevail upon him to repair to the United States, her early life. While evidently possessing high natural terference of that gentleman, the situation of professor own position should be rendered more tolerable, and the endowments

, it seems not less clear that he has been at the college of Reichenau. He was examined by sequestration removed from her property; and that indebted for much of his success as a ruler to the great the officers of the institution under a feigned name, her two youngest sons should be released, and perknowledge of the world which he acquired in the and though only about twenty years of age, was una- mitted to join their brother in America. To this school of adversity, and to the chastening effect which nimously admítted. Here he taught geography, proposition the Duchess assented, and wrote a letter poverty is calculated to have upon the character of history, the French and English languages, and to her son, recommending a compliance with the the high-born. Louis-Philip has not become ac- mathematics, for eight months, without being dis- terms proposed, and adding—“ May the prospect of quainted with men through the glozing medium of covered.. The simplicity of his manners prevented relieving the suffering of your poor mother, of rencourtiers' tongues, but by personally studying them any suspicion being entertained of his elevated rank, dering the situation of your brothers less painful, and in all classes as an equal." The very experience he and he was able to conciliate the esteem of the govern of contributing to give quiet to your country, recomhas had of a lowly and straitened condition, makes ment and the gratitude of his pupils. It was at this pense your generosity,!" hiin perhaps more at his ease in a high one. Lately place that he learned the tragical fate of his father. The government charged itself with the dispatch conversing with an eminent English political personage Some political movements taking place in the Grisons, of this letter to the exile, and

a new effort was made at an almost téte-à-téte dinner, he said, "Do you know Mademoiselle d'Orleans quitted the convent at Brem- for his discovery. When other means had failed, why I am perhaps the most suitable man to be a king garten, and joined her aunt, the Princess of Conti. their chargé-d'affaires at Hamburg applied to a Mr of all who now

reign in Europe ” His guest knew M. Montesquiou thought that he might now give an Westford, a merchant of that city, who, from some not what to reply to a speech so full, apparently, of asylum to the prince, of whom his enemies had for circumstances, was supposed to be in correspondence vain glory ; but his majesty instantly added, “ Kings,

some time lost all trace. The duke consequently with the prince. This suspicion was well founded ; you know, have not the easy situations they once had resigned his office of teacher at Reichenau, receiving but Mr Westford received with incredulity the de' now, no one can be so prepared for any fortune as I, the most honourable testimonials of his behaviour and claration of the chargé-d'affaires, that his object, in for I am the only man amongst them that has brushed abilities, and retired to Bremgarten. Here he re-opening a communication with the duke, was to conhis oron boots, and could do it again, if necessary." This mained, under the name of Corby, until the end of vey to him a letter from his mother, on the part of anecdote we have heard through such a channel as 1794, when he thought proper to quit Switzerland, the government; and disclaimed all

' knowledge of assures us of its truth; and it is highly characteristic his retreat there being no longer a secret.

his actual residence. He, however, immediately comof the man.

We now find the Duke of Orleans, as he was en- municated to the duke a statement of what had Louis-Philip, born in 1773, and now consequently titled to be called since his father's decease, once taken place, and the latter determined to risk the exsixty-seven years of age, was the son of the Duc more a wanderer, seeking for a place of repose free posure, in the hope of receiving a letter directly from d'Orleans, who played a well-known part in the French from the persecution of the French authorities and his mother. He was actually in the neighbourhood Revolution, and was one of the many victims of the their emissaries. He resolved to go to America, and of Hamburg, though in the Danish states, where he Jacobin party in their period of triumph. The Or Hamburg appeared to him the best place for embarka- had changed his residence from time to time, as a due leans branch of the Bourbon family originated in tion. He arrived in that city in 1795. Here his regard to secrecy required. An interview between Philip, a younger son of Louis XIII., created Duc expectation of funds failed him, and he could not the duke and the French chargé was arranged by d'Orleans by his brother Louis XIV., and from whom collect sufficient pecuniary means to reach the United Mr Westford at his own house in the evening; and the French King is sixth in descent. It is a curious States; but, being tired of a state of inactivity, and where, after the receipt of his mother's letters, Louis fact, little known, that, through his ancestress, the provided with a letter of credit for a small sum on a signified at once his acceptance of the terms proposed, second wife of Philip Duc d'Orleans, who was a grand-Copenhagen banker, he resolved to visit the north of and his determination to embark for the United daughter of the Princess Elizabeth of England, Louis- Europe. This banker succeeded in obtaining pass. States without delay. He immediately wrote a letter Philip, the illegitimate monarch of France, has a pre- ports for him from the King of Denmark, not as the to his mother, commencing with the declarationferable hereditary title to the British throne to that Duke of Orleans, but as a Swiss traveller, by means of “When my dear mother shall receive this letter, her enjoyed by our present gracious sovereign, whom God which he was able to proceed in safety. He travelled orders

will have been executed, and I shall have long preserve, the one being descended from Elizabeth's through Norway and Sweden, seeing every thing sailed for the United States." eldest son, and the other from her youngest daughter. worthy of curiosity in the way; journeyed on foot The ship “ American," Captain Ewing, a regular Such of our countrymen as may be disposed to sneer with the Laplanders along the mountains, and reached trader between Philadelphia and Hamburg, was then at popularly appointed sovereigns, and at Louis-Philip the North Cape in August 1795. After staying a lying in the Elbe, preparing for departure. The duke, in particular, would do well to ponder on this fact, few days in this region, at eighteen degrees from the passing for a Dane, applied to the captain, and engaged the truth of which will be made clearly patent to pole, he returned through Lapland to Torneo, at the his passage for the usual amount, at that time thirtye them by an inspection of Anderson's Royal Genea- extremity of the Gulf of Bothnia. From Torneo he five guineas. He had with him a faithful servant, logies. Having premised so much, we proceed to went to Abo, and traversed Finland; but, dreading long attached to his person, whom he was anxious to condense an interesting and apparently faithful bio- the vengeful character of Catherine, he did not enter take. But the captain, for some reason, seemed ungraphy of Louis-Philip, given in a recent American Russia.

willing to receive him, and told his importunate pas. work.+

It must be acknowledged that Louis was now turn- senger, that the services of this man would be useless Louis, at the age of five years, was placed under ing the misfortunes of his family to the most profitable to him upon the voyage ; and that when he reached the care of the Chevalier de Bonnard; but, in 1782, account. By bringing himself into contact with every the United States, his servant would certainly desert the direction of his education was intrusted to the variety of life, and adding the treasures of personal him. He was, however, finally persuaded to yield, Countess de Genlis, a lady who, notwithstanding her observation to the stores of learning with which his and the servant was received for seventeen and a half subsequent errors, was eminently qualified to be an mind was fraught, he was preparing himself for that guineas. instructor of youth. Louis, under the title of Duke course of events which has given him such a powerful The duke was anxious to escape observation in of Chartres, entered active life as a soldier, and in influence over the destinies of his own country and of Hamburg, and asked permission of the captain to 1791 le commanded a regiment of dragoons which Europe. The bold and rugged scenery of these arctic repair on board his ship, and remain a few days before bore his name. In this, as well as in all future con- regions, and the simple and unpretending kindness her departure. The captain, with some reluctance, ditions of life, he distinguished himself by great huma- of the inhabitants, must have produced a vivid im- consented to this unusual proposition; though it afternity, coolness of judgment, and inflexible integrity pression upon a young man of his rank and previous wards appeared that this step, and the mystery which While with his regiment at Vendôme, he succeeded pursuits, sent forth under such circumstances to com- evidently surrounded his young passenger, had proin saving, by his courage and presence of mind, a nonmence his novitiate in the world.

