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1839 was 22,383, other articles of produce being in of job-work, by an invalid negro, who during slavery ficent stream being of equal fertility, the free bank proportion. That,” says he, " in the sixth year of had been given up to total inaction. This was the (it is said) blooms with prosperity, while the slave freedom, after the fair trial of five years, the exports substance of our conversation; the information was bank presents the evident symptoms of neglect and of sugar from Antigua almost doubled the average of afterwards fully confirmed by the proprietor. Such decay." the last five years of slavery, is a fact which precludes was the fresh blood infused into the veins of this de- Fourth—The comforts and happiness of the free the necessity of all other evidence. By what hands crepid person by the genial hand of freedom, that he negroes are immeasurably greater than those of the was that vast crop raised and realised ? By the hands had been redeemed from absolute uselessness—had slaves in the southern states. True, some slaveholders, of that lazy and impracticable race (as they have executed a noble work-had greatly improved his particularly those in easy circumstances, are kind to often been described)—the negroes. And under what master's property-and, finally, had realised for him their human live-stock, the same as a gentleman will stimulus has the work been effected? Solely under self a handsome sum of money. This single fact is be kind to his dogs. But take the whole. Look at that of moderatė wages."
admirably and undeniably illustrative of the princi- the scenes in the slave-market in Charleston. “In Friend Gurney occasionally affords us a pleasing ples of the case, and for that purpose is as good as a the breaking up and disposal of estates, husbands and glimpse of the desire of the negro population for edu- | thousand.”
wives, parents and children, are often sold-irrespeccation : they are most anxious to be instructed ; and, Towards the conclusion of the author's observations tively of each other-each to the highest bidder. With indeed, they appear in some places to devote a share on Jamaica, he sums up the state of affairs in a few such liabilities at hand, where can be the solid happiof their earnings to the support of schools-a thing brief sentences :-“The imports of the island are ness of the slave of North America ? A pro-slavery that scarcely can be said of the English peasantry: rapidly increasing; trade improving; the towns thriv- Methodist minister was, one day, questioning a wellOne day, at Dominica, says Mr Gurney, “the ing; new villages rising in every direction; property educated negro, much respected by his master, and people gathered around us, and a woman came much enhanced in value; well-managed estates, pro- amply supplied with the conveniences of life. You forward on behalf of the company, to beg for a ductive and profitable ; expenses of management di. have your wife and family about you,' said the minischool. We are hungry for a school, said she, 'we minished; short methods of labour adopted; provisions ster; 'you have a good house; you and your children are tired of waiting for it.' Nor were these idle cultivated on a larger scale than ever; and the people, are well clad; you sit down, day by day, to a well-prowords; for the people on this and a neighbouring pro- wherever they are properly treated, industrious, con- vided table; you are even engaged as a preacher to perty had agreed to subscribe eight dollars per month tented, and gradually accumulating wealth. Above your brethren-why, then, are you anxious to be free! in part payment of a teacher. Nothing, indeed, can be all, education is rapidly spreading; the morals of the what can you wish for more!' "Sir,' replied the negro, more eager than the desire of the negroes of Dominica community improving; crime in many districts dis- I wish to lay my hand on my heart, and say, My for education—they seem determined to obtain it; appearing; and Christianity assorting her sway, with flesh is my own."" and it is gratifying to know that the efforts now mak- vastly augmented force, over the mass of the popula
Fifth Compare the rapid moral improvement, desire ing for the purpose are at once considerable and suc- tion. Cease from all attempts to oppose the current for instruction, increase in the number of marriages, cessful. There are nearly 700 scholars in the four of justice and mercy-remove every obstruction to the and the disappearance of irregularities, in the West Mico schools, which are ably conducted, and being fair and full working of freedom--and the bud of Ja- Indies, with the dreadful moral degradation and comquite clear of any peculiar religious bias, are accept-maica's prosperity, already fragrant and vigorous, will pulsory ignorance in the southern states of America. able to the whole population.” This forms an agree- soon burst into a glorious flower.”
« Evil in its root--incurably evil-opposed to the will able piece of information. In Dominica, a majority Having now finished the account of all that had of an intelligent and benevolent Creator, and deadly of the lower house in the legislature is composed of come under his notice in the West Indies, Friend in its moral tendency, must be a system which shuts coloured persons, and the same class of persons are Gurney very properly takes the liberty of contrasting out half or two-thirds of the population of a state now eligible as jurors, both in this and other islands; the whole with what he had seen in the slave states from even sipping at the fountain of knowledgeit becomes absolutely necessary that the people should, of America.
which proclaims to a multitudinous rising generation by means of instruction, be prepared for performing First-In the West Indies, the emancipated negroes the stern decree, 'You shall never be taught to read these functions with propriety.
