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modern English literature, where persons of a humblo tripped up and down her paternal habitation, or sat | by night-and when you are away from my sight
their minds tending to such different objects, that equality of condition, becomes what we see it in to the admission of any one to the privacy of his house, they never can on any great scale be agreeable society America, in our large towns, and in our colonies ; in and engaged an assistant for the term of a few weeks.
This assistant chanced to be a young countryman to each other. The business man despises the vapid the opposite state, it becomos what we see it in Bri- of his own, travelling for the better aequirement of
tish society at large. life and trivial amusements of the leisurely classes ;
skill in his trade. Bertrand Lafort was not a youth
of very striking appearance, but still he was comely ; and the leisurely classes have as little toleration for
THE JEWELLER OF STRASBURG.
and his modesty and intelligence were calculated to the acquisitive maxims, and sharp and knowing style
win by degrees the affections of those around him. For of mind, which prevail in the business classes. The In the ancient city of Strasburg, lived Stephen Lenoir several weeks he was daily in company with Manon at one class is concerned about necessities which the and his family. That family was small_s0 emall, meals, and at other times also for brief periods ; and
a mutual attraction between the two was the conseother has long got over and thrown beneath their indeed, as scarcely to deserve a collective appellation
quence. One day, when the absence of Stephen feet : the other is concerned about niceties which the his daughter Manon. Lenoir was a man of middle courage almost to avow his affection, and did not find its whole members consisting of Stephen Lenoir and unexpectedly left them alone
at dinner, Bertrand took inferior has not yet learned to appreciate, and never
age, and by profession a working jeweller. He had himself discouraged by its simple and innocent object. will till wealth and leisure be acquired. Removed learned his trade in Paris
, which was his native place, However, no further opportunity for an understanding high into the region of taste and refinement, the Eng- and bore so high a character for skill, attention, and between them occurred, until particular circumstances
occurred, of a nature calculated to draw Manon's lish leisurely class are disgusted by every association industry, as to receive more employment than he attention entirely to another subject. with that very mercantile industry and ingenuity could well accomplish. Of course, so far as his work Since the entry of Bertrand into the house, a change which are the boast of their country, and the original was concerned, Stephen was brought into frequent had been observed by her to come gradually over her source, in a vast number of instances, of their own contact with various classes of the community, as he father's conduct and temper. When he rose in the
morning, it seemed as if his night's rest had done him affluence. It seems most absurd that such should be executed tasks both for professional and private em
no good. He looked pale and exhausted, and in the the case ; but there is no preaching down any great ployers. Otherwise, he dwelt with his daughter in evening he would sit for hours in silence, as if broodlaw of human nature. Accustom any one to live perfect solitude. In the midst of fellow-creatures, ing on some unpleasing subject. He was late in apart from and independently of all homely things
, they associated with none. They had not only no retiring to rest, and Manon even thought that she
friends, but even no acquaintances. Since Stephen could occasionally hear him stirring late in the night, and he will in time find it painful to be brought into Lenoir had arrived with his infant girl in his widowed when her own first slumbers were over. She at first contact with them. It is also to be observed, that no
thought that an unusually important task had brought arms, for fifteen long years, scarcely a human being, with it unusual care and toil, and that he might be ill rational person amongst the English leisurely class is excepting the two settled inmates, had been seen in body; and she affectionately pressed him to attend insensible, abstractly, of the importance of industrious within the walls of their little dwelling. What was to his health, and take additional repose. To her great occupation both to individuals and to the nation; the cause of this? Was it unsociableness of tempera- pain, her advice was repulsed with peevishness, almost they only do not feel that their daily comfort admits ment on the part of the jeweller ? Partly so, perhaps ; that she had found herself so spoken to by her father
, of an intimate personal connexion with the classes but it arose still more from the sufficiency of what he and the gentle Manon dropped many a secret tear in who are thus engaged. This is a distinction which possessed within to satisfy all his wishes, and occupy consequence. Her grief was the greater, as her father
When he was obliged to go must be universally intelligible. There are few so his thoughts. Manon and his business were to him grew worse day by day. humble but they may look to an inferior class whose all in all. Not a thought had he beyond these, at out, she observed him, though covertly, to cast uneasy
and even suspicious looks both at Bertrand and her toils they respect and applaud, but from whom they of his existence, and whose death cast a partial gloom did guess at any cause, it seemed one quite inadequate least after the loss of his wife, who had been the sun
self. The cause Manon could not guess at, or if she would not be disposed to select their company. It is not alone the direct operation of these causes
over his whole remaining days. To Manon he was to produce such effects.
the kindest of fathers, and did for her in childhood a One morning all the symptoms of her father's diswhich we have to take into account. Wherever a principle operates in many instances, it is sure to be thousand kind offices, such as man seldom fulfils, temperament appeared to be aggravated. He sent
out Bertrand upon some errand or other of business, attended by an extensive imitation. The jealousy she grew up to womanhood, she repaid him by be- She went, and found him in visible agitation..." Oh,
being at once nurse, companion, and teacher. As and immediately afterwards called Manon to him. of real rank, and the fastidiousness of real tasto, set examples which are followed in grades where coming in turn the guardian of his comforts, as well Manon,” said he, taking her hand in his, * my own pretensions to either are more than dubious. In
as by the gentleness and affectionate docility of her Manon, daughter of my poor Louise, would you could such circumstances, mutual repulsion becomes, as
naturo. Her comeliness, too, was remarkable, and yon, deceive your father?" "Not for worlds, returned ondeared her the more to her father, from recalling distress called immediate tears;“not for worlds would
the daughter, into whose eyes the sight of her father's it were, the cue of society, just as, under the opposito circumstances of America, a “hail fellow, well to him the memory of his wife, of whom she was the I deceive you!" Stephen looked earnestly at her
. met” feeling is the leading characteristic. To this wo very image.
“I cannot doubt you,” said he at length; « when I are to trace some of the best points of humour in Day by day, month by month, year by year, Manon gaze at those innocent eyes, and think that they have
on with duty and . And yet, order are represented as affixing the terms “low" and by her low court-window, carolling gaily, like a happy oh, Manon, I have terrible thoughts." The daughter a vulgar” upon classes or persons in no appreciable walls, the ceiling, and, in truth, every spot and corner
though a prisoned bird. The floors, the tables, the was greatly shocked at this open arowal of distrust degree inferior to themselves.
on her father's part towards her. “ Father, what of the apartment, which, with the exception of a little have I done to incur suspicion from you !" said she, While thus doing our best to analyse the causes of garret and a small room with a bed-closet, formed with swimming hexos
“Oh, dear father, some evil English reserve, we trust it will never be supposed nearly their whole house, were clean in the extreme ; amiss, tell me, and believe that your Manon will obey
spirit suggests these thoughts! If you have seen anght that we wish in any degree to justify or defend it. and the few table-utensils that were arranged on the sou before all the world, and that sho never could or As far as our own feelings are concerned, we should walls, glittered like a river in the sun. Ost, indeed, can do any thing to vex the parent she so loves." be amongst the last to take that ground. We must, did Manon cleanse and scour what was never soiled. Stephen was again silent for a moment. He then in common with all benevolent men, lament that this Then her bird in the window occupied a portion of kissed his daughter's brow, and said, "I believe you, essentially feeblo and unmanly characteristic should her time, for slie not only fed her starling duly, but my dear child, and think of this no more.” have been so extensively introduced into English 80- taught it to repeat the airs which she had caught ciety. At the same time, we are anxious to have and from poor street-minstrels, and tamed it so, that it Stephen altered his strange conduct but for a short
However, matters were not mended subsequently. to give a clear view of its causes ; and to this object spent much of its time close by her side. Manon time, and then relapsed, and grew daily worse, so the present paper is confined. We must attribute it had her knitting and her sewing to attend to, more- much so as to treat Manon with habitual harshness. mainly to the existence of large titled and leisurely over, these being the only arts which she had been Her consciousness of Bertrand's affection could not ; classes. If there be any advantage in an aristocratic compelled to learn out of doors; and duly as the make up to the poor daughter for this alteration grade, or in the realisation of large capitals in the cathedral bell tolled the morning and mid-day hours
, in her father's behaviour-a change wrought in but
An open avowal of his love hands of individuals, we must consider the reserve her round and smooth brow, with the brown tresses
was finally made by Bertrand. It was made one which marks our national manners as a drawback clustering about it, and the blue eyes sparkling be-day when he found Nanon in tears, after her father's or deduction from it. No good is unmixed with evil
, neath, full of affection and cheerfulness, would be temporary departure from the house. The simple and this is no exception from the rule. It is curious, nouncement made, that she had the meal of the hour possessed her affections, but said at the same time however, to trace the operation of natural causes in in readiness. Absorbed in these simple duties did that she would never quit her father. “We may live moral affairs. In New Zealand, the young men who, Manon pass the years of her girlhood, having scarcely with him, or at least beside him, Manon," replied the had they remained at home, would have been as deli a thought beyond her own limited sphere.