duced an unfavourable impression upon his mind. juring clergyman on the point of being massacred by After completing the examination of these ancient Late in the night preceding the departure of the the populace, which accused him of having treated kingdoms, and after having been recognised at Stock- ship from the Elbe, when the duke was in his berth, with contempt a procession headed by a constitutional holin, he proceeded to Denmark, and, under an as- an elderly French gentleman, destined to be his only priest. He shortly after gave a new proof of his sumed name, withdrew himself from observation. fellow cabin passenger, came on board. He underhumanity by saving a custom-house officer from drown. During his expedition, no improvement had taken place stood English badly, and spoke it worse ; and pering: On account of these honourable actions, the city in his pecuniary resources or political prospects ; but ceiving the accommodations far inferior to those he of Vendôme decreed him a civic crown. In 1792, no reverses could shake the determination he had had anticipated, he set himself to find fault with much when France declared war against Austria, the Duke formed not to bear arms against France, and he de- vehemence, but with a garrulity wonderfully checked of Chartres made his first campaign. At the head clined the invitation of Louis XVIII. to join the army by the difficulty he encountered in giving rent to his of troops confided to him by Kellermann, he fought under the Prince of Condé.

excited feelings in English. He called for an interat Valmy; and afterwards, under Dumouriez, dis- His father had perishied upon the scaffold, his preter; and, not finding one, he gradually wore away, tinguished himself at the battle of Jemappes.

mother had been imprisoned at Paris, and his two if not his discontent, the expression of it, and retired This may be said to close the first and happy period brothers, the Duke de Montpensier and the

Count de to rest

. In the morning, seeing the duke, his first of the king's life. The democratic or levelling prin- Beaujolais, had

boen shut up in the Castle

of St Jean, inquiry was if he spoke French ; and perceiving he ciple of the Revolution having triumphed, a decree of at Marseilles, where these young men, in the morning did, he expressed his gratification, and said, “ You banishment was passed against all the members of the of life, without a fault but that of their birth, were speak very well for a Vane, and you will be able to Bourbon family who remained in France. This de- treated with the utmost cruelty. Gradually, the get along without my instruction. You are a young cree was afterwards cancelled; but the duke, who sererity against the Duchess of Orleans was relaxed, man and I am an old one, and you must serve as my had manifested, with more frankness than prudence, and she was released from prison, though still sub- interpreter.". To this the duke assented; and the old his horror at the revolutionary excesses, was exposed jected to a rigorous surveillance. Her great moral gentleman, who was a planter from St Domingo, on to an arrest against himself. He then resolved to worth may have had its effect in procuring this his way to his native island, commenced the enumeraquit the army and the country, and, with Madame de change, for all accounts represent her as adorning the tion of his grievances. The first related to himself, Genlis and his sister, took refuge in Switzerland, with high position she filled in society.

and the second to the ship. He had no teeth, and but a small supply of money, and ercry where in Her eldest son had taken his measures with such the cook no soft bread, and he said it was impossible danger of being captured. By the kindness of an old prudence, that the French government had lost all to sail in a vessel not provided with the means of friend, General Montesquiou, also a refugee, he suc- traces of him. But the mystery in which he had baking fresh bread; that such an arrangement existed

enveloped himself, probably increased their suspicion on board all the French slips; and that he could not * The first wife of Philip was a daughter of Charles I., and jealous of this only branch of the Bourbon family him, “ There is my beef, and there

is my bread; and of his designs, and their desire to discover him-always eat the American biscuit. The captain coolly told through one of his children by that princess the Sardinian family which seemed to have left in France any favourable if you are not satisfied with my fare, you can leave

France; its King, Court, and Government. New York: recollections of the past, or any reasonable hopes for the ship.” The impatient planter, unwilling to reWiley and Putnam. 1840. the future.

linquish the chance of revisiting his native country,

MAGNETISM.

TRANSLATED FROM THE DUTCH.

thought it better to risk his teeth rather than dis- after passing through Louisville, Lexington, Mays of the secrets of my Lord Head and my Lady Heart ; embark, and continued on board. There were many ville, Chilicothe, Lancaster, Zanesville, Wheeling, and and who knows but I had done better to save myself steerage passengers, Germans and Alsatians, emi- Washington, in Pennsylvania. When traversing the the trouble, for I am convinced that, independently of grating to the United States. The ship left the Barrens in Kentucky, they stopped at a cabin, where this, neither are strangers either to my male or female Elbe on the 24th of September 1796, and after a was to be found “entertainment for man and horse," readers. pleasant passage of twenty-seven days, arrived at and where the landlord was very solicitous to ascertain Philadelphia. Shortly before entering the Capes of the business of the travellers--not apparently out of

THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION AT GLASGOW. the Delaware, the duke, unwilling that the captain any idle or interested curiosity, but because he seemed

THE NEW MECHANICAL POWER FROM ELECTROshould learn his true character from public report to feel a true solicitude for them. It was in vain, howafter reaching his destination, disclosed to him whoever, that the duke protested they were travelling to he was. The captain expressed his gratification at look at the country, and without any views of purchase In the Section of Mathematical and Physical Science, the communication, and frankly stated, that the cir- or settlement. Such a motive for encountering the on Tuesday, September 22, Professor Jacobi of St cumstances under which he had come on board had trouble and expense of a long journey, was without Petersburg, noted as the first experimenter on the produced an impression upon his mind unfavourable the circle of the settler's observation or experience ; electro-magnetic power as a mechanical force, read a to his young passenger ; that in striving to conjecture and he could only believe it by placing these young men

paper on that subject, from which it appears that a what could be his true position, he had come to the quite low in his scale of human intelligence, and great advance has now been made towards the economic conclusion that he was a gambler who had committed seemed to regard them with a feeling of pity or con- use of electro-magnetical machines as a motive power. himself in some gambling speculations, and that he tempt. In the night, all the travellers were stowed Mr Jacobi described a series of experiments which he was seeking secrecy and refuge in the new world. away upon the floor of tke cabin, with their feet to- had made at St Petersburg for ascertaining the best The chances of luck had indeed been against his new wards a prodigious fire. This Green River cabin, like

means of producing and applying this force. We acquaintance, and he had lost a great prize in the all its congeners, had but one room; and while the cannot hope to make these intelligible to our readers ; lottery of life; but he had preserved those better guests were stretched upon the floor, the landlord and but it appeared that several laws of great importance prizes, an approving conscience, and an unblemished his wife occupied their

puncheon bedstead, which was had been ascertained by the learned professor, and reputation. The other passenger, the St Domingo pinned to the logs forming the side of the mansion. that he had satisfied himself as to the best form of the planter, remained in ignorance of the name of his In the night, the duke overheard the good man ex- rods and coils to be used in the mechanism. He then cabin companion, till he learned it in Philadelphia, pressing to his wife his regret that three such pro- announced the interesting fact, that a boat had last when he called to make known his surprise, and to mising young men were running uselessly over the

year been propelled upon the Neva at St Petersburg, tender his compliments.

country, and wondering they did not purchase land by means of electro-magnetic machines. This boat The first quarters the duke occupied, after reaching there, and establish themselves creditably.

was twenty-eight feet in length, by seven and a Philadelphia, were the lower part of a house belong Here we shall in the mean while close our rrative, half in breadth, drawing 24 feet of water. It was ing to the Rev. Mr Marshal, and adjoining a church and conclude it in another paper.

furnished with a small machine, which was set in in Walnut Street, between Fourth and Fifth Streets;

motion by a battery of sixty-four pairs of platina and here he remained anxiously awaiting the arrival