are working well and diligently for wages on the the Bible!' Another circumstance which fell under Mr Gurney's estates of their old masters. In Virginia and the I have now," concludes Mr Gurney, “drawn a notice at Dominica deserves to be made widely known. Carolinas, about two-thirds of the slave population contrast between freedom in the West Indies and During slavery, it was below the dignity of any free do nothing, and the workers idle away their time as slavery in North America, on five distinct pointsperson to labour in the fields ; and all who could do much as possible. « There are the old, the infirm, the quantity of labour, the expense of cultivation, the so preferred to live in idleness rather than work. The the sick, the shammers of sickness, the mothers of value of real property, the comforts of the negro, and abolition of slavery has removed this detestable plea young infants, the numerous children, &c. &c. All lastly, morals and religion. I have endeavoured to for living in a state of slothful indulgence. It is now these belong to the dead weight, and they leave about avoid exaggeration in the statement of either side ; quite respectable to work—labour in the fields is not one-third of the black population in actual operation. but who shall deny that the scale preponderates with discreditable. This change of sentiment accounts for Now, this operative class has no stimulus to labour, immense weight and power on the side of freedom! the comparative abundance of labour in the West except compulsion—that is, the whip; and people who can doubt that the American statesman is bound, Indies: emancipation has brought a host of idlers and neither will nor can perform by compulsion an average by every principle of philosophy as well as philanthose who shammed illness into the labour market; quantity of continuous work. That they should do so, thropy, of policy as well as justice, to desist from the and though, of course, this has reduced the amount is contrary to the laws of nature to the constitution, support of slavery, and henceforth to labour in the of wages to individuals, still such is the demand for not only of the negro, but of mankind in general. The good old cause of emancipation ?", hands, that all meet with remunerative employment. result is, that many of the cotton and rice planters of We cannot lay aside the work of this benevolent
In Antigua and a few other islands, the mode of Georgia and South Carolina are contenting themselves member of the Society of Friends, without warmly management, taken all in all, seems to be better than with half a day's work from their negroes. Their recommending it to the perusal of all who feel intein Jamaica ; for in this latter island the practice is far task is finished by twelve, one, or two o'clock; and rested in the joint cause of negro emancipation and too common of leaving estates to be managed by local for the rest of the day they are left to themselves. social improvement. attorneys and overseers, the actual proprietors living It appears, then, that the work obtained from a body in England, and caring nothing more about their of three hundred slaves in the southern states, cannot, estates than receiving a certain annual return from in many cases, be estimated as more in quantity than JAMES SMALL, THE IMPROVER OF THE
PLOUGH, them in produce ; in other words, there is a defi- the fair day's labour, on wages, of one-sixth of the ciency of that moral supervision, which the eye of a number, that is, of fifty freemen."
On a former occasion we mentioned that there was master alone can give. In consequence of this or Second-It follows, that the cost of slave labour is not perhaps a village of a tolerable size in Scotland some other defect, a number of the estates present a greater than that of freemen. Three hundred slaves, which did not boast of its genius--a man possessing spectacle of strife and distrust between overseers and reckoning men, women, and children, at a value of 500 acquirements superior to his neighbours, and who, labourers—the grand cause of dispute being the exac- dollars cach, represent a capital of 150,000 dollars, or simply from the influence of untoward circumstances, tion of labour for rents of cottages and provision- an interest at 6 per cent of 9000 dollars
. Adding is prevented from attaining a wide and well-deserved grounds. In those districts in which rent and wages other 9000 dollars for their support, it is found that distinction. Occasionally, however, these geniuses, as have been arranged independently of each other, every 300 slaves cost annually 18,000 dollars. Now, reckon they are called by their less skilful neighbours, strike. thing has gone on prosperously.
the weekly wages of 50 free labourers at 3! dollars out an idea which, being really valuable, overcoines At the distance of a forenoon's ride from Kingston, each, we have an annual expense of 5000 dollars. all obstacles, brings their name into notice, and proamong the Port Royal mountains, lies Halberstadt, Thus, it will be seen, that American planters are bably raises them in worldly rank. James Small, the a coffee plantation, belonging to a coloured gentle- voluntarily paying 18,000 dollars yearly for labour improver of the plough, was a person who in this manman, John Casper Weiss. Mr Gurney visited this that could be performed for 5000 dollars. Or, to ner raised himself into notice from a humble and obcoffee-planter, and received from him the following put the comparison in a different form, the Ame- scure condition of life, and a sketch of his biography, information, which we quote in his own words. “One ricans incur a vast outlay of capital, in name of value therefore, may be of service to our young readers. hundred and seventy slaves, or apprentices, used to or cost price of negroes, whereas the West Indians James Small was born at Upsetlington, in the be supported on this estate. Now, our friend em- allow every negro to be his own owner, and pay him parish of Ladykirk, and county of Berwick, about the ploys fifty-four free labourers, who work for him only for his labour. How absurd would it be, were year 1740. His father's only profession was that of a four days in the week, taking one day for their pro- farmers in England obliged to buy all the ploughmen farmer. Under his superintendence his son, the late vision-grounds and another for market. This is all they required, and give them food, clothing, and lodg-James Small, was instructed in all the various the labour that he requires, in order to keep up his ing for life into the bargain !-yet the practice of branches of agricultural labour knowledge of which former extent of cultivation. And willingly did he buying black labourers in America, instead of simply he afterwards experienced the advantages. acknowledge the superior advantage which attends hiring them, is a piece of equal absurdity, and, lay- Young Small was first bound as an apprentice to a the present system. The saving of expense is obvious. ing all moral considerations aside, is warranted by no country carpenter and ploughmaker, at Hutton, in I understood our friend to allow that the average principle in commercial policy.