lover. The young maiden sighed. “Once I could cately reserved as any of their compeers, are roughing moment marked the career of her sire and herself. said she ; " and you too, Bertrand, you have friends
She was seventeen years old, when an event of some have dreamed of such a thing, but not now, not now," it contentedly in fustian jackets, hewing trees, build. Stepisen Lenoir was compelled, in a case of peculiar and a home elsewhere.” “I can have no home hende ing houses, carrying luggage from the ships, and emergency, to take an assistant into his workshop. forth, no place worthy to be called a home, Manon, staking off potato gardens. No one there feels humi- He was very averse to this proceeding, but a picce of where you are not," returned the youth warmly. He liated by doing any thing which circumstances render elaborate work required from him could not be exe- took Manon's hand; it was not withdrawn from his necessary. When we see such things result when only be performed under his own eye, and, if not possible felicity for them, as made the poor girl's heart
cuted otherwise in due time. The task, too, could grasp, and he proceeded to draw such a picture of “the influences” are withdrawn, can we doubt that executed at all, a considerable loss would be the consuch things would still have been amongst us, if “the sequence. Now, money had become insensibly dear however, was suddenly interrupted by the sound of
full almost to overflowing. The discourse of the pair, influences” had never existed ? Geology shows us to Stephen-how dear, he had as yet no perfect con an approaching footstep. They separated from each that various climates have prevailed on the spot of ception. He had laid by a pretty large sum, and, other's side with a degree of confusion inseparable earth we now inhabit
, and that in each caso the appro- having few legitimate objects to expend it upon, such from the nature of their late converse. Stephen priate plants and animals occupied the soil . Were it become prized by him for itslf
. This growing passion he seemned to have been struck with the possibility of once more to become torrid, the calamites and equis had produced no perceptiblo chango in his affection an attachment springing up between them. On that setaces of our coal beds would doubtless again arise for his daughter, and perhaps it was with a view to evening he was more thoughtful and gloomy than by the banks of our strcams, and the elephant would her future comforts that he haud at first taken pleasure usual. again roam through our forests. An institution seeing the present occasion, felt such a pang at tho thought melancholy scene. Stephen Lenoir rose from break
The next morning witnessed an unexpected and to be not less certain in producing its effects upon the of losing the large sumn to be gained by the execution fast, as he was in the habit of doing, and entered moral soil. The Anglo-Saxon naturo, under a general of the required work, that he mastored his reluctance his workshop, fastening the door behind him. Immo
diately afterwards, however, he uttered a loud cry, -was noised abroad, and all were glad at the surprising count, and at his death left his family in poor circumand issued, exclaiming wildly, “I am robbed again and almost accidental exculpation of the young pair. stancos. The Slaters seein to have been inen of quite robbed of all! I am a beggar!" He sprung upon It would be vain aur us to attempt to describe how a different stamp, being not only ingenious, but steady Bertrand at the same time, and accused him fiercely Stephen Lenoir's grey hairs pressed the ground that and persevering. of the robbery. - Father ! dear father!" cried the morning at the feet of bis own child, and how the We have now to show how, from a small beginning agitated Manon, clinging to her parent, “he is inno- gentle Åsanon embraced his neck, and 'besought him in 1790, the cotton manufacture has attained to a cent! he is innocent!". Stephen Lenoir turned upon to take comfort. Nor shall we endeavour to paint great standing in the United States. The factories are his danghter, and shook her off violently. “ Be silent, how beautifully Manon blushed through her tears, now established in a rery great number of places; but shamcless and unnatural girl ! You are his accom when her penitent father placed her hand in that of there are three divisions in particular which may be de. plice-yes, I am robbed by my own flesh and blood ! Bertrand, and said, “My son, if you truly forgive me, nominated the principal manufacturing districts. The But I will have it back, or, by the heaven above us, we shall part no more !"
first comprehends Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, both of you shall die on the scaffold !” The excited This, gentle reader, is a story as true as the Pro- and the eastern parts of Massachusetts; the second, tones of Stephen had by this time caused some of the verbs of Solomon.
or middlo district, includes the western parts of Massaneighbours to hurry to the door. The joweller called
chusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut ; the third, to them to bring the street police, which they were ready and active enough in doing. In the mea: time,
THE COTTON MANUFACTURE IN
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, &c. Massa
chusetts, taken altogether, is the chief field of the Bertrand allowed himself to be held by Stephen, but
cotton manufacture, and its chief manufacturing town at the same time calmly declared his innocence. He JAMES MONTGOMERY, a person skilled in the manu is Lowell. According to the report of a committee also addressed a word of solace to poor Manor, telling facturing of cotton, ieft his native country (Scotland) appointed by. Congress in 1832, to inquire into the her that “her father would soon discover his error.'
in 1836, to find oinployment among the factories of progress of spinning and of the manufacture of cotton Perhaps this appearance of mutual intelligence
only the United States; and being engaged as superin- goods--the number of pills in twelve states was 795, the police came, he declared his conviction that he tendant in certain mills at Saco, in Maine, he may be employed in the manufacture 18,539, females 38,927— had been partially robbed several times by Bertrand, presumed to have formed a pretty accurate idea of total employed, 57,466. Since these facts were ascerand at last had been stripped by him of all his earn the process of manufacturing in that country. To tained, both the spinning and weaving of cotton have ings. In a voice husky froin contending emotions, he render the information which he has acquired useful, largely increased. Mr Montgomery mentions that also declared his belief that his own daughter was an he has, at the solicitation of friends, drawn up, and “ the amount of capital invested in manufactures in accomplice in tho crime. A shudder ran through the published in a convenient form, an account of the Massachusetts in 1831 was 12,891,000 dollars ; in 1836 frames of all present at the charge. The solitary life cotton manufacture as practically conducted in Ame- it had increased to 14,369,719 dollars, being nearly of Manon had prevented any one from acquiring a rica.* As this subject must be interesting to a num 12 per cent. in the space of only five years; but alperfect knowledge of her character, but her youth, ber of our readers, we propose to aid Mr Nontgomery lowing the rates of increase since 1831 to be 10 per beauty, and distress, would have moved the coldest in the diffusion of his carefully collected information, cent. all over the Union, the amount of capital now heart to pity. However, Stephen Lenoir reiterated by giving a few condensed details from his volume. invested in the cotton manufacture cannot be less his accusation, and the final issue was, that Bertrand The cotton manufacture in the United States, which than 45,000,000 of dollars, equal to L.9,375,000 sterand Manon were taken into custody, and conducted is now a formidable rival to that of Great Britain, ling, being about a fourth part of the capital invested to prison.