THE HEAD AND THE HEART.' plates, each having thirty-six square inches of sur of his two brothers. They had embarked at Mar

face, and charged with nitric and diluted sulphuric seilles, on board a Swedish ship, the “Jupiter,"and had

acid. The boat mored, with fourteen persons on board, ut a tedious and unusual passage of ninety-three days. Tue Head and the Heart are things which the world the rate of three miles an hour. This degree of success This delay led the duke to fear, either that some acci- more frequently talks about than knows-two pre- is, of course, far from being sufficient to cause electrodent had befallen them at sea, or that the French cious jewels, which they who possess speak but little magnetic power to supersede steam ; but every thing government had failed to fulfil the promise which of, just as every sensible rich man avoids speaking of of this nature is liable to progress. The first steamhad been made to himself and his mother. However, his riches. If we consider the Head and the Heart boat moved at about the same rate. Professor Jae their arrival put a stop to his sad forebodings; and, attentively, we shall be led to view the former as a cobi's boat, when tried in 1838, with a much more after their union, the three brothers removed to a man, and the latter as a woman. The Head, like a complicated battery, and charged with sulphate of house belonging to the Spanish consul, in Sixth Street. man, is domineering and impatient; the Heart, like a copper, moved at only lļ miles an hour. At the first Here they passed the winter, mingling in the society woman, is tender and kind." When two Heads come experiment made with the power, at Konigsberg, in of Philadelphia, and forming many acquaintances, into contact, a violent concussion generally ensues ; 1834, only a weight of twenty ounces was lifted. whose names appear to be fresh in the recollection of when, however, two Hearts meet, in a minute they These facts give reason to hope that, ere long, the Louis Philip--such as Mr Bingham, Mr Willing, Mr may be seen whispering together with female confi

electro-magnetic power will be developed in sufficient Dallas, Mr Gallatin, Mrs Powell, &e. Philadelphia dence.

force, in a sufficiently economical manner, and with a was at that time the seat of the federal government, The Head is a man, and therefore it calculates the mechanism occupying such space, as will enable it to and General Washington was at the head of the course of exchange and the motions of the planets- take the place of steam, by sea as well as land. Its administration. The three young strangers were peeps into committees and cabinets, unfolds financial peculiar importance in regions where coal is not to be presented to him, and were invited to visit Mount operations, and plans battles; the Heart weaves love- got, is too obvious to require being insisted on. Vernon after the expiration of his term of service. knots, and lays the foundation of matrimonial alThe duke was present at the last address delivered by liances, for it is a woman.

INCREASE OF COLOUR BY INVERSION OF THE HEAD. General Washington to Congress, and also at the Masculine indulgence sometimes grants the Head

On the same day, in the same section, Sir David inauguration of Mr Adams, when his venerable pre- its hours of rest; the Hear on the contrary, is con- Brewster read a paper on the fact long known to decessor joyfully took his leave of public life. tinually in disquiet, for it is a woman.

artists and tourists, that the colours of external obDuring the season, the Duke of Orleans and his The Head, like a man, seeks its happiness in pos-jects, and particularly of natural scenery, are greatly brothers visited Mount Vernon, passing through Bal- sessing ; the Heart, like a woman, is happy only when augmented by viewing them with the head bent timore, where he renewed an acquaintance previously it can communicate what it possesses.

down, and looking backwards between the feet, that formed in Philadelphia with General Smith ; and Man, the Head, endeavours to meditate on God, and is, by inversion of the head. The colours of the westcrossing the site of the present city of Washington, halts in his presumptuous efforts ; woman, the Heart, ern sky and purple tints of distant mountains are, where he was hospitably received by the late Mr Law, feels God, and this feeling gives her peace and happi- according to Sir David, beautifully developed by these and where he met the present General Mason of ness.

means; those which, in ordinary circumstances, apGeorgetown. This most respectable man is well re- When a Head gets into company with Heads of pear of a French grey colour, displaying a brilliant membered by the king, who loves to speak of the inferior rank, if it be very courteous, it will, with blue or purple tint when the head is inverted, This hospitality of his house, and of his personal kind- true manly condescension, lower itself to them, and phenomenon has been ascribed to various causes. It ness-evinced, among other circumstances, by his the offended Heads, therefore, secretly hate it; the has been thought to arise from the objects, in these accompanying his three young guests in a visit to the female tender Heart, on the contrary, raises inferior circumstances, falling upon a part of the retina not falls of the Potomac. From Georgetown the party Hearts to itself, and for this kindliness reaps gratitude accustomed to the exercise of vision ; but this, Sir passed through Alexandria, and thence went to Mount and love.

David thinks, cannot be the true explanation, as landVernon ; where they were most kindly received, and The Head condemns, the Heart excuses ; the Head scapes may be inverted by reflection without altering where they resided some days.

revenges, the Heart forgives ; the Head is ingenious, the colour, but when these inverted images are looked While at Mount Vernon, General Washington pre- the Heart is feeling; the Head wounds, the Heart at with the head inverted, the increase of colour will pared for the exiled princes an itinerary of a journey heals ; the Head conquers, the Heart captivates; the be observed. Another theory is, that when the head to the western country, and furnished them with some Head is therefore a man, and the Heart & woman. letters of introduction for persons upon the route. We could carry this comparison still farther, and say, light; but neither can this be the cause, for, in stand

is inverted, the legs protect the eyes from lateral They made the necessary preparations for a long tour, Head and Heart are husband and wife, for Head and ing upright, and protecting the eyes even in a greater which they performed on horseback, each of them Heart, as we have just seen, are always of different degree from the approach of light sideways, no incarrying, in a pair of saddle-bags, after the fashion opinions. The Head, like my lord husband, blusters of that period, whatever he might require in clothes and commands ; the Heart lets it speak, and takes its Sir David at last rested satisfied, was suggested to

crease of colour takes place. The theory with whieh and other articles for his personal comfort. The own way after all, like my lady wife.

him by what had been known to take place in an intravelling map of the three princes is still preserved, My Lord Head makes his approach with a graceful Alamed eye, namely, a great increase of apparent light. and furnishes convincing proof that it has passed bow; my Lady Heart storms us with sweet glances He believes that the phenomenon is occasioned by the through severe service. The various routes followed and tender words.

increased quantity of blood thrown into the vessels of by the travellers are strongly depicted in red ink; The Head, according to the custom of reckless hus- the eye when the head is inverted, the increased pres. and by their extent and direction, they show the bands, has recourse to the Heart only when the world great enterprise displayed by three young strangers, has soured and sickened it, and rushes again into the sensibility thus given to the sentient membrane.

sure thus produced upon the retina, and the increased to acquire a just knowledge of the country, at a time tumult of life, ungrateful as a husband, as soon as the when the difficulties of travelling over a great part Heart has tenderly smoothed the furrows which cha- REPRODUCTION OF PARTS IN THE LOWER MARINE of the route were enough to discourage many a hardy grin had ploughed on his brow. American.