Berwickshire. He remained in Scotland for some cost of supporting a slave was L.5 sterling per annum. Third— The value of landed property is rapidly ris- time after his apprenticeship was over ; but about the 170 slaves, at L,5 per annum, is L.850 0 0
ing in the West Indies : in the slave states of Ame- year 1758, he went to England, where he worked with Now, he pays 54 free labourers 45. 6d.
rica it is falling, and many properties are entirely | á Mr Robertson at Doncaster, in the making of wagper week, one day's labour being
neglected. This is “forced on the view even of the gons and other wheel-carriages. set off against rent, for 50 weeks,
most superficial observer, who travels through Mary- It was in the year 1763 that he settled at Blacktwo weeks being allowed for holy
land, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. adder Mount, in Berwickshire, under the patronage of days,
607 10 0
Thousands and tens of thousands of acres, which were John Renton, Esq. of Blackadder. He there set up a
once cultivated and productive, have fallen back, under manufactory of ploughs and other agricultural impleSaving under freedom, L.242 10 0"
the blight of slave labour, into a wilderness ; not, in: ments; and as he at the same time occupied a farm
deed, the wilderness of olden times, which teemed with of considerable extent, he had an opportunity of tryIn the course of another journey, Mr Gurney offers the luxuriance of nature, but one without fertility and ing many experiments, which he might not otherwise the following useful fact. “Do you see that excellent without hope. The properties to which I allude, the have been enabled to attempt. He thereby contrived new stone wall round the field below us ? said the appearance of which cannot fail to be familiar to a device for ascertaining the best shape of the mould. young physician to me, as we stood at A B's front mapy, were once, doubtless, of considerable value ; now board, by making it of soft rood; by means of which door, surveying the delightful scenery, "That wall (no vithstanding the general rule that land rises in it soon appeared where the pressure was the most could scarcely have been built at all under slavery or value as a nation rises) they are worth little or nothing. severe, and where there was the greatest friction. the apprenticeship; the necessary labour could not A change for the worse in the appearance of the When he first settled at Blackadder Mount, the then have been hired at less than L.5 currency, or country is conspicuous enough, even when one passes old Scotch plough was almost solely in use throughout 15 dollars per chain. Under freedom, it cost only the line between Pennsylvania and Maryland ; but I Berwickshire. It was drawn by a pair of horses, with from 3$ dollars to 4 dollars per chain—not onethird of the amount. Still more remarkable is the who crosses the river from the state of Ohio into smallest number was a pair of horses and a pair of
am told that it is still more striking to the traveller the addition of four, and sometimes of six oxen; the fact, that the whole of it was built under the stimulus Kentucky. The soil on either side of the magni- ) oxen, attended by a driver.
MENDICITY IN IRELAND.
ANECDOTE OF A DOUBLE-BEDDED ROOM.
He began with trying experiments on his own farm,
with his uncle, Mr Haworth, and his future father-inwith ploughs of smaller sizes and of different forms,
law, Mr William Yates, at Bury, where the cotton-spin
As we drove into Drogheda, we entered a crowd, ning and printing trades were carried on for many years proving, by a steelyard with a stronger spring than which I can only describe as suggesting the idea of a usual, which of them performed the best work with miraculous advent of rags. It was market day, and the and are, indeed, continued, though in other hands, to
with pre-eminent success, and on a most extensire scale, the least force of draught. In devising the improve-streets were so thronged that you could scarce see the
the present day. Mr Peel, the father, with his other ments which afterwards obtained such celebrity, he pavement, except under the feet of the horses; and the
sons, and another Mr Yates, established the print-works seems to have had the old Scotch plough, as respects public square was a sea of tatters. Here, and all over
at Church, and had also large works at Burnley, Salley general shape, chiefly in view; and the merit of his Ireland, I could not but wonder where and how these Abbey, and Foxhillbank, and spinning-mills at Altham, invention consisted in making an instrument which rent and frittered habiliments had gone through the pre- and afterwards at Burton-upon-Trent, in Staffordshire. combined the qualities of strength, lightness, and paratory stages of tear and wear. There were no de So widely did these concerns branch out, and so liberally easiness of draught. . His exertions were crowned grees-nothing above rags to be seen in coat or petticoat, and skilfully were they conducted, that they not only with remarkable success. and brought into use which astonished all who had shoes were in rags ; not a whole covering, even of the brought immense wealth to the proprietors, but set an formerly used the heavy and clumsy ploughs of the backs about us ; 'nothing shabby, nothing threadbare, Lancashire. Buines' History of the Cotton Menufucture.