has altogether come into existence since 1790. All in the cotton manufacture of Great Britain." T'he examination of Lenoir brought out the fol- the attempts to introduce it previous to that period Lowell, as we have already mentioned, is the prinlowing statement. The fruits of his savings were were fruitless ; and it was not till a person, skilled in cipal manufacturing town in the United States, or, as kept by him in a small strong box in his work, the prosecution of the art in England, carried his ex it may be called, the Manchester of America. As a shop. Soon after he had taken Bertrand Lafont as perience to the American market, that it began on a place of such importance is peculiarly deserving of his assistant, he had missed a portion of his money. proper or flourishing footing. The individual here notice, we shall extract the following account, which At this he was surprised beyond measure, being unable referred to was Mr Samuel Slater, a young man who is quoted from the Lowell Journal, a weekly newsto conceive in what way it had disappeared. Ho at had been bred under Mr Strutt at Milford, near paper: the very first suspected Bertrand; but on a second Belper, in Derbyshire. First as an apprentice and "The territory of Lowell is about four square miles, robbery taking place, which must have been effected then as a superintendant, both as respects the making and contains upwards of fiftcen thousand inhabitants. between night and morning, he could not but con of machinery and in the manufacturing department, | About cighteen years ago the whole of this was owned clude, that if Bertrand was the plunderer, he must he acquired a complete knowledge of the Arkwright by a few honest farmers, who obtained subsistence for be assisted, as he did not sleep in the house, by one mode of spinning; and when he heard by report that themselves and families by the cultivation of this comwho did sleep there. The idea of Manon being con- the States of North America were offering bounties paratively barren spot, and the fish they caught in cerned, however (Stephen said), had been originally for the introduction of the art, he rosolved on pro- the Merrimack and Concord rivers ; and being situr : rejected by him with horror, until a third robbery by coeding thither, and give the land of his adoption all ated at the confluence of these two rivers, was called pight forced the suspicion strongly upon him. Yet the benefit of his practical knowledge and enlarged Chelmsford Neck, and originally by the Indians, Wa he could not make up his mind to the belief that his experience. He knew that it was impossible to take maset. child would injure him in thought or deed. At length, any patterns or drawings along with him, as the For centuries it lay with its vast resources slumberhis strong box was plundered between night and morn government restrictions were very severe, and the ing in its bosom, unsuspected and unknown. But the ing of all that remained in it; and having discovered custoinhouse officers scrupulously searched every pas- spirit of improvement came, and its touch, like that of on the previous evening that a private correspondence senger for America. Having, however, carefully the magic wand, has turned this secming, wilderness, existed between Manon and Bortrand, he had been studied the whole mechanism of the factory, and fixed not simply into a fruitful field, but into a busy, entordriven to the conviction of the truth. Hence the the remembrance of it in his memory, he baffled this prising, and prosperous city. exposure of the pair. In answer to questions from contemptible restriction; and carrying his designs in In 1819, Kirk Boot, Esq., a wealthy merchant of the magistrate, Stephen stated that the hox had always his head across the Atlantic, he landed at New York Boston, explored this place in the habit of a hunter. been opened without violence, though he had regularly in 1789. Here he met Messrs Almy and Brown, two Ile discovered its resources, and immediately, in comkept the key in security in his bedroom.
individuals who were anxious to secure his services ; pany with several other rich merchants of that city The magistrate admitted that the circumstantial and proceeding to Pawtucket, le immediately coin purchased the land and water privileges. evidence seemed strong against Bertrand and poor menced making machinery, principally with his own
They wore incorporated by the name of the Pro Manon. With what conflicting emotions Stephen hands. Such was his activity, that, on the 20th of prietors of the Locks and Canals on Morrimack river, Lenoir's breast was agitated on that night, when he December 1790, he started three cards, drawing and and commenced operations by digging a canal from returned alone to his home, we shall not attempt to roving, together with seventy-two spindles, entirely the Pawtucket Falls, easterly one mile and a half, describe. Sometimes his wrath and avarice were in upon the Arkwright principle." Never were efforts where it emptied itself into the Concord river. This the ascendant, and at other times be wept bitterly, more signally successful. In fourteen months, Mr canal is sixty feet wide, and carries in depth eight feet and was on the point of rushing out to bring his child Brown informed the secretary of the Treasury that of water. This is their grand canal; lateral branches back to her home, and beseeching her pardon. At machinery and mills conid be erected in one year to
are cut, which carry the water to the several manulength, he felt the necessity of sleop, and thought to supply the whole United States with cotton yarn, and factories, from which it is discharged izto the Merrisecure it by a draught of spirits. He took a large one. thus render its importation unnecessary.
mack or Concord rivers. They then erected a large and in replacing the glass, the tremulous state of his , In 1798, Mr Slater entered into partnership with machine shop, and commenced building machinery. nerves was shown by his allowing it to fall and be some manufacturers (the daughter of one of whom he This company sell out the privileges to manufacturing shivered to pieces. He then went to bed, and slept. had married), under the firm of Samuel Slater and companies, dig the canals, erect the mills, and build It was broad morning when ho awoke to a conscious- Company. He built his second will on the east side the machinery, all ready for being put in operation; ness of what had passed. Slowly and sadly he was in of the Pawtucket river, and was proprietor of one- they do all this cheaper than any other company will the act of rising, when he became conscious of stiff- half the
stock. From this mill preceeded many young do it; and these are the only terms on which they will ness and pain in one of his feet. Throwing off the men skilled in the craft of manufacturing, and hy that sell the privileges. bed-clothes, he belield it covered with clotted blood. means his improvements were widely spread over the
The Locks and Canals Company have a capital of A large wound was the cause. Reflecting with sur country, so that the business has from that time to 600,000 dollars, and employ about 500 workmen in the prise and alarm upon this accident, he remembered the present becn rapidly extending over the United machine shop and otherwise. A part of their lands the fall of the glass. But at that time his foot had States. Mr Slater's business was so prosperous, that has been sold out to individuals at an enorinous adbeen covered by a thick shoe. The shoe was by the about the year 1806 he invited his brother, Mr John
vance on the original price. Land for which they paid bed-side ; he took it up, and found not the slightest Slater, to come to America, and he in all probability 20 or 30 dollars per acre, has been sold again for one mark upon it. Stephen lay back on his couch in brought with him a knowledge of the most recent dollar per square foot: there is still a portion of their thought. Suddenly a strange idea occurred to him. improvements made by English spinners. The now
land on hand unsold.–Kirk Boot, Esq., acted as their He started hurriedly from his bed, and rushed to the Hourishing village of Slatersrillo in Smithfield was agent till his death in 1837. small retired closet whence he had taken the spirits then projected, in wliich Jolin Slater embarked as a Lowell was incorporated in 1824 into a town dison the night before. On the floor of it he saw the partner, and in June of the same year he removed to tinct from Chelmsford, and received its name from broken glass. The largest piece had blood upon it. Smithfield as superintendant of the concern. In the Francis C. Lowell, Esq., who was amongst the first He must have been there in the night, and necessarily spring of 1807 the works were sufficiently adranced
to introduce manufactures in this place. There are in his sleep! Wildly Stephen looked about liim, and for spinning; and up till the present time they have now twenty-seven factories in operation, besides print grasped a board which covered a small recess in the been under the management of that gentleman, in an
works, blcacheries, &c., and there yet remain unoccuwall. The board came away in his hands, and there ur.interrupted state of improvement. About 1814, the pied privileges for
nearly as many more : when these he beheld his hoarded money lying-the stores of rower-loom was added to the process of spinning, by
are taken up, as in all probability they will, they will which he had been deprived ! Well he knew those
means of patterns brought by a Mr Gilmour from then afford means of subsistence to other 20,000 incoins; he required not to count them. “My Manon ! Glaegow, and who was invited by Mr John Slater to habitants, making the whole about 40,000, my innocent Manon !" cried Stephen, striking his Smithfield. Besides niaking and bringing the power
A new canal has been lately cut, which furnishes forehead; “the boy! the guiltless boy! My own base looms into operation, Mr Gilmour introduced the ma
sites for about a dozen mills. A railroad of two and sleepless avarico has been the plunderer of my chine for dressing the warp, and also the hydrostatic tracts has been completed between Boston and Lowell, boards !" picss for pressing and packing cloth. Gilmour, we are
which is found to be of mutual advantage to both Whoever saw and know Stephen Lenoir on that told, was a man nf great mechanical genius, but no- places, but especially to the latter. There is also a morning, as he ruslied through the streets to the glected to turn his talents and opportunities to ac
steam-boat plying between Nashua (another man ufacoffice of the magistracy, believed that they saw a man rendered insane by his misfortunez. But soon the story of tlic somnambulist-who, from an unhappy and
* A Practical Detail of the Cutton Manufacture of the United * This was the namber of inhabitants at the time the articlo
States of America. Glasgow: Julen Niven, Jun.; Whittaker and was written, but according to a late statement in thu same paper diseased passion of avarice, haul actually robbed hiinscle Co, Lundun lii0.