When "Head and Heart happen to dispute, the Louis, in not long since showing this map to an Heart, as the wife, has commonly the last word, and of creation to supply any part of their bodies which

The power possessed by some of the lower order American gentleman, mentioned that he possessed an on such occasions the Head displays a gallantry which may have been cut away, is one of the most curious accurate account, showing the expenditure of every other husbands are deficient of-it is silent when the problems in science. It is a power dollar he disbursed in the United States. It is an Heart becomes clamorous.

tally absent in

vertebrate animals, and, indeed, we have to go low example of business habits worthy of all praise and If Mr Head tyrannises over Mrs Heart, it makes down in the scale before we find any trace of it. It imitation. This attention to the important concern but an unhappy union; but the most miserable house is first found, we believe, in crustacea, or shelled of personal expenditure was one of the characteristic hold of all is, when Mr Head is under petticoat govern- fish. It is possessed, however, to a far more wonderfeatures of Washington ; and both of these celebrated ment.

derful extent, by that humble class of marine animals, men were, no doubt, penetrated with the conviction If Mr Head becomes bankrupt, ten to one but it is the polypi, which can scarcely be distinguished from that punctuality is essential to success.

Mrs Heart's fault. Our adventurers took the road by Leesburg and

plants, and whose growth seems to proceed upon prin.

But too often Head and Heart live together like a ciples greatly resembling vegetation. Yet some of Harper's Ferry to Winchester. Here they dismounted fashionable pair of the present day—where the one is these animals are of highly complicated structure, at a house kept by Mr Bush ; and who that knew this to be found,

we may be almost certain not to find the and exercise many surprising functions. At this pleasant hospitable town forty years ago, did not know other. Mr Bush, and his quict, comfortable public-house ?

meeting of the association, appeared a gentleman who They next proceeded by Staunton and Abingdon to tongue when he is in the right; the Heart, as wife, vestigation of their economy than any other existing

The Mead, as husband, is the first to hold his has perhaps devoted more time and pains to the inKnoxville and Nashville. From the latter place, they cries the loudest when she is most in the wrong. took their departure for Pittsburg, which they reached,

naturalist-Sir John Graham Dalyell of Edinburgh. But I begin to perceive I have betrayed a number / He gave, in the Section of Zoology, a remarkablo

ANIMALS.

will be generated to crown the anterior part of this much information as we could upon the Druses generally, / have been at all unreasonable. It was only in the

account of two of the order, the Holothuria and ceptions cannot discover any likelihood of their evolu- their religion, domestic life, and internal government, Amphitrite, which we find thus reported in the tion by means of their own energies. The adult Am- there hangs a mystery which has never been cleared up. Athenaeum :

phitrite bombyx, which obtains a silken sheath merely From some of their books, however, captured by Ibrahim “ The adult holothuria resembles a cucumber, or a by spontaneous exudation from the body, is about Pacha in the war, it is ascertained that they worship sausage, from six to twelve inches long, purple, yellow, three inches long, of which a third part is the plume, Hakem-Bamri, who was the fifth of the Fatimite Caliphs, grey, or white. Some thousand suckers cover it like consisting of sixty or seventy feathers (branchiæ). Two about the year 400 of the Hegira. One class is set apart

as ministers of their religion, and initiated into all its a shaggy coat, or disposed in rows according to species, artificial sections of the body of a vigorous specimen quiescent in a crescentic form during the day. But they reposed quiescent. The organisation of the upper they are supposed to be descendants of the crusading affixing it firmly to solid substances, where it remains speedily invested themselves with a sheath, wherein mysteries, but the mass of the people are, I believe, when evening comes, a tuft, protruding from the larger portion remained in its original state ; the middle sec

armies. They are certainly a race quite distinct from extremity of the crescent, unfolds into a capacious tion acquired the wanting parts, and a plume of eight the Arabian tribes. funnel, composed of eight, or ten, or twenty beautiful feathers was generated by the lowest section, though The Emir, or Prince of the Druses, as he is generally branches implanted on a shelly cylinder, in the centre this section had been only two lines, or the sixth part called, should more properly be denominated the Prince of which is the mouth. Each branch now begins to of an inch, in length. Thus three plumes existed at of the Christians, himself and the greater part of his sweep the water in succession, and descends almost once, with all their appartenances, on what had been subjects being of that persuasion. The Druses are the to the root within the mouth, in a contracted state, a single animal.”

refractory part of his population, being as often at war whence it arises to enlarge anew. These evolutions

with himself as with the other tribes of Syria--totally

undisciplined and unofficered, they owed their successer are protracted until the latest hour; but as morning dawns, the whole apparatus is withdrawn, the skin

BEYROUT-THE DRUSES.

in the late unequal struggle to the nature of their becomes close and compact as before, and a fountain The following extracts from the journal of an Ayrshire localities. Like the Highlanders of our own country, or

country, and their intimate acquaintance with all its begins to play from the opposite extremity. This gentleman, who lately returned from a three years' tour the Swiss in their memorable contest with the Austrians, singular animal is liable to lose all the preceding or in the East, appeared a few days ago in the Ayr Adver their tactics have always been to inveigle the soldiers ganic apparatus, consisting, in the Holothuria fusus, tiser; and having been brought under our notice by one into the mountain passes, where neither cavalry noz of eight larger and two smaller branches (tentacula), of his relatives, we consider them worthy of being offered artillery can act, and there, sheltered by the rocks, they together with the cylinder, mouth, oosophagus, lower for the perusal of our readers :intestinal parts, and the ovarium, separating from

“ September 3, 1838.- Arrived at Beyrout, after two and terrified soldiery, who fire at random upon an in

pour an incessant fire, and hurl stones upon the confused within, and leaving the body almost an empty sac

months' overland journey from Alexandria, by way of visible foe. About eight months ago (in February 1838), behind. Yet it does not perish. In three or four Jerusalem, Tiberias, Acre, Tyre, and Sidon.

irritated by some very impolitio and unnecessary harshmonths all the lost parts are regenerated, and a new

Beyrout possesses more stir and bustle, from its com

ness exercised towards them by Ibrahim Pacha, and funnel composed of new branches as long as the whole Syria. Its situation is beautiful. From a small eminence young men to serve as soldiers, of which they have great

mercial character, than any town I have yet seen in particularly galled by the laws which compelled their body of the animal, begins to exhibit the same pecu, near the gate, there is a splendid panorama of the dis- detestation, they broke out into open hostilities in the liarities as the old one, though longer time be required tant Lebanon hills ; to the east a long, low promontory, Houran, massacring some Egyptian troops. War being to attain perfection. Other species of the holothuria on the end of which are situated the Lazaretto buildings, thus declared, 4000 Druses from Dehr-el-Kamer joined divide spontaneously through the middle, into two or near which the vessels ride at anchor in the roads; and the original insurgents, and marched towards Damascus, more parts—all becoming ultimately perfect, by the all round the town richly wooded environs, dotted with in the vicinity of which it was carried on till within three development of new organs.

Yet the anatomical villas, and the country residences of the merchants. The weeks ago, when they were finally subdued, and bound structure of the whole genus is so complex, as to defy town itself is surrounded with a Genoese wall

, of no by treaty to deliver up their arms, which are now colthe skill of anatomists in discovering the proper func- great strength ; and the harbour is commanded by an old lected all through the country by Ibrahim's officers, and tions of some of the parts. A single holothuria has fort or castle, in a ruinous condition. I returned again by his orders delivered to the Christians for their own produced 5000 ova in the course of a night. The

to Beyrout in January 1839, and, as I remained there for defence, and for keeping down the Druses in future. The young resemble & white maggot, when the size of a

six weeks, had an opportunity of making myself ac total number of soldiers who fell in the contest is about barleycorn. The animal may lose and regenerate its guainted with the city, surrounding country, and inha- 15,000, whilst the entire loss of the Druses was not 3000

bitants. There are several British mercantile houses in men. organs more than once : it is very rarely to be pro- Beyrout. There are also several French, and some cured entire ; nor until the drawings now laid before Italian merchants established there.