to the whole cotton trade, and trained up many
of the most successful printers and manufacturers in country. With respect to the precise merits of Mr Small's plough, they arise from this, that the sock and nothing mended, except here and there a hole in a
beggar's coat stuffed with straw. Who can give me the the mould board are formed according to strict mecha- genealogy of Irish rags ? Who took the gloss from these Chance and the stage-coach put me lately in the town nical principles ; and that those parts which enter the coats, once broadcloth? Who wore them? Who tore of Stirling at nightfall?". A few shops were still open, earth, and cut up the furrow, have that equal tapering, them? Who sold them to the Jews ? (for, by the way, but the streets, in general, were dark and dull, and sech or sharpened wedge-like form, which occasions the Irish rags are fine rags, seldom frieze or fustian.) How as to impress a stranger with a feeling of loneliness. On least resistance in raising the furrow-slice. The came the tatters of the entire world, in short, to assemble proceeding to the inn, I learned that I could only obtain mouldboard, in particular, has that regular curve or
in Ireland ?- for if, as it would seem, they have all de a share of a double-bedded room, the Falkirk Tryst bartwist, which not only lessens friction, in elevating and scended from the backs of gentlemen, the entire world ing caused an unusual influx of strangers. This was far turning over the furrow-slice, but it also places and must contribute to maintain the supply. I had been from pleasant, but, as there was no alternative, I at leares that slice in the most proper position for the rather surprised at the scarcity of beggars in Belfast; but length stole with as little noise as possible to my moiety beneficial effects of the atmosphere and the operations the beggary of Drogheda came up to the traveller's de- of a chamber. Scarcely had I entered, when a sepulchral of the harrow. Small has also the sole merit of in- scription. They were of every possible variety. At the voice from the other bed said, “ Bolt the door!" I did
so, but, at the same time, thought the circumstance venting, and modelling the mouldboard, and other running over a blind man, who knelt in the liquid mud rather suspicious. Why this precaution? What was to parts of the plough, in cast metal, which contributed in the gutter (the calves of his legs quite covered by the be done that interruption should be dreaded?
Oa so much to the speedy extension of that valuable pool, and only his heels appearing above), and held up in creeping underneath the blankets, I in vain attempted to instrument.
his hands the naked and footless stumps of a boy's legs. sleep. Sometimes a heavy sonorous snore resounded It is a striking proof of the excellence of his plough, The child sat in a wooden box, with his back against through the apartment; anon, the heaving of a pair of that many ploughmen in Berwickshire, for their own the man's breast, and ate away, very unconcernedly, at a huge lungs startled my slumbers. Then there was a ease and satisfaction, offered to be at the sole expense loaf of bread; while the blind exhibitor turned his face tossing from one side of the bed to the other-a noise as of the wood-work, if their masters would supply them up to the sky, and, waving the stumps slightly from side if the pillows and bolsters had risen in insurrection-and with Small's plough, and would defray the other to side, kept up a vociferation for charity, that was heard then a yawning and stretching, or low, half-stifled, gurgcharges of the implement.
above all the turmoil of the market-place. When we ling sound, as of a person in the last stage of drowning. Having, established his plough in Berwickshire, stopped to change horses, the entire population, as deep In sooth, he was a tempestuous sleeper. I listened, and Small wished to introduce it into Mid-Lothian, where heard-held out their hands, and, in every conceivable an entire stranger--a
person whom I had not even seen; it had met with much opposition ; but being confident tone and mode of arresting the attention, implored and who, for aught I knew, might only be waiting till of the superiority of his invention, he offered to make charity. The sight was awful: old age in shapes so had resigned myself to sleep, to get up and empty my a comparative trial. In consequence of that challenge, hideous, I should think the most horrible nightmare pockets, or commit some desperate outrage. All the a competition of ploughs took place in a field pear never had conceived. The rain poured down upon their terrific stories I had ever read of double-bedded rooms, Dalkeith, in presence of many gentlemen and farmers tangled and