it appears there are now 20,000.
furing place) and Lowell, a distance of fourteen miles, doubt, that, in a few years, they will adopt a more dockyard at Portsmouth, which cansed much miswhich likewise co-operates with the railroad. economical method of getting up their works, a more
chief. It would be tedious to relate the other various The total amount of capital invested for manufac- improved system of general management and con- circumstances under which spontaneous combustion turing purposes at Lowell, was, at the beginning of ducting of the various processes, which will enable will take place, such as with hay, corn, flax, cotton, 1839, about 9,000,000 dollars, equal to L.1,875,000 ster- them, even in the finer goods, to compete successfully wool, turf, flour, saffron, and other vegetable subling.” There are ten incorporated companies in the with the British.”
stances; rags, oatmeal, charcoal ; woollen cloth and place: one company has a large machine shop for In conclusion, it may be learnt from these observa- cotton goods; roasted coffee and chocolate ; bales of making machinery for the cotton and woollen manu- tions, were other evidence wanting, that the British woollen yarn or cloth, waste cotton or rags used in factures, railroad cars, engines, &c.; they employ cotton manufacture is but barely pre-eminent over cleaning oil, paint, floor-cloth, pyrites, coal, &c., al. in general upwards of 500 hands. Company No. 2 that of the Americans; and were the latter a little though the subject is one of considerable importance (we purposely omit names) have five large cotton more skilful and exact in a few points, they would at in our domestic security. mills, besides print works ; they run 37,984 throstle once, from being able to buy the raw material cheaper, My object in this communication is to suggest to spindles, work 1300 power-looms, and give employment become powerful competitors with the British. That your lordship the desirableness of making the subject to 1300 fernales and 637 males; they make upon an they will ultimately attain the nicety in execution, of I have referred to one of more general attention, and average 220,000 yards of cloth per week, and use about which they at present fall short, there can be no that, in order to prevent the so frequent recurrence 60,000 lbs. of cotton in the same time. Company 3 have doubt ; but when
this may happen is a question of of evils the most lamentable in our social and domesa large printing establishment and three cotton mills; difficult solution, for it might be retarded to an indefi- tic economy, it would be extremely desirable that a they run 20,992 throstle spindles, 564 looms, employ nite period by the Americans finding a large and pro- code of cautions should be drawn up, explaining che830 females and 230 males, make about 100,000 yards fitable outlet to their agricultural produce, thereby mically the circumstances under which a fire may of cloth, and use about 40,000 lbs. of cotton, weekly, throwing their capital into more remunerative chan- take place, and which no ordinary caution can preCompany 4 have two cotton mills; they run about nels, and raising the wages of their labourers. At vent, whether in manufactories, public establishments, 11,776 throstle spindles, 380 looms, employ 470 females present, as it is, the American mill-spinners can with or even private houses." and 65 males, make about 100,000 yards of cloth, and difficulty keep up an efficient staff of skilled hands, in use 40,000 lbs. of cotton, weekly. Company 5 have one consequence of the temptation of high wages among cotton and one carpet manufactory; they run 5000 the agriculturists; and it appears to us that Great
THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT throstle spindles, besides those used in the woollen Britain could not inflict a more deadly blow on the
IN IRELAND. manufacture, 154 cotton and 70 carpet looms, employ growing strength of the manufactures of America, 400 females and 200 males, make 2500 yards of carpet- than inviting the exportation
of agricultural produce A GENTLEMAN of our city, high in legal function and ing, 150 rugs, and 60,000 yards of cotton cloth “per from that country. This, however, involves specu- in public respect, who lately made a tour in Ireland, week. Company 6 have two cotton mills, run 11,264 lations on which we have no wish to enter.
has recalled our attention to the Temperance Movethrostlo spindles, 352 looms, employ 460 females and 70 inales, and make 90,000 yards of cloth weekly.
ment in that country,* by sending to us a variety of Company 7 hare two mills, run 11,520 throstle spindles,
recent documents connected with the subject, which 404 looms, employ 460 females and 70 males, and make
he had been at the pains to collect for our use. He 125,800 yards of cloth weekly. Company & have five WITHIN these few years it has been satisfactorily says, in a letter accompanying the enclosure, “ Depend extensive factories and a bleachery, run 31,000 throstle ascertained that fires occasionally occur from sponta- on it, the change in Ireland at present is most visible spindles, 910 looms, employ 1250 females and 200 neous ignition-certain substances lying in a compact and important. In travelling through the country, I males, and make about 200,000 yards of cloth weekly.
mass burst into a flame without any one at the time only once saw a person drunk on the roads; and the Company 9 manufacture broad cloths and cassimeres, and have two mills and a dye-house; they make 6300 expecting such a catastrophe, and thus a serious con- state of the jails which I visited, in the districts foryards of cassimere and 1800 yards of broad cloth flagration is originated, greatly to the surprise of all merly most disturbed, abundantly attests the reality weekly. Company 10 have four large elegant factories, concerned. Several distressing burnings of ships at of the changed habits and improved morals and concontaining 29,248 throstle spindles and 830 looms in
sea (generally when cotton formed the cargo), have dition of the people. In Clonmell (county town of operation; they employ 950 females and 120 males, and turn out 185,000 yards of cloth weekly. Besides lately taken place from this cause. Mr Abraham Tipperary) the average number of prisoners in forner these principal establishments, may be added an ex
Booth, lecturer on chemistry, Hackney, has written a years was 500, now there are only 320 ; in Cork the tensive powder mill, bleachery, flannel mills, cord and letter to the Lord Mayor of London, drawing his numbers are reduced from 700 to 400. These facts grist, and saw mills, glass works, and a foundry. The the sake of giving publicity to Mr Booth's intelligent tion in Cork for six years, although the population of whip factory, planing machine, reed machine, flour, lordship’s attention to this important subject ; and for speak for themselves. There has not been an execufirst company above mentioned can furnish complete explanations respecting the spontaneous combustion the county exceeds 800,000." We feel that there is machinery
for a mill containing 5000 throstle spindles, of bodies, we extract the following passages from his something very arresting in the testimony of our corwith wearing in proportion, in four months. We might abridge accounts of various other manu
communication :facturing towns and villages in the States; but we “ Permit me to draw your attention to a series of respondent; and it is supported from other quarters. think the foregoing presents a fair specimen of the circumstances which, in my view, are the causes of The following is from the new work on Ireland by Mr
and Mrs S. C. Hall :whole. It appears that the agent of power is almost many fires, for the origin of which no adequate cause universally water; but to what extent this proves a can be assigned ; I allude to the phenomena of spon
“ In reference to the extent to which sobriety has saving is not shown by the author. Probably it is of taneous combustion. This subject is now attended spread, it will be almost sufficient to state, that during little moment, in comparison with other items. The with greater interest, from its having been proved our recent stay in Ireland, from the 10th of June to details which Mr Montgomery presents respecting that the conflagration which caused the destruction of the 6th of September 1840, we saw but six persons the nature of the machinery employed, and charges her Majesty's Ship Talavera, at Devonport, was owing intoxicated; and that for the first thirty days we had of various kinds, in Great Britain and America, to this circumstance. My attention was more particompose the bulk of the volume ; but being purely cularly called to the subject of spontaneous combus- not encountered one. In the course of that month technical, any notice of them here would be out of tion in 1829, from the circumstance of the execution we had travelled from Cork to Killarney-round the place. After giving a vast amount of information on of a young man named James Butler, who was con coast; returning by the inland route, not along mailthese points, he arrives at the following generalised victed on a charge of setting fire to a floor-cloth coach roads, but on a "jaunting-car,' through byways summary :