September 8, 1838.–To-day we had an audience of the association, has it been even represented alive and British Consul, resides in a handsome house near the is a fine-looking old man, with a long white beard; he is

Mr Moore, the the old gentleman, who received us very graciously. He perfect. A specimen survived with Sir John about bay. Mr Chasseaud, the American Consul, has also a about seventy-five years of age, fifty of which have been two years. The Amphitrite is an animal still more inte- large house situated close to the sea, which must have passed upon the throne. Sovereign of a large district of resting, from the faculties it possesses, and the pro- been much exposed in the late bombardment. There is a country, he is independent as far as regards the governperties which it enjoys.. Various species inhabit the small pier for loading boats, but insufficient to afford ment of his kingdom, election of his offices, laws, &c., but Scottish seas, all occupying tubes either of their own shelter to vessels of any size; and the roads are so ex

pays a tribute of 6000 purses (about L.30,000) to the manufacture, by a process truly mechanical, or in a posed, that ships, when it comes on to blow, generally Porte, through the hands of Mehemet

Ali. The numthin silken sheath formed by an exudation from the make for the mouth of Nahr-el-Kelb, or the Dog River, ber of acknowledged Druses in his dominions, who pay whole body, or they rest amidst a thick tubular mass where they are more sheltered.

tax to him, is about 25,000; the Christians about 35,000. of transparent jelly, also of animal secretion. The

Several American missionaries have taken up their By his first wife, now dead, he has three sons, the second body of the Amphitrite ventilabrum extends twelve residence in the environs of Beyrout; and though, in of whom is expected to be his successor. By the laws inches or more in a serpentine form, consisting of 350 general

, lamh no great admirer of the missionary system, he may leave the kingdom to which of his sons he chooses,

I could not help appreciating the unpretending nature of but six years ago the Salic law was passed, excluding segments, crowned by a beautiful, varied coloured their labours, and the real good they are accomplishing, females from the succession. His present wife is a young plume of eighty or ninety fleshy feathers, and termi- by means of schools and a printing-press of their own, by woman, not twenty years of age, by whom he has one nated by a double gland. These (the branchiæ) are which they distribute a great deal, not only of religious, daughter." arranged as a funnel or shuttlecock, three inches deep, but of general information. I found them, in themselves, and resembling the finest flower, with two spines in pleasant people, and in their well-regulated families have, the centre, and each feather is bordered by at least at various times, spent both pleasant and profitable hours.

CAMILLA COLVILLE. 500 cilia or fleshy hairs along the shaft. This, which Mr Thompson, one of their principal members, married is the most timid of creatures, dwells in a black, Mrs Abbot, the wife of our late consul at Beyrout. Every leathern-looking, perpendicular tube, two feet high, Sunday they perform divine worship in the Presbyterian In the early part of the last century, Edward Colentirely of its own manufacture, rooted by the lower form, in the American consulate, and are attended by ville, who had realised a competency as a butcher and extremity. Singular to be told, the observer possesses almost all of whom, here as well as in Aleppo, are Scotch; grazier, resided in a mansion

called the White House, the ready means of inducing the humble tenant to principally from the west of Scotland. Mr Hield is, i which may still be seen in the

vicinity of Gateshead. display its powers. If, while stretching its beautiful believe, the only exception.

The respectability of his character, and the style in plume above the orifice of the tube, and spreading Along the shore of Beyrout there are some slight which he lived, wore such as to admit of his daughter it to enjoy the circumambient element, he drop a traces of the ancient city-tanks hollowed out of the Camilla attending the assize balls in Newcastle, though little muddy matter from above, an interesting spee-rock, some pieces of rough mosaic work, over which the these were then fully as exclusive as they are at pretacle ensues—immediately all the feathered apparatus road now passes, and fragments of strong walls, though sent. Gifted by nature with an elegant person, and is seen in action, though the animal be apparently their era is more doubtful.

with some advantages of education, Camilla was a still. Forty thousand cilia are at work, and a mass is

Sept. 6, 1838.-Left Beyrout for Dehr-el-Kamer, the young lady eminently qualified to grace those assemsoon discovered accumulating at the bottom of the country of the Druses, which we reached on the follow- blages. It is not therefore surprising, that at one of funnel. Being thence transmitted to the mouth, it is ing day. The village itself occupies the side of a hill

, them she had the good fortune to attract the attenimbued with gluten, and discharged as paste on the and on the opposite mountain, crossing a deep ravine, are edge of the orifice of the tube. There the creature, nected with the royal establishment. The whole country Autter in the room, when this gentleman, after the the palaces of the prince, and the various buildings con

tion of a young nobleman, Lord Ossulton, the eldest

son of the Earl of Tankerville. It occasioned no small having raised itself still higher, performs a slow revolution while moulding the paste into proper form, by and olives in terraces, and watered by small canals or is richly wooded, the mountains being covered with vines

proper formalities, requested of Miss Colville the means of two organic trowels, prolonged from a fringe streamlets, which are made to fall in cascades in various honour of being allowed to walk a minuet with her. around the neck. With these it beats down the paste, places, adding greatly to the

beauty of the place. The She blushingly consented, and rarely had the balland clasping over the edge of the tube, smoothes its palace where the Emir Beschir, or sovereign, holds

room of Newcastle exhibited a more striking display materials into symmetry as if it were by the operation his levee, is a very splendid building, the finest I have of graceful movement than what was displayed while of human hands ; but on the slightest alarm the plume seen in Syria. It consists of a spacious court formed by this stately dance was in the course of being per. collapses, the artist sinks below in an instant, and the royal stables, at one end of which is a handsome en- formed. Lord Ossulton was charmed beyond all remains with the orifice closed, until, believing the trance or staircase, supported by columns which lead to measure by the beauty of his partner, and, as he danger over, it may rise to resume its task

in security. a passage, having on each side the chambers of the officers handed her to her carriage, or whatever other convey, As specimens occur of different dimensions, let the of the household, &c. Beyond this is a fine area, sur

ance her father's fortune allowed of, he inly vowed observer cut a fragment off the lower end of the tube, rounded by columns, with a handsome fountain playing that the first should not be the last night of their which is always longer than the tenant: it will be second spacious court, is the Divan, where the emir

ad- acquaintance. affixed again where desired. Treating a number thus, ministers justice and receives audience; and opposite is and tossing them into a glass jar of sea water, a grove

The next day beheld the heir of the liouse of Tanwill arise before him, from the animals fixing them arabesque work, where the armoury, &c., is kept. The preposterously early, calling at the White House to

a handsome façade, adorned in the eastern style with kerville, at an hour which would now be considered anew, and protruding like so many revolving towers, other palaces, three in number, belong to his sons, and pay his respects to its fair tenant. Next day, and the to collect muddy drops from above, with which he he has a private one where his wife lives. Of these we next again, he renewed his visits ; and, in short, his provides them. The adhesion is accomplished from a only saw the exterior, which are also handsome, though attentions became so conspicuous, that the young glutinous or silky sheath, which the double terminal on a smaller scale.

lady's father, from being simply flattered by the gland seems instrumental in producing. Should the We were lodged in the principal palace, and during the notice of a person of rank, began to fear that feel amphitrite be mutilated of the anterior part, the whole day amused ourselves watching the arrival of mules and ings might arise between the parties which would will be regenerated ; nay, should a fragment of the horses, loaded with the arms given up by the Druses in only lead to disappointment. Perhaps he had even smaller or posterior extremity be severed from the consequence of the late capitulation. A French drago- graver fears, which any one acquainted with the body, an entire plume, spines, mouth, and trowels, man, and some of the officers of the household, paid us

visit in the evening, from

maxims of the gentlemen of that age will not deem to fragment, and render it a perfect animal. It is very and the particulars of the late war. reniarkable, that the powerful reproductive property

immediately ensuing age that drew the of the genus is not contined to the vicinity of the lost inhabiting principally this district of Syria, though

The Druses are a wild, ungovernable race of people, character of Sir Hargrave Pollexfen.