uncovered heads, seaming, with its cleansing crowded upon my brain. Weariness, however, is seldon from Berwickshire, Mid-Lothian, East-Lothian, &c. torrents, faces so hollow, so degraded in expression, and long wakeful even in the midst of danger, and my mind A number of ploughs were brought forward; as, the withal so clotted with filth and neglect, that they seemed at length settled into repose amid visions of midnight old Scotch plough, several English ploughs, a plough like features of which the very owners had long lost not robberies and Ludlow assassinations. What length of by Mr Hutchison, with an iron wheel, &c.; but Smali's only care, but consciousness and remembrance; as if, in time elapsed I know not, but I seemed hardly to have was successful—the judges having decided that it did the horrors of want and idiotcy, they had anticipated the fallen asleep when I was awakened by a rustling poise. the best work, and was considerably lighter in the corrupting apathy of tho grave, and abandoned every It was still dark, and I instinctively drew the bed-clothes draught than any of the others. In consequence of thing except the hunger which gnawed them into the closer about my head. The noise continued, and edging the success of his plough at this public trial, it spread to recall many quick witticisms I had heard at gigantic proportions striding stealthily across the roon,
memory of existence. I thought I should be able one eye over the blankets, I saw distinctly a figure of rapidly over all the different counties in Scotland, and Drogheda and elsewhere; but it is a kind of memory and relieved against the uncertain light of the windov has since been adopted in many parts of England, that Hoats away in the 'cloud of unimportant events opposite. It passed, and became invisible in the dars, Wales, and Ireland, and in many foreign countries. It was a rule with James Small, that whatever but one, and that more from the hideousness of the occurring in so busy a life as travel: and I remember I then heard a rummaging among clothes, and
anon the creaking of some small instrument upon its piece of work he undertook, whether the making of a speaker than the excellence of her wit. I thought I had hinges. A clasp-knife perhaps! I shuddered. At this cart or plough, or any other implement, it should be given away all my pence, when this woman, quite the moment, however, the stranger having regaled his nosmade complete ; and so anxious was he that his weakest looking and sickliest I had observed, caught my trils with an enormous pinch of snuff, stole back to bed! implements should give perfect satisfaction, that eye. Another dive into my pocket brought forth a sove It would be bard to say which of us enjoyed that pinck rather than suffer any insufficient work to be sent reign, a shilling, and a penny. “I won't trouble you for of snuff most.-Scotsman newspaper. from his manufactory, he would break it to pieces, the gowld,” said she, watching me as I turned over the
LITERARY RELIC. whatever loss he might thereby sustain.
“I don't like the colour of it." I There was nothing, however, by which he was more laid my finger on the penny: "Och! that's too black St James's Place, London, is the original agreement be
In the library of Mr Rogers, the poet, at his house in distinguished than by his zeal to promote useful im- there's a dilikit white shillin', the colour o' entirely," she cried again; “ something betwane ; now
tween Milton and his publisher, Sanuel Symons, in 1666, provements in the department of agriculture ; and for white hand, plases me more!" "I was amused with their for the copyright of Paradise Lost." It is written on this, it has been stated," he sacrificed his ease, his efforts, often successful, to penetrate and remove, by some
one page of foolscap, signed by the contracting parties, health, his strength, and his substance." This enter apposite suggestion, any hesitation in the giver's gene
and witnessed by “ John Fisher" and " Benjamin Greene, prising and ingenious man died in the year 1793, rosity. “I'll change it for your honour, and divide it
servant to Mr Milton.” The autograph of the great poet, about the fifty-third year of his age. among 'em," said a cripple to a young man beside me, distinct. This interesting relic, we need hardly say, is
notwithstanding his blindness, is remarkably regular and Since the era of Small's improvements, many addi- who had drawn sixpence from his pocket, and held it tion of ploughs to suit the tillage of particular soils, the beggar's hat, who had well foreseen that the giver the walls of the classical and hospitable mansion of the tional alterations have been made in the construc- doubtfully
in his hand. The sixpence was thrown into carefully preserved by its distinguished owner: it is and also of mossy lands, and of these none are more
would not have the courage to falsify a creditable repu- Poet of Memory. Mr Rogers, we believe, gave seventy deserving of commendation than the rid or self-cleans- tation before strangers. I am sorry to add that the ing plough of the Finlaysons-farmers in Ayrshire, “ division” was but a figure of speech; and the sixpence ceived ten pounds, five being paid in advance, and other
guineas for this relio ! For the poem itself Milton rë who encountered innumerable difficulties in bringing which promised to show fight for the lion's share.— been sold. For each edition, not exceeding 1500 copies,
was clutched with a flourish of the cripple's crutch, five at the expiration of two years, when 1300 copies had their plough into general operation. It is remarkable that, notwithstanding all these Willis's Ireland Illustrated.
fire pounds were to be paid; but in seven years the poet improvements, ploughs of an old clumsy construction
THE PEEL FAMILY.