manufactory. After his execution I became ac“The amount of goods produced is much greater in quainted with the details, and, after most closely and
as well as highways ; visiting small villages and popuAmerica than in Great Britain ; but the hours of labour carefully investigating the subject, came to the con- | lous towns, driving through fairs, attending wakes are somewhat longer in the former than in the latter clusion that he was an innocent victim of the law-in and funerals (returning from one of which, between country. The cost of the buildings, machinery, &c., is a which view I was supported by my friend the late Dr Glengariff and Kenmare, at nightfall, we met at least great deal higher in America than in Britain, as well Gordon Smith, then professor of medical jurispru- a hundred substantial farmers, mounted); in short, as the general rate of wages, particularly in the card- dence at London University College, Dr Birkbeck, wherever crowds were assembled, and we considered ing department. After comparing the advantages and several other scientific men. and disadvantages of each, it appears that the British In a letter to a public journal about that time, I it likely we might gather information as to the state manufacturer can produce his goods at least 19 per drew attention to the variety of circumstances under of the country and the character of its people. We cent. cheaper than the American. This, however, is which spontaneous combustion would take place (in repeat, we did not meet a single individual who apmore than neutralised by the cheaper rate at which all about forty instances); and I then felt that my peared to have tasted spirits ; and we do not hesitate the latter can purchase his cotton. The circumstance researches and remarks might be of some benefit to of America being a cotton-growing country, will al- the community, from the circumstance that they were
to express our conviction, that two years ago, in the ways give to her manufacturers advantages of which printed and suspended on boards, as cautions against same places and during the same time, we should have the British cannot generally avail themselves. fire, in the different dockyards and other public esta- encountered many thousand drunken men. From first
In every description of goods in which the cost of blishments in the kingdom. Whether this reasonable to last, we employed, perhaps, fifty car-drivers; we the raw material exceeds the cost of production, the precaution is now withheld, I know not. American manufacturers have a decided advantage The cases under which spontaneous combustion of
never found one to accept a drink; the boatmen of over the British. And they have availed themselves animal and vegetable substances will take place, are
Killarney, proverbial for drunkenness, insubordination, of this advantage to improve the quality of their such as no ordinary sagacity can foresee, nor pru- and recklessness of life, declined the whisky we had goods; as any person who has had an opportunity of dence prevent. In the official reported list of fires, taken with us for the bugle-player, who was not comparing the domestics manufactured in the two the majority of causes are unknown, whilst another pledged,' and after hours of hard labour, dipped a can countries, can have no hesitation in giving the pre- large portion are only conjectural. The science of into the lake and refreshed themselves from its waters. ference to those manufactured in America ; and the chemistry may, however, advantageously lend its aid; It was amusing as well as gratifying to hear their new experience of overy British manufacturer engaged and some of its investigations on the subject have in producing this description of goods has painfully been matters of high interest. The most memorable reading of the address to the famous echo— Paddy convinced him, that the superior quality of tho Ame- instance on record is that of a series of fires which Blake, plase yer honour, the gintleman promises ye rican goods is gradually driving him from every fo- took place at St Petersburg in 1780 and 1781, when some coffee whin ve get home;' and on the Blackwater, reign market. On this subject Mr William Gemmella frigate, with several other vessels and houses, were of Glasgow states in his affidavit (as given in Mr destroyed, supposed to have been the work
of an in: into shore, midway between Youghal and Lismore, to
a muddy river, as its name denotes, our boat's crew put Graham's pamphlet on ‘The impolicy of the Tax on cendiary. A scientific commission was appointed by Cotton Wool'), that although he was for several the Russian government to inquire into the subject, visit a clear spring, with the whereabouts of which they years in the habit of supplying Chili with cotton do- who found that the self-enkindling substances were were familiar. The whisky-shops are closed or conmestics, he has latterly been obliged to abandon the charcoal and hemp, oil. In 1757, the royal dockyard verted into coffee-houses; the distilleries have, for the trade, in consequence of being unable to compete with at Brest was nearly destroyed by spontaneous com
most part, ceased to work; and the breweries are the manufacturers of the United States.
bustion taking place in the rope-yard ; when some Hitherto the British have enjoyed a monopoly in of the old workmen declared that the same thing had barely able to maintain a trade sufficient to prevent the manufacture of fine goods ; but the resources of happened some years ago, but that, conceiving it im- entire stoppage. Of the extent of the change, therethe Americans will very soon enable them to compete possible for the bales to take fire of themselves, they fore, we have had ample experience; and it is borne successfully even in these. No people in the world had concealed the accident, for fear of being taxed are more enterprising, none more ready to pick up with negligence, and punished accordingly. On * Some account of this extraordinary movement was presented and avail tl: mselves of every improvement by which Thursday, July 3, 1760, a fire, from spontaneous in No. 431, published in Blay last, being an extract from Tait's their interest is to be advanced; and there is no combustion, broke out in tho rope-yard of the royal Edinburgh Magazine.
out by the assurances of so many who live in towns as force; outside these were the rifles, on bended knees, on the ensuing morning, early, I found this poor woman well as in the country, that we can have no hesitation with tayonets fixed and pointed, forming a barrier to at my door; she was a poor water-carrier; she cried in describing sobriety' to be alınost universal through- oppose the rushing multitudes ; whilst within and with bitterly, and said, I have not slept one wink all night out Ireland."
out this barrier, to keep the passages clear, the cavalry, for parting with that child which God had put in my Mr and Mrs IIall speak hopefully of the continu-'in all the pomp and circumstance of glorious war,' way, and if you will give me leave, I will take him ance of the reformation, mentioning that there is now with flags waving to the winds, moved up and down in back again. I was filled with confusion at the pious something disreputable in being a drunkard, and that slow and measured pace. Beyond, and as far along the tenderness of this poor creature, and I went with her there is a general sense of the advantages flowing from streets as the eye could reach, were the congregated to the parish nurse for the infant, which she brought temperance. They also give their valuable testimony masses, swaying to and fro with every new impulse, to her home with joy, exclaiming, in the very words of (being conservatives both in politics and religion) to and by their united voices producing a deep indistinct the prophet— Poor child, though thy mother has forthe absolute groundlessness of the idea that any danger sound, like the murmur of the ruffled waters of the sea. gotten thee, I will not forget thee! Eight years to the state lurks in this moral reformation-an idea Within the vicarial residence, and in strong contrast have elapsed since she brought to her humble home so gross and so ridiculous, that we should not, for our to the stirring scene without, sat the mild, unassuming, that exposed infant, and she is now blind from the own part, have thought of alluding to it, if we had not but extraordinary man, round whom had collected constant exposure to wet and cold; and ten times found it noticed by these esteemed writers. Amongst this display of martial pomp and numerical force." a-day may be seen that poor water-carrier passing other interesting facts, they narrate the following S From Borrisokane, where he arrived unexpectedly, he with her weary load, led by this little foundling boy.