He therefore made some efforts to keep Lord Ossulorgans, the elements of others eside in different and tered over the whole country. Equally opposed to Turk ton out of the company of his daughter, but with no distant parts of the body, from whence human per- and Christian, they stand alone in the world; and over great success. Denied admittance to the house, the

A TRADITION OF THE COUNTY OF DURHAM.

BY MR ANDREWS.

America.)

*

young noble still could beset her when she went length overcome, doubtless by persuasives strictly of bringing his horse with him. “You have provided," abroad, seat hiinself near her at church, and get in- | honourable. The consequence was, that on arriving replies Cicero, “ much better for your horse's safety than

After the defeat (thus foreseen) of Pomsinuated into any little social party wizere she was at South Shields, he allowed Lord Ossulton to become for your own. expected. Mr Colville at length saw it to be necessary an inmate of his house, in company with Camilla, pey on the plains of Pharsalia, the captain Nonius said to take very decided measures, and he resolved to until the consent of her father was obtained, and the to Cicero, “Be of good heart; we have yet left seven

“ An excellent thing, if we liad to tight with place the young lady for some time in a new and necessary preparations were made for their marriage. eagles.” distant home. A relation of his had been long settled With respect to the feelings of the lover's family, jays," replied the orator. as tanmerchant in Holland. In the hands of that tradition is silent; we may well believe that they hours, to shut himself up alone in his chamber, and there

The Emperor Domitian was accustomed at his leisure gentleman he thought she would be quite safe from Lord Ossulton's addresses. He had also very oppor- to have taken place at Jarrow church," the ancient indulge in the amusement of sticking flies with a pin. tunely a friend who conducted a vessel of his own seat of the Venerable Bede; a place of worship which, the Cæsar, “ No one," said Vibius-Crispus ; " not even a regularly between South Shields and the ports of from some local prepossession, has been for ages the

fly." Ilolland and the north of France. By means of this resort of young couples seeking to enter the bonds of

Charlemagne studied to bring around him, by liberal friend it was comparatively an easy matter to get the wedlock without the consent of parents. young lady conveyed to her new home. It may here

After the ceremony, the pair

took up their residence donations, all the most learned men of his age. He was be remarked, that the ship-owners, who in those days with the lady's father at Gateshead, where they resided less successful, however, than he could have wished, and navigated their own vessels from South Shields, were for some years. At length the death of his father complained of this, one day, to the learned Alcuin. a highly respectable class of men, generally possessing made Lord Ossulton Earl of Tankerville, the second me twelve such men as Jerome and Augustin !" “ What, good education and manners, and living, when at of the title ; and Camilla Colville, as Countess, became sire !" replied Alcuin, “ hath the Creator of hearen and home, in a style of considerable dignity. Amongst entitled to the chief seat in the splendid halls of Chile earth but two men of such merit, and you would have the descendants of more than one of them, might be lingham Castle. Our heroine was afterwards one of twelve ?” found members of both houses of parliament. They the ladies of the bed-chamber to Queen Caroline, the Thomas Aquinas entered the chamber of Pope Innotook the name of Captain, and had, we believe, some consort of George II. She played her part as a peoress cent IV. whilst large sums of money were being counted solid grounds for doing so, as trading beyond certain with a due portion of dignity and spirit, and con there. “ You see,” said the pontiff to him, “that the latitudes and longitudes specified by Queen Eliza- tinued, long after being the mother of three children, church has been blessed, and is no longer in the state in beth, gave masters of merchant vessels a modified to be one of the most beautiful women at the English which she was when it was said, 'Silver and gold hare I permission to assume that title. Captain Aubane court. She survived her husband in a long dowager- none.'” “ It is true, holy father,” said Aquinas ; " but readily entered into the views of his friend Colville, hood, and died in 1775, at the age, it has been said, of neither can she now say to the paralytic, Take up thy and undertook to convey the young lady in safety tó 105; but this is probably a mistake, though it is bed and walk.”” her relative in Rotterdam. She was, accordingly, likely that her term of years much exceeded that Henry IV. of France one day reached Amiens after a conducted in the most private manner to South ordinarily allotted to the children of Adam.

long journey. A local orator was deputed to barangue Shields, and put on board his vessel. How she felt

him, and commenced with a long string of epithets. on the occasion, has not been remembered by tradition;

“ Very great sovereign, very good, very merciful, very

SONG. but if, as is likely, she regarded her lover with affec

magnanimous" “Add, also," interrupted the king, tion, and deemed the voyage a compulsory exile, the

very tired !" A famous physician having quitted Calauthority of parents was in those days too awful and

(Sung at a public dinner at Boston, U.S., in honour of Mr vinism for Catholicism, Henry said to his Protestant inflexible to admit of her making any thing like effecCunard's introduction of steam ravigation betereen England and minister, Sully, “ My friend, your religion is surely very

ill. The doctors give it up." The same monarch was tual remonstrance.

What projects men make-what queer turns they take,

one day harangued by a speaker in a small country town, The voyage passed in safety; Camilla was consigned

Since steam has improved our condition;

during whose discourse an ass brayed at a short distance. to her father's Dutch friend ; and Captain A ubane

They never are still, but must cure or must kill

“ One at a time, gentlemen,” said the king. returned with the pleasing intelligence that all was With steam physic or steam ammunition.

One of the kings of Spain had been unsuccessful in safe. If Mr Colville, however, believed that Lord But a short time ago, to a quack you would go,

war, and had lost several provinces ; yet ho received,

To steam a fat man to a thinner; Ossulton had been “thrown out,” he was mistaken;

Now changed from all that, if you wish to get fat,

notwithstanding, the title of the Great from his courtiers, for, before many weeks had elapsed, his lordship made

Come to Barton's and eat a steam dinner!

and, the more unfortunate ho grew, was the more rigid his appearance in Rotterdam, and became as trouble Oh dear! think of a scheme, odd though it seem

in exacting such honours. “ Yes, he is Great," said a some to the family who had charge of his mistress, as I'm sure 'twill succeed if you make it by steam.

wit, “just as a ditch is great. The more earth you take he had formerly been to her father. The Linden You may sicep, you may dream, you may travel by steam, from it, the bigger it becomes." Walks lent their shade to certain meetings of the For the outcry is still to go faster;

The Duke of Roquelaure was any thing but beautifal. lovers, and, when such meetings were denied, his lord

And what does it reck, should you een break your neck,
If 'tis steam that brings on the disaster ?

Meeting one day a very ugly country squire who had ship made signals of affection from the street, which

business at the court, the duke introduced him to the Camilla could furtively read in the friendly mirror Oh dear! think of a scheme, odd though it seem

king, saying that he lay under the weightiest obligations projecting from the parlour window. The Dutch I'nı sure 'twill succeed if you work it by steam.

to the gentleman. The king graciously accorded to the friend now became more distressingly alarmed than East Boston one day, we have heard people say,

squire the desired favour, and then asked Roquelaure ever the father had been, in as far as a responsibility Was nought but a desolate island;

what was the nature of his obligations to the other. for the interests of another is more harassing than

But making by steam, they fill'd up the stream,

" Ah, sire, without this dog, I should be the ugliest man responsibility for interests of one's own. He there

And turn'd the wet dock into dry land.

in your majesty's dominions," was the answer. fore resolved to get quit as soon as possible of his fair

Then with a steam cbain it grappled the main

The judge Le Coigneux desired his macer of the court,

What noddle but follows my ditty ?but perilous charge. Captain Aubane, ere long, re No longer alone, but 'bone of our bone,

named Maillard, to keep the auditory silent at a trial. turned to Rotterdam for another cargo, and, when he And flesh of the flesh' of the city.