died, and the widow disposed of all her“ right, title, and continue in use in many parts of England, greatly to the loss of power. Independently of the injury from ascribed to the Messrs Clayton of Bamberbridge, near brought to the author and his family seventeen pounds,
The introduction of calico-printing into Lancashire is interest” in the work for an additional sum of seren
pounds. Thus the whole copyright of “ Paradise Lost" this cause, the plan usually followed of yoking horses Preston, who began the business on a small scale as early and the bit of paper on which the agreement was written to ploughs in England is highly objectionable. It is, as the year 1764. They were followed, and with great for instance, customary to yoke four or six horses in a vigour, by Mr Robert Peel, the grandfather of the present Milton was more than fifty years of age, blind, infirm,
was sold and eagerly purchased for seventy guineas! line, one before the other, the line of draught being Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel, Bart., late Secretary and solitary, when he began the composition of his great by a rope or chain, which passes along the sides of the of State. Mr Peel was originally a yeoman farming his epic. At à similar advanced period of life, Sir Walter animals to the muzzle of the plough. In passing along, own estate, and lived at Cross, afterwards called Peel- Scott, struck with misfortune, entered into an engagethe rope is upheld to a certain extent by each horse, fold, near Blackburn. Being of an active
and enterprising ment'to
liquidate, by his literary exertions, a debt of one so that the front horses exert a power of draught on those behind them, or, in plain terms, a certain
quan- is mentioned as one of the first persons who tried the hundred and twenty thousand pounds. Milton rested kis tity of power is lost. It is proper to state what is the carding cylinderi. He also took up the printing business; late begun ; Scott staked his character and reputation true principle of draught. According to a well-known house ; and the cloth, instead of being calendered, was
upon the fulfilment of his vast engagement. Both entered law in mechanics, power is always most advanta- ironed' by a female of the family, the pattern adopted the pressure of increasing age and infirmity, never lost
with characteristic ardour upon their tasks, and amidst geously exerted in a straight line. Let the drawing being a parsley leaf. Stimulated by the success of his power always proceed in a direct line from the shoul. experiments, he embarked in the printing business with sight of their anticipated reward. In seven
years Milton there be the slightest misdirection of the line, power to Brookside, a village two miles from Blackburn. Here passport to iinmortality: In seven years Scott had paid is fruitlessly destroyed. With respect to ploughs, the he carried on the business for some years with the aid of prize was within view, independence seemed almost in power of each horse should go at once in an even line, his sons; and by great application, skill, and enterprise, his grasp, but he had overtasked his strength, and dissloping from its shoulders to the muzzle of the instru- | the concern was made eminently prosperous. His eldest ment. When power from several horses requires to son, Robert, afterwards created a baronet, possessed
ease, soon to be followed by death, came like an armed be united, yoke a pair abreast, and, if need be, a pair strong talents, which he devoted assiduously to business the annals of literature record again two such instances of
man, and closed the superhuman struggle. When will in front ; but let the power of each pair go individually from an early age, and thus contributed much to the heroic determination, under such adverse circumstances, to the seat of resistance, or the intervening swingle businesses ; and in each of these branches the Peels soon
success of the printing, spinning, and manufacturing united to the highest creative genius, and crowned wità trees. If the draught of the front horses in any form touches the hind pair in its passage to the plough, improvement suggested by others, and many improvc took a lead in Lancashire. They eagerly adopted every
such marvellous results ?- Inverness Courier. power is lost. Attention to these simple principles of ments originated in their own extensive establishments, mechanical science might save many thousands of As the elder Mr Peel had several sons, Robert quitted w. s. Onr, Paternoster Row.
LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by pounds annually in England. his father's concern about 1773, and established himself
Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.
I NUMBER 466.
PRICE Three HalfpENCE.
A FEW WEEKS FROM HOME. one every here and there, equally choked, black, and miles on the road to Harrow, passing on our left the hideous.
station of the Great Western Railway at Paddington,
So limited is the space for interment in these me- and wending our way by a country road environed WHEREVER one goes in England, he finds the most tropolitan Golgothas, in comparison with the quantity with green fields and hedgerows. We, in short, get amusingly absurd old usages, forms, and institutions. of deaths, that it is not unusual for a number of coffins out of town—no easy matter to a pedestrian in London In an old baronial castle near Canterbury, the curfew to be deposited in the same grave; commencing at a -and the last bit of street is left behind. Having atbell has been rung nightly since the reign of William depth of twelve or fifteen feet, the member of the tained the summit of a broad swelling eminence, we the Conqueror, and the practice is kept up with the family who dies first gets the lowest place, and so on, find on the left a façade and gateway, of elegant archimost reverential care. In a certain borough, every one a-top of another; the grave being in time packedtectural proportions, fronting the burying-ground we candidate for the honour of citizenship must dress to within a foot or two of the surface. In one of the are in quest of, and from which, on casting our eyes himself in a white sheet and wade through a dirty churchyards lying between Holborn and the Strand, back, we are presented with a most extensive prospect horse-pond. In London, one has only to go into the and in which I had an opportunity of seeing an open across the country as far as the hills of Surrey, and inns of court, or the endowed schools, in order to see
grave, the scene of mortal relics around was of the also of the western environs of the metropolis. We a sufficiency of examples of ancient and now aimless most unpleasing nature, and certainly far from being are now within this beautifully laid out Père la and useless practices. The yellow hue of slavery comes in accordance with that decent ceremonial with which Chaise, as I may call it—a gently sloping field with a down to us from the middle ages on the legs of the the dead are consigned to the tomb.