“We entered one day a cottage in a suburb of Cork: designed to proceed as soon as he had inducted the Oh, merciful Jesus, I would gladly sacrifice the wealth a woman was knitting stockings at the door ; it was few people of the place. The news, however, of his and power of this wide world, to secure to myself the as neat and comfortable as any in the most prosperous being there spread in the country around. Multitudes glorious welcome that awaits this blind waterdistricts of England. We tell her brief story in her threw aside the implements of their labour, and hur-carrier on the great accounting day! Oh, what, own words, as nearly as we can recall them. My hus- ried to the town to enlist themselves under his banner. compared to charity like this, the ermined robe, the band is a wheelwright, and always earned his guinea As cach group was dispatched, he prepared to hurry ivory sceptre, the golden throne, the jewelled diadem !" a-week: he was a good workman, and neither a bad away; but still another approached. “Fatigued and The collection at this sermon amounted to the extraman nor a bad husband; but the love for the drink breathless, men, women, and children hurried forward ordinary sum of L.350. was strong in him, and it wasn't often he brought me indiscriminately to take the pledge. Mr Mathew Mr Mathew appeared every
day during the ensuing home more than five shillings out of his one-pound could not bring himself to disappoint such eagerness week in the space behind the Customhouse, to receive one on a Saturday night; and it broke my heart to or damp such ardour. He was consequently obliged converts from intemperance. Notwithstanding bad see the poor childre too ragged to send to school, to to remain; and standing on a stone seat under a vene weather, there was a large and enthusiastic attendance, say nothing of the starved look they had out of the rable ash tree-now more venerable than ever-he and about seventy thousand took the pledge, “ amongst little I could give them. Well, God be praised, he received in this small town, without any previous whom were persons of different religious persuasions, took the pledge; and the next Saturday he laid notice having been given, seven or eight thousand of every age and every rank, and a considerable number twenty-one shillings upon the chair you sit upon. Oh! souls."
of the city constabulary and the military then stationed didn't I give thanks on my bended knees that night! Mr Birmingham speaks strongly of the mild and in Dublin.” Still, I was fearful it wouldn't last, and I spent no affectionate character of this singular man. Amongst A twelvemonth ago, Mr Mathew did not dream of more than the five shillings I was used to, saying to those who came before him at Borrisokane, was one ever moving beyond his own pastoral bounds ; but, myself, Maybe the money will be more wanted than Paddy Hayes, a man noted for intemperance, his being induced to go to Limerick, and finding success it is now. Well, the next week he brought me the drunken moments greatly exceeding his moments of there, he was tempted to visit other places, till at same, and the next, and the next, until eight weeks soberness. “I intimated this man's approach to Mr length, during this year, he might be considered as, passed; and, glory be to God! there was no change Mathew. In a moment the advocate of temperance for the time at least, an itinerant advocate of the cause. for the bad in my husband; and all the while he never ordered a passage to be cleared, and Paddy Hayes to His course througl' Ireland has every where been atasked me why there was nothing better for him out of be admitted. With a smile in which benignity and tended by the same moral phenomena—an almost unilis hard earnings : 80 I felt there was no fear of him; confidence were mingled, he extended his hand to the versal prostration of the Catholic people in his path, and the ninth week when he came home to me, I had penitent drunkard, saying—'Come forward, my poor to signify before him their resolution henceforward to this table bought, and these six chairs, one for myself, fellow, you are worth waiting for. The postulant live a sober life. We find him, in September, at four for the children, and one for himself. And I was cast himself on his knees, with a 'Heavens bless you, Sandyford near Dublin, speaking of having then added dressed in a new gown, and the children all had new Father Mathew,' took the pledge, and received the two and a half millions to the Cork Total Abstinence clothes and shoes and stockings, and upon his own blessing. This man is now an industrious and exem- Society !-and these every where remarked as the most chair I put a bran-new suit; and upon his plate I put plary character.”
moral and peaceable of the community. On this octhe bill and resate for them all—just the eight sixteen At Nenagh, there was the usual parade of military casion, he inade some remarks on the consequences shillings they cost that I'd saved out of his wages, not force to ensure order. “With the sound of trumpet
, which naturally arise from an application of money knowing what might happen, and that always before each batch was admitted through a street or lane into to the production of real instead of delusive comforts. went for drink. And he cried, good lady and good an open area, where having taken the pledge, they The people, he said, in the parishes where the society gentleman--he cried like a babby; but 'twas with withdrew by another way, and were succeeded by a had existed for two years, were astonished at the inthanks to God: and now where's the healthier man fresh batch of applicants. On the day of Mr Mathew's crease of their wealth. “The men have always somethan my husband in the county Cork, or a happier ministry in Nenagh, about twenty thousand persons thing to clothe their children, and to make their wives wife than myself, or dacenter or better-fed children ranged themselves under the peaceful standard of tem- happy, and they have always, besides, a little to put than our own
four! It is most unlikely that such a perance.” At Galway, where he soon after preached, into the savings' bank. When I now travel through family will again sink into poverty and wretchedness.” | his labours in administering the pledge were much the country on Saturday evening, I am quite proud
The documents forwarded by our correspondent obstructed, notwithstanding all efforts to the contrary, to see the working man walking home quietly from are chiefly placards, issued by humble advocates of by the ungovernable impatience of the countless posa market, with his basket or handkerchief under his the cause, for the purpose of keeping up the feeling tulants. They could scarcely be restrained from using arm, containing bread, and tea and sugar, for the use in its behalf. Though rude in form and style, and towards him what might be called a holy violence. of his family at home, instead of returning, as he foroften sadly illogical, they breathe the spirit of enthu- Notwithstanding these disorders, he here received merly did, in a fit of beastly intoxication, with his big siasm, and we have no doubt must conduce to the about a hundred thousand converts in two days! In stick' in his hand, ready to lay it on every person he object in view. One is in the form of a dialogue be a progress which he made from Galway, by Loughrea, met, or on his wife and children when he got home. tween a teetotaller and a publican, the latter of whom Portumna, Borrisokane, and Roscrea, the neighbour- The people are, besides, no longer afraid of the magisis beaten out of all his objections to the cause in granding population might be said to pour themselves en trates and the police, and they now look upon them style. Another contains a song evidently designed as masse upon his way. The towns were in succession as their friends and protectors, instead of their peran imitation of the well-known one of “St Patrick;" filled with vast multitudes waiting to be received by secutors. When a policeman will now enter any of the following are the two concluding stanzas : him, and already proving the steadfastness of their your dwellings in search of a culprit, you will have “ How long these man-traps* kept it up
intentions, by abstaining from liquor and from every only to say • I am a teetotaller,' and he will at once To rob us of our money,
kind of excitement. In two days, he administered wish you good morning, and go in search of the offender With-Paddy, take another sup,
the pledge to eighty thousand persons in the barrack- elsewhere.” "Twill do you good, my honey.'
yard of Loughrea. As many more received it in At a previous visit to Dublin (in June), he was reNo, Mr Malt, I hate your hog-wash, I now have got my senses ;
the course of his journey between Galway and Port- ceived with great honour at the seminary of Maynooth. Keep you your poison-I'll keep my cash
umna, at which last place the number was thirty For thirty miles round, the people flocked to that little For family expenses.'
thousand. On all these occasions, “ he admonished town, to make sacrifice of their former habits in his Success to Reverend Father Matt,
the people on the nature of the promise they were presence.. “ The chariot, the gig, the jaunt, the dray, We'll give him all his merit;
about to make, and the inviolability with which it the humble donkey-car, and the couch of sickness, atHe's done much more than old St Pat-..
should be observed. He said to them that, when cast- tested the universality of the movement. In the imHe's banish'd the evil spirit ! We'll drink his health in water clear,
ing off the yoke of intemperance, they should also mense multitude, not one man was intoxicated, not In tea and coffee, civil;
abandon every other vice, such as rioting, faction. one word of anger or levity was heard ; and though But as for whisky, ale, and boer,
fighting, private combinations, illegal oaths, taking of infants, cripples, and infirm old people, were wedged They may go,' &c.
fire-arms, serving threatening notices,&c. He exhorted together in dense confusion, not one accident occurred. The placard, of which this song forms the conclu- with all, to observe the laws of God and man, and to racles, and a sense of awful and imposing solemnity.