The macer accordingly bawled out "silence" every inwas about to sail, Camilla was once more put on board

Oh dear! think of a scheme, odd though it seem

stant, though no voice was in action but his. The old his vessel.

I'm sure 'twill succeed if you work it by steum.

judge at last cried to him testily, “ Macer, make Maillard Behold the belle of Newcastle again at sea.

be quiet." But

How timid and slow, but a few years ago,

The world hobbled on in its motion; now it was with very different feelings that she

The celebrated Malherbe dined one day with the Archcrossed the German Ocean; and for this change there Old Europe scem'd far as the fix'd northern star

bishop of Rouen, and fell asleep soon after the meal.

O'er the boundless expanse of the ocean. was no doubt good cause. The Dutch coast had for a But though it was hard-at the word of Cunard,

The prelate, a sorry preacher, was about to deliver & day been lost in the blue distance; sea and sky were

Britannia herself is a rover;

sermon, and awakened Malherbe, inviting him to be of

the auditory. Old England awhile, that · fast anchor'd isle,'

" Ah, thank you," said Malherbe ; " pray the boundaries of the sailors' sight; and honest Aubane

By steaming is now 'half-seas over.'

excuse me; I shall sleep very well without that." was congratulating himself on the prospect of soon

Oh dear! think of a scheme, odd though it seemcommitting Miss Colville in safety to her father's

The Abbé Regnier, secretary of the French Academy,

I'm sure 'twill succeed if you work it by steam. keeping, when, descending into the cabin, how was he

once made a collection of money among the members astonished to behold, kneeling at her feet, that very

for some common purpose. He went round at a meeting Lord Ossulton who was the cause of all his apprehen

BONS-MOTS OF OTHER DAYS.

with his hat, receiving the contributions. Not perceiving

that the president Rose, a very miserly person, bad sions, and whom he supposed to have been left lament- By bon-mot is literally signified a good-word, or, as we may dropped in his share, the abbé presented the hat again ing on the quay of Rotterdam! He soon learned that translate it, a happy saying, or some kind of observation to him. The president declared that he lsad made his the lover had contrived, by the connivance of a sailor, which is at once witty and to the point. Some nations contribution, and Regnier said, " I believe it, but I did and, doubtless, with the concurrence of his mistress, excel in uttering bon-mots, but none more so than the not see it.". “ And I,” says Fontenelle," say it, but to secrete himself on board the vessel a little while French and Irisli, both of whom possess that liveliness of could not believe it." before it sailed. It was too late to think of returning fancy that carries them on to cleverness of repartee, perto the Dutch harbour to put Lord Ossulton ashore; haps with little regard to consequences. The English jects that struck his fancy, was arrested by a banking

A peasant went into a large city, and, among other obbut, in allowing him to proceed on the voyage, Aubane

are poor at this species of jocularity, and the Scotch | office, where he saw people go out and in, without getting resolved to make him as little the better of his con

more so. Among the ancient Romans there were many any goods, apparently, as in other shops. Ile ventured trivance as possible. Exerting the authority which clever utterers of bon-mots... The following are a few to enter and ask the teller what was sold there. “ Asses' his position gave him, he commanded the young lected from an old book in the French language, which you must have !" said the rustic; “I see you bare bat

tolerably good ones, along with some of a later date, col- heads," was the sneering answer. “ What a business lord to withdraw from the cabin, and not to appear has chanced to come into our hands. there again, unless in his company, and by his express

one left." permission. He also stipulated that, while he was One day, the philosopher Bias found himself in the It would often be better not to attempt to reward a himself on deck upon duty, Lord Ossulton, to make

same vessel with a crowd of sorry scoundrels. A tempest brave action, than to reward it ill. a soldier had his sure of obedience to the rules, should remain beside

came on; and instantly the whole band began to invoke two arma carried off at the wrists by a shot. His colonel him, at whatever time of day or night, and under the sage; " if the gods perceive that you are here, we are hands that I lost, colonel," said the poor soldier re

the succour of the gods. Be quiet, you wretches !" said offered him a crown. “It was not my gloves, but my whatever circumstances of weather. The lover found himself compelled to submit to all these restrictions ;

proachfully. but the privilege of seeing his mistress once a-day,

A musician complaining that the tyrant Dionysius A man of genius was one day told that he would be even in the presence of a third party, served in no gave him nothing, after promising him much, for the introduced to a person worth knowing—“a person," saiů small degree to reconcile him to their strictness.

exercise of his art—“ You fool, we are quits," said the the intending introducer, by way of particular coinmenIn the course of the voyage, which was not a short tyrant;

you tickled my cars, and I did the very same dation, “who has actually got by heart the whole of one, the heir of Tankerville made a more favourable by yours.

Montaigne.” The man of genius coldly replied, " I hare impression on the mind of Aubane than he had done Antiochus, King of Syria, caused the numerous army

the work here." on the less enlightened and more jealous nature of which he had assembled against the Romans, to defile A prelate had gone to Rome, in expectation of a car. the young lady's father. Aubane became convinced before Hannibal, and pointed out with pride to the Car- dinal's hat. He returned home, however, without obthat, however frivolous or otherwise objectionable thaginian hero the arins of the infantry, glittering with taining the object of his wishes. Soon after, he went to might have been the feelings with which he at first gold and silver, and the cavalry, whose horse-trappings, court and paid his compliments to the king, but was so regarded

Camilla, he was now inspired by an honour- bits, and saddles, as well as their armour, were loaded hoarse with a cold, that he could scarcely make himself able affection. He was also induced to believe the in a similar manner.

with golden ornaments. The elephants were decorated intelligible. The king afterwards chanced to express his

Having shown all, Antiochus surprise that the prelate should bave so exposed himself young man when he protested, in the most earnest triumphantly asked the Carthaginian if he did not think as to catch cold. inanner, that the future happiness of his life depended that all this would do for the Romans ? " Oh, yes," at that,” said a wit, "since the prelate came from Rome

“Ah, your majesty need not wonder on his obtaining the hand of Miss Colville. The South returned Hannibal, “ even if they were more greedy than without the hat.” Shields ship-owner did not, indeed, like the idea of they are.” encouraging young nobleman in an object which A Roman captain, having gone over to the camp of must be regarded with dislike by his father and other Pompey from that of Cæsar, declared to Cicero that he

LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by

W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row. relations ; but on this point also his scruples were at I had come off so hurriedly that he had not even thought Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars

+

gone!”

[graphic]

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,"

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE," &c.

NUMBER 464.

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1840.