southern exposure, measuring forty-six acres, and calchildren of King Edward's School; and because a In most of the churchyards are found vaults or sub-culated to afford an almost inexhaustible amount of small cap unfit for the head was the fashion of the terranean cells, which are employed as receptacles for accommodation for interments. As yet, the ground year 1550, these young persons have had to walk bare- the dead, and frequently these are situated beneath is rather bare of trees, but this is in the course of headed for three centuries, and will probably do so for the floors of the churches—a practice dangerous above remedy, and in a few years it will exhibit a variety three centuries to come. We have already adverted all for the public health, for, with every precaution, of shady recesses. Several walks, laid with yellow to the square platters of the Winchester boys, so con- not excepting that of leaden coffins, it is well known gravel, and broad enough to allow the driving of carservative of endowment rules, but so destructive of that noxious gases escape from such depositories, and riages, are spread in different directions through the gravy. We have been told that, at a similar collegi- prove highly detrimental to all who are exposed to cemetery, permitting the visiter to observe the long ate school, potatoes were recognised as canonical only them, acting, indeed, exactly as a poison upon the rows of graves and monumental erections which line about twenty years ago, and not even then without living fibre. We have here a result of the supersti- their sides and exterior boundaries. A cloister or great hesitation and many deep and anxious consul- tious spirit of the middle ages, which regarded burial species of arcade of Grecian architecture, which tations. These things may be considered as results of within the church as favourable to the most import- crowns the highest part of the ground on the north, the rigidly literal character of English law. In Scot- ant interests, as is the case in Italy at this day. The affords a covering to the family vaults, in which is land, where law is less exact in her behests, most such original motive may now be said scarcely to exist in accommodation for 5000 bodies, and along the face of matters have been modified according to the spirit of England ; but still the custom is maintained, in spite the inner wall there is room for monumental tablets advancing ages. We have accordingly, in our north of all that reason and the most simple regard to pru- of marble in different devices. In the middle of the ern region, few things which bring the very form and dence can say to the contrary.
ground, a short way from this, stands a chapel with pressure of long-past centuries before us. The past The general evil of crowded churchyards and church environing porticoes, the whole built of stone, and in is seen only in its wrecks - ruined castles, ruined vaults has been repeatedly pointed out by medical excellent taste. Along the broad path leading down abbeys, ruined every thing. It is scarcely possible for men ; and there is perhaps some vague notion in the the centre of the ground, we find the greatest number an Englishman, reared in familiarity with so many public mind that it is not right. Nevertheless, the of the more elegant, and, as we should call them, senantiquated institutions and usages, to conceive the obstacles against its reformation have hitherto been timental cenotaphs and monuments. The most conimpression which these make upon the mind of a too much for a people, who may literally be said to be spicuous in the series is a covered building, embellished stranger, coming, as we do, from a land where there too busy in attending to the affairs of the living, to with exterior railing, vases, and flower-borders, formis a greater conformity between the things which are have much time to devote to those of the dead. The ing, as we learn from the inscription, what is to be the and the things which common sense points out to be main obstacle lies in the connexion which has been burial place of Mr Ducrow, the famed equestrian. needful and proper.
established between sepulture and church rites. The All that portion of the ground which we have deIn my late sojourn in the south, these considera- working clergy look for an important part of their in- scribed, lying towards the right of the entrance, and tions were forcibly brought before me, when, after an comes to the fees exigible on account of burials. The forming perhaps three-fourths of the entire cemetery, excursion into Kent, I took a ramble amongst the people might no doubt have themselves buried where has been consecrated, and devoted exclusively to metropolitan cemeteries. A churchyard in London they choose ; but religious feeling makes most of them the sepulture of members of the Established Church, is a very different thing from a churchyard in the regard the consecration of the ground and the per- or at least to burials at which the church service is country, where breezes blow, cowslips and daisies formance of the burial service as indispensable ; and used. A considerably smaller portion, separated from bloom, grass grows green, and where even the mourn- these advantages are not to be obtained in new ceme- the other by an artificial ditch and railing, and situful graves have a pleasant summer look about them, teries, unless the clergy shall have been compensated ated on the left of the gateway, has been reserved that gives you the idea that the poor inhabitant below for the unavoidable diminution of the burial fees at unconsecrated, for the interment of all who belong to lies snug and comfortable, and is cheered in his soli- the old churchyards. The error here is in making other denominations of religionists. This portion has tude by the singing of the birds and the shining the incomes of the clergy depend on such paltry par. also its chapel, and, on perambulating the walks, I of the sun all day long. How different one of the ticulars. If provision were made for them by other observed that the tombstones are generally commeLondon churchyards ! Conceive a Sir-Christopher- means, it might be expected that burial-grounds would morative of foreigners, members of the Roman Catholic Wren church, in the centre of a small quadrangular then only be found in proper situations.