them to forget religious animosities, to live in peace all was deep devotion, faith sufficient to work mision, is headed with the words “SOLEMN Facts,” in respect the powers that be, not from fear, but for con- The gentry as well as the poor, the priesthood a s well large letters! science' sake.”
as the people, knelt before him in humility, with bared Å “Life of Mr Mathew," + by the Rev. Mr Birming- These events occurred so lately as last March. At heads, under the canopy of heaven.” In about twelve ham, a brother of the same priesthood, supplies some the close of the month, he arrived in Dublin, in order hours, 35,000 had taken the pledge on the streets. particulars of the late proceedings of the Apostle of to preach a sermon in behalf of a female orphan insti- Eight professors in the college, and 250 students, joined Temperance. In external features they have been tution. The whole of the tickets of admission to a the society on this occasion. The scene at their insufficiently remarkable. The public is generally aware church capable of containing six thousand persons duction in the great hall is described as having been that the movement for the first time attracted notice in August 1839, till which time Mr Mathew had con- filled the neighbouring streets during the whole time were engaged two days beforehand. Vast multitudes grand and impressive in an extraordinary degree.f
Such are the last accounts we have of the proceedfined luis exertions to Cork. In December he visited of the sermon. As he pronounced the text, “Whence ings of Father Mathew. There can be no doubt, we Limerick, where thousands upon thousands of the coun- shall we buy bread that these may eat,” he looked think, that he has succeeded in spreading a great moral try people assembled to pay their vows of abstinence down affectionately on the orphans ranged beneath epidemic through his native country. The whole before him. The streets became so densely crowded him. The sermon contained many passages of the symptoms, including the eagerness manifested in many on this occasion, that several of the Scots Greys were purest eloquence. “If I were to pause,” said he, “ to instances to be touched by him for disease, lead to this lifted horse and man from the ground, and many enumerate but the hundredth part of the many gene- conclusion. It naturally seems strange that, where persons, eager to approach the reverend father, ran, for rous deeds of mercy performed even by the poorest of many zealous men formerly succeeded with difficulty that purpose, “quietly and securely on the heads and the poor, of which I myself have been witness, I in converting tens or twenties to temperance, this man shoulders of the vast assemblage.” A scene which soon would occupy the whole of the time which this dis should in a single day bring his twenty or forty thouafter took place at Parsonstown was not less striking course should last. Permit me, however, to state one sand into the fold, and seem to require nothing but "In front of the chapel was stationed a large body simple case of facts:-A poor woman found in the time and continued health and strength, to reform a of police, presenting a very fine and well-disciplined streets a male infant, which she brought to me, and whole nation. But this wonder is entirely owing to
asked imploringly what she was to do with it.' In
fluenced, unhappily, by cold caution, I advised her to * Supplement to Weekly Freeman's Journal, September á, 1840 + Dublin, Milliken and Son; London, Longman and Co. 1840. I give it to the churchwardens. It was then evening; + Tribute to Father Mathew, 4 pages.
the limited ideas we as yet have of MORAL INFLUENCE. frenzy, to call it so, which Father Mathew has ex den which Louis-Philip now bears is more oppressive Exalted sentiments of benevolence, unmixed by a single cited, will remain in a goodly twilight state at least, than the weight which the Duke of Orleans carried particle of sordidness and selfishness, and conjoined during the future times of Ireland.
through the forest and over the hills of the Susquewith fair intellectual endowments and the gift of fluent
hannah. From Tioga, the party descended the river oratory, form a power compared with which all others sink into insignificance. Men have all of them sor
LOUIS-PHILIP-HIS LIFE AND
in a boat to Wilkesharre, and thence they crossed the
country to Philadelphia. rows to be sympathised with, aspirations to be directed
I have found in a French publication a letter dated and encouraged, consciousnoss of error to be awakened
from Philadelphia, the 14th of August 1797, written and stimulated into good resolution : when the man Ar the termination of the previous paper, we left the by the Duke de Montpensier to his sister, the Princess possessing the above power comes before his fellows Duke of Orleans and his two younger brothers pur- Adelaide of Orleans, in which he describes the inciand addresses them on these points, not merely by the suing a journey of difficulty and danger through the dents and impressions of this journey. Having ascorwords of his mouth, but by the example of his own western wilds of the United States, and we now con tained from the proper quarter that this letter is a conduct, and by well-timed allusions to the things tinue the narrative of their adventures.
genuine oro, I have thought that an extract from it which form their religious faith, the effect is over At Chilocothe, the duke found a public house kept would not be unacceptable ; and here it follows: powering; Theobald Mathew seems one of those rare by a Mr M'Donald, a name well krown to the early “I hope you received the letter which we wrote individuals whom nature has qualified to work such settlers of that place; and he was a witness of a scene you from Pittsburg two months since. We were wonders. We are told that, ever since his becom- which the progress of morals and manners has since then in the midst of a great journcy, that we finished ing a clergyman, he has devoted himself to tasks of rendered a rare one in that place, or, indeed, through fifteen days ago. It took us four months. We trabenevolence for his flock. Not only did he show that out the well-regulated state of Ohio. Ile saw a fight / velled, during that time, a thousand leagues, and untiring zeal, for which the humble Catholic clergy between the landlord and some one who frequented always upon the same horses, except the last hundred are remarkable, in visiting the sick and comforting his house, in which the former would have suffered, if I leaguos, which we performed partly by water, partly the afflicted, but he entered into the temporal con- the duke had not interfored to separate the com on foot, partly upon hired horses, and partly by the cerns of his people, was noted for his willingness to batants. The second in command, who distinguished stage, or public conveyance. We have seen many become the executor of wills in behalf of widows and himself at the battles of Fleurus and Jemappes, per- Indians, and we reinained several days in their orphans, and was resorted to on all hands as an arbiter formed, in the ancient capital of the north-western ter country. They received us with great kindness, and in disputes of every kind. His charities were far be- ritory, the office of mediator between two rival powers ! our national character contributed not a little to this yond his means. He also acquired fame for a magni At Zanesville the party found the comfortable cabin good reception, for they love the French. After ficent church which he built, and for obtaining a of Mr MʻIntyre, whose name has been preserved in them, we found the Falls of Niagara, which I wroto burial-ground for the Catholic inhabitants of Cork. the king's memory, and whose house was a favourite you from Pittsburg we were about to visit, the most It is evident that the veneration to which these acts place of rest and refreshıment for all the travellers who interesting object upon our journey. It is the most had entitled him, would give him a great advantage at this early period were compelled to traverse that surprising and majestic spectacle I have ever seen. in addressing the people on the subject of a vice which part of the country. At Pittsburg the travellers It is a hundred and thirty-seven (French) feet high; they could not but be sensible was inost detrimental rested several days, and formed an acquaintance with and the volume of water is immense, since it is the to all their best interests. The penetratior of a supe some of the inhabitants, and particularly with General whole river St Lawrence which precipitates itself at rior understanding gave him other advantages. Former Neville, so well known for his respectability and this place. I have taken a sketch of it, and I intend temperance preachers had caused their converts to sign amiable qualities. They met there Mr Brackenridge, to paint a gouache from it, which my dear little sister the pledge. He saw that this was a dilatory process, afterwards Judge Brackenridge, whose peculiar cha: will certainly see at our tender mother's ; but it is inconsistent with great results. He adopted the mode racteristics were equally visible in his rambling satire not yet commenced, and will take me much time, for of repeating the pledge before a great number at once, called “Modern Chivalry,” and in his personal eccen- truly it is no small work. who all said it after him : thus he obtained for his tricities, both as a lawyer and a magistrate ; but To give you an idea of the agreeable manner in cause the benefit of that mutual support and mutual withal a man of genius, of unquestioned probity, and which they travel in this country, I will tell you, my fomentation which attends the bringing together of of much intelligence.