Price THREE Halfpence.

of the English proceeds from the constitution of their error by the public opinion of his class. Hence in a ANATOMY OF ENGLISH RESERVE.

country much more than from that of its inhabi- great measure that reserce which distinguishes EngEvery one must know and have often laughed at the tants."

lish manners : it is simply the guard which caution story told of two Oxford students, one of whom, in There is truth in this explanation of De Tocqueville; puts upon a dignity always in danger of being overboating on the Isis, fell into the water, and seemed in but it does not appear to us to be the whole truth. looked. imminent danger of being drowned, while the other, In America there are few diversities of rank. The It must also be observed, as an almost unavoidable a good swimmer, looked on from the Magdalene great bulk of the people are brought to a level by two consequence of our differences of rank, that there is, Bridge, and contented himself with remarking, “ Bless causes their being universally engaged in active pur- in this country, a constant struggle upwards. So me, what a pity I never was introduced to that man ! suits, and their having each and all exactly the same many advantages are seen to attend grade, that the -perhaps I might hare been able to save his life !" | political privileges. But where a decided diversity of members of each class seek eagerly to attain a place This is a pretty fair hit at that ultra delicacy of Eng. rank does exist, we find as great reserve between in the next above. This is an element of the queslish gentlemen, which forbids them to address each the classes as in England. The white and coloured tion which those below are apt to overlook, but, other without being previously attested for by a com- population keep apart, even in churches. The reserve in reality, it operates very powerfully. We do not, mon acquaintance. We find the following remarks in this case is, however, merely an exception that of course, justify the system which produces such reon the same point in De Tocqueville's work, “Demo- serves to confirm our rule. The people are upon the sults, but as long as the system is what it is, its results cracy in America :”_

whole a nation of equals, and there is therefore not appear to us to be quite unavoidable. As certainly “ If two Englishmen chance to meet at the anti- much occasion for punetilios in their intercourse with as there is hauteur and reserve on the one hand, is podas, where they are surrounded by strangers whose each other.

there a bustling anxiety on the other to fight up into language and manners are almost unknown to them, In England, on the contrary, there is a great the superior position, or to obtain a share of its adthey will first stare at each other with much curiosity variety of grades, of which the following are, we vantages. Acquaintances are sought that they may and a kind of secret uneasiness ; they will then turn think, pretty well marked :—the titled and landed be turned to advantage in obtaining some cherished away, or, if one accosts the other, they will take care class ; the class landed though not titled; the class of object, whether it may be of a directly sordid kind, or only to converse, with a constrained and absent air, capitalists living independently of exertion; the estas only that privilege of mingling in refined circles, upon very unimportant subjects. Yet there is no blished and privileged clergy; the mercantile and which in the mean time gratifies taste, and, in the long enmity between these men ; they have never seen manufacturing class; the shop-keeping class; the ope- run, may lead to advantages of a more solid nature. each other before, and each believes the other to be a rative class. All of these are in considerably different so calculating is this propensity, that schools are respectable person. Why then should they stand so circumstances from each other, possess different de selected for children, not with a regard to the educacautiously apart? We must go back to England to grees of political influence, and enjoy peculiar degrees tion to be acquired in them, but that the children may learn the reason.

of public respect. Differences in title, wealth, and form acquaintances which will prove useful in helping As aristocratic pride is still extremely great amongst importance of function, become therefore readily recog- them on in future life. This policy makes its appearthe English, and as the limits of aristocracy are ill. nised, and are intensely appreciated. As a necessary ance in our most familiar maxims. “Always seek defined, every body lives in constant dread lest adran- result, there is a habit on the one hand of exacting society rather above than below you,” is one of those tage should be taken of his familiarity. Unable to respect on account of grade, and on the other of advices which every old person feels himself called judge at once of the social position of those he meets, paying it, which strikingly marks our society. In upon to give to every young ore. John, proceeding an Englishman prudently avoids all contact with phrenological language, self-esteem and veneration are to the academy, is enjoined to make friends with the them. Men are afraid lest some slight service ren- brought into great activity amongst us.

boys whose fathers are members of parliament, as he dered should draw them into an unsuitable acquaint- To show how expressly these feelings are evoked by may be the better for them hereafter. Where such anco ; they dread civilities, and they avoid the ob- the peculiarities of our social condition, and so far to aggressive policy is pursued on the one hand, we cantrusive gratitudo of a stranger quite as much as bis confirm Do Tocqueville's views, it may be observed not much wonder that a defensive policy is followed hatred.

that the effect is different in different places. Ju a on the other--that the rich shun the needy as upon Many people attribute these singular anti-social cathedral town, or in a Bath or Cheltenham, where a the whole troublesome associates—that the members propensities, and the reserved and taciturn bearing great number of the superior classes reside, this pecu- of a superior rank put on discouraging looks at balls of the English, to purely physical causes. I may liar tone of English society is much more strongly and that the aristocracy seek schools for their children admit that there is something of it in their race, but brought out than in the manufacturing towns. These

to which none but their own class have admission. much more of it is attributable to their social condi- are comparatively in the condition of the American There are two interests concerned, and they act as tion, as is proved by the contrast of the Americans.

population—a mass of active equals. The natural opposite interests always do. The hauteur of the upper In America, where the privileges of birth never frankness and good humour of the national character ranks is not, of course, always justly due in the partiexisted, and where riches confer no peculiar rights on are there allowed free play, exactly as in New Eng- cular instances where it is shown; but it is a habit their possessors, men unacquainted with each other land; and when the inhabitant of a more aristocratic induced by the frequent occasion for its exerciso. are very ready to frequent the same placos, and find town goes to such a place, he feels precisely what the And, aggressions being more generally experienced neither peril nor advantage in the free interchange of Halls and Hamiltons seem to have felt in America from those who are nearly equals, than from classes their thoughts. If they meet by accident, they namely, surprise di a familiarity which, though it may considerably distant in rank, we can easily see how, in neither seek nor avoid intercourse ; their manner is flow from the heart, and be accompanied by much the gamut of society as in the musical scale, secondo therefore natural, frank, and open. It is easy to see practical kindness, is too opposite to respect to be are always the least harmonious. that they hardly expect or apprehend any thing from strictly pleasing. This tends to prove the continued It is not the mere anxiety to preserve grade, with cach other, and that they do not care to display, any national identity of the Americans and English, and all its presumed advantages, which operates in keeping more than to conceal, their position in the world. If to show how much it is in consequence of social in- classes apart. If the feelings of those who act under their demeanour is often cold and serious, it is never stitutions that any diversity appears.

this policy were candidly inquired into, we believe it haughty or constrained ; and if they do not converse, There is, then, in England what there is not in would be found that jealousy of aggression is, in many it is because they are not in a humour to talk, not America—a habit of exacting and paying deference cases, less the animating motive, than is a feeling because they think it their interest to be silent. with a regard to differences of rank, privilego, and which, for want of a more exactly suitable name, we

In a foreign country, two Americans are at once possession. With this habit, it is easy to see, an uni- must call taste. In America, there is but a small and friends, simply because they are Americans. They versal frankness and unreserve is totally incompatible. unimportant class who are quite independent of busiare repulsed by no prejudice ; they are attracted by As well expect to see a community of purse esta- ness; but in England, the portion of the community their common country. For two Englishmen the blished in a society composed of rich and poor, as a who are in this condition is very great. There is, same blood is not enough ; they must be brought to community of dignity in a society framed, as ours is, indeed, a full half of the classes we have enumerated as gether by the same rank. The Americans remark on a scale of real or implied rank. Each person, find composing British society, who live independently of this unsociable mood of the English as much as the ing a real advantage in his rank, must naturally be traffic. This is a broad feature of distinction between French do, and are not less astonished by it. Yet the disposed to preserve its distinctions, in his own case, the two countries, and one which could not exist withAmericans are connected with England by their with all possible care. Nor is it alone a matter of out producing a great difference in their manners. origin, their religion, their language, and partially by individnal feeling : a member of a particular class is Those who prosecute business, and those who do not, their manners: they only differ in their social condi. under a duty to his class in preserving its distinctions ; though they may mutually respect each other, aro tion. It may therefore be inferred, that the reserve and if he fails to do so, he is soon admonished of his under the influence of such different ideas, and feel

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