dear sister, that we passed fourteen nights in the great multitudes entertaining a common object. In From Pittsburg the party travelled to Erie, and woods, devoured by all kinds of insects, aiter being the very form of his pledge there was something em- thence down the lake shore to Buffalo. At Catta wet to the bone, without being able to dry ourselves; phatic and impressive — I promise, with the Divine raugus, they found a band of Seneca Indians, to and eating pork, and sometimes a little salt beef, and assistance, as long as I shall continue a member of the whom they were indebted for a night's hospitality; corn bread.” Total Temperance Society, to abstain from all intoxi- for there were then few habitations but Indian wig On their return to Philadelphia, the brothers found cating drinks, except for medicinal and sacramental wams upon the borders of our internal seas, and still their finances so exhausted, that they could not quit purposes ; and to prevent, as much as possible, by fewer vessels, except birch canoes, which sailed over the city during the prevalence of the yellow fever. advice and example, drunkenness in others.” When their waves. Among this band was an old woman, But their mother having recovered a part of the prothis has been said by the crowd of postulants, he ex taken prisoner many a long year before, and now perty of the family, hastened to send them the necestends his hand over them, and pronounces a short habituated to her fate, and contented with it. She sary resources ; and in Septesnber they, undertook prayer — May God Almighty bless you, and grant was a native of Germany, and yet retained some re another cxcursion, which this time led them to the you strength and grace to keep this promise!" Then collection of her native language and country; and eastern part of the United States. They proceeded ho deseends from his place, and signs each kneeling the faint, though still abiding, feeling which con- to New York, and thence by the Sound to Providence votary with the cross, in which sign alone, he adds, nected her present with her past condition, led her to and Boston. In this metropolis of New England can they hope to persevere and conquer. It may take an interest in the three young strangers who they remained some time, greatly satisfied with the easily be imagined that the first successes which Mr talked to her in that language and of that country, hospitality and kindness of the inhabitants. LouisMathew gained by these means would be followed by and she exerted herself to render their short residence Philip yet speaks of General Knox, Colonel Pickering, greater and greater, until, even in his own limited among her friends as comfortable as possible. The Mr Otis, and others, whom he met here. They condistrict, something like supernatural influence would chief assured the travellers that he would be person- tinued their journey by the way of Newburyport and be attributed to him. This notion once established ally responsible for every article they might intrust Portsmouth, to Portland ; and from this last place amongst a people notedly excitable, and universally to his care ; but that he would not answer for his they returned to Boston, and thenco took the route under strong religious feeling, it is easy to see how his people unless this precaution was used. Accordingly, by Hartford, New Haven, and New London, to New simple bodily presence in any district would be suffi
. every thing was deposited with the chief, saddles, York. Governor Clinton, Judge Jay, Colonel Burr; cient to prepare the inhabitants for abandoning bridles, blankets, clothes, and money; all which being and Colonel Hamilton, appear to have been well drunkenness. The first steps are in this, as in most faithfully produced in the morning, the day's journey known to Louis-Philip. other cases, difficult; but when a certain power has was commenced. But the party had not proceeded far While at New York, the brothers learned from the been attained, it can be easily exercised. Portumna upon their route, when they missed a favourite dog, public
papers that a new law had just decreed the sinks before the influence which has already reduced which they had 'not supposed to be included in the expulsion of all the members of the Bourbon family Loughrea; and, after Portumna has fallen, Roscrea list of contraband articles, requiring a deposit in this yet remaining in France from that country; and that can no more hold out, than it could have resisted the aboriginal custom-house, and had therefore left it at their mother had been deported to Spain. Their troops, of General Ginkle after the surrender of liberty. He was a singularly beautiful animal ; and object was now to join her ; but, owing to their pecu; Limorick, Where a conversion has beon so sudden, and con
having been the companion in imprisonment of the liar circumstances, and to the war between England ducted in so wholesale a fashion, doubts naturally arise
two younger brothers at the Castle of St Jean, they and Spain, this object was not easily attained. To
were much attached to him. The duke immediately avoid the French cruisers upon the coast, they deteras to its permanency. On this point we shall adduce returned to seek and reclaim the dog, and the chief, mined to repair to New Orlcans, and there to find a the evidence of Mr Birmingham. During the two without the slightest embarrassment, said to him, in conveyance for Havana, whence they thought they years that the society had existed up to Xpril last, answer to his representations, “ If you had intrusted could reach the mother country; They set out, there" few, very few - I might say none, comparatively the dog to me last night, he would have been ready fore, for Pittsburg on the 10th of December 1797 ; speaking-havo violated the pledge ; and these, for the for you this morning, but we will find him." And and upon the road, fatigued with travelling on horsemost part, touched with sorrow and remorse, have re- he inmediately went to a kind of closet, shut in by a back, they purchased a waggon, and, harnessing their turned to renew their promise. Our people,” he adds, board ; and on bis removing this, the faithful animal horses to it, and placing their luggage within, they "have never been known to swerve on matters re- leaped out upon his masters. The travellers pursued continued their route more comfortably. They arrived garding general religious discipline or doctrine, and their way to Buffalo, and there crossed to Fort Erie, at Carlislo on Saturday, when the inhabitants of the thoy look upon their pledge as a religious engagement, and then repaired to the Fall of Niagara on the Cana? neighbouring country appeared to have entered the in the observance of which they believe their honour, dian side, the state of the country on tho American town for some purpose of business or pleasure, and their national character, and (the good of their souls side intercepting all direct communication between drove up to a public-house, near which was a trough to be deeply involved. Again, the multitudes will Buffalo and the cataract.'
for the reception of the oats which travellers might sustain each other by their example. Experience, also, has made them taste the bitter fruits of intemperance through a country almost in a state of nature, and by into the stable. A quantity of oats was procured by
From Buffalo they proceeded to Canandaigna, be disposed to give their horses, without putting them it will now make them feel and appreciate the com- paths, rather than roads, which to this day seem to the party, and poured into the trough ; and the bits forts, the happiness of temporance; and this will be furnish Louis-Philip with his beau ideal of all that is wero taken from the horses' mouths, to enable them another powerful ir ducement to their perseverance." marshy and difficult, and even dangerous, in travel to eat freely. The duke took his position in the We are not sufficiently sanguine to hazard a predic- ling. In one of the worst parts of this worst of roads, waggon, looking round him ; when the horses being tion on this point, but of course hope the best, and they met Mr Alexander Baring, the present Lord Ash- suddenly friglıtened, ran away with the waggon, which, feel in the mean time able to say that the history of burton, whom the duke had known at Philadelphia, passing over a stump, was upset and broken. The " revivals” is not unfavourable to the prospect of the where he had married a daughter of Mr Bingham. duke was thrown out, and somewhat injured. In early reform being permanent, at least to a considerable They now continued their route to Geneva, where life, he bad luckily becn taught a little of every thing ; extent. Of the five hundred persons at the Kirk of they procured a boat and einbarked upon the Seneca and, among other acquirements, he was able to open Shotts in Scotland, and the thousand at a particular Lake, which they ascended to its head ; and from here place in the north of Ireland, whom the celebrated they made their way to Tioga Point, upon the Sus
a vein quite surgically. Lo is said to carry a lancet
with himn in all his excursions, and an incident of John Livingstone converted respectively by a single quehannalı-each of the travellers carrying his bag- recent occurrence shows that this precaution is a wise sertoon, it is on record that many continued all their gage, for the last twenty-five miles, upon his back. and humane one. days under steadfast religious impressions. The same The load was no doubt heavy, and the task laborious, Louis-Philip immediately perceived that his situafact was remarked with regard to the Cambuslang but I am strongly inclined to beliove, that the buro tion required he should be bled ; and making his way, converts of the succeeding century, and indeed of almost overy other set of persons brought under reli
as hc best could, to the tarern, he requested perinisgious convictions in similar circumstances. We can
sion of the landlord to perform the operation in his
house, and to be furnished with linen and water. The
* It is pecessary to remind the reader that the bulk of this