body, Presbyterians, and others out of the pale of the opening, in the midst of hosts of dingy brick houses, Even under all the difficulties arising from this church. On thus finding religious distinctions carwhich seem crushing in upon the little court, as if cause, several new cemeteries have of late years been ried beyond, or, I may say, into the grave, and the desirous to overrun it with buildings, and leaving only established apart from churches and the crowded parts different feelings of mankind on a point of ritual prea narrow waggon way around. As for the ground, or of the city. In 1833, an act was obtained for one at sented in so tangible a form, the mind of an individual place of tombs, ten to one it is garnished with one or Kensal Green, under the proprietorship and regu- whose country's faith overlooks all such matters, and two trees, which find great difficulty in growing up lation of a joint-stock company. Within a few years whose feelings accordingly have never run in such through the smoky atmosphere, and perhaps loll a afterwards, other companies were able to procure acts, channels, is impressed in a way which serves much to branch over the rusty iron railing beneath. The for the establishment of cemeteries at Norwood, High- spoil, as far as he is concerned, the effect of what is graves, except when flagged over with flat stones, are gate, and Kensington. More lately, a company has otherwise a solemn and tastefully disposed scene. so many rows of oblong mud heaps—masses of dark opened a cemetery on a similar scale at Abney Park, Norwood Cemetery, belonging to the South Metromould, saturated with ta, decaying elements of hu- Stoke Newington. A visit to some of these occupied politan Cemetery Company, and situated at the dismanity, and revolting to every feeling of delicacy a couple of days during my stay in London. Let me tance of six miles from town, in the county of Surrey and propriety. In Tooley Street, there is a bloated first speak of that at Kensal Green. The situation and diocese of Winchester, ranks next in point of size churchyard of this description ; and wending our of this ornamental and airy burying-ground has been to that at Kensal Green. It consists of about forty way through the city by Aldgate, Great St Thomas remarkably well chosen. Leaving Oxford Street in acres, ying the top and two sloping sides of a the Apostle, Holborn, and Oxford Street, we see a north-west direction, we proceed a distance of three beautiful hill—properly a knoll—and 18 laid out with
A FRENCH STORY.
« Your pro
walks, embellished with shrubs, and studded over with this cedar, and being forgotten or concealed from view duty, these various fees fall as a downright tax on monumental erections, in a style of good taste. It also by the surrounding underwood and shrubs, the tree families who choose to send the bodies of their relacontains two chapels for the accommodation of funeral in its growth has completely covered the blade, and tions to be interred in the out-of-town cemeteries, parties belonging to the Established Church and dis- now no more is seen than a small portion of the iron practice of interring in the small burying-grounds of senting bodies. Placed in the midst of a picturesque heel to which the handle of the scythe is usually the city. and well-wooded piece of country, with many handsome fastened, all the rest being absorbed in the breadth of villas scattered about the scene, Norwood Cemetery the tree. In another portion of the cemetery is a
THE CONSCRIPTION. may be described as occupying a favourable locality, spot, once forming a secluded corner of Fleetwood's while its distance from town, though somewhat in- domain, in which, according to a tradition of the vil
. In one of the later years of the empire in France, ata convenient, is in one important point of view a recom- lage, the body of Cromwell was privately buried, its time when the conscription laid its terrible hands on mendation.
interment in Westminster Abbey being merely a pre- the flower of the youth of the country, and sent them Highgate Cemetery, which is only half the size of tence. This, however, appears scarcely consistent with off, reluctantly or unreluctantly, to the field of battle,
the society of a certain small town in one of the central that of Norwood, or somewhat more than twenty various historical circumstances. acres, is situated on the summit of Highgate Hill, in
Since the dedication of the cemetery in May 1840, of the Baron de Valville, a returned emigrant. He
departments received a notable addition in the person a direction north from the more densely peopled part there have been a number of burials, and the ground, was a man apparently about fifty years of age, yet his of London. In many respects it is inferior in appear at the time of my visit, already contained several figure retained all the erectness and elegance of early ance to the two great burying-grounds already no- handsome monuments, besides graves of the common manhood. He was understood to be of one of the ticed, but is thriving as a place of sepulture, and pro- order. Around the outskirts is planted an extensive principal families of Normandy, and had come, it was mises to be of great use in relieving the over-crowded collection of trees and shrubs, the whole arranged said, to a country residence, in order to recover from
the harassing effects of exile on body and mind. The metropolitan churchyards. Neither in this nor in botanically according to their genera and species. little circle into which he stept, was delighted with Norwood Cemetery are there any visible distinctions This arboretum, which contains, as I am informed, the refined polish of his manners, and the intellectual between the consecrated and unconsecrated portions. 2500 varieties, will, a few years hence, add greatly to charms of his conversation. Young men, of any rank,
were scarce in those days, and the baron had few The company to whom the Highgate grounds belong the beauty of the scene, independently of any other is empowered by act of parliament to establish ceme- merit which it may possess. In walking through the competitors in his course to popularity, and to the teries in other parts of the environs of the metropolis, ground I had an opportunity of inspecting a table of were almost forgotten, and might have been wholly and in virtue of which it has lately opened a cemetery fees, which are chargeable for interments by the com so, had not his temples been undeniably whitened a at Nunhead, between Peckham and New Cross—a pany. Here, as in the similar documents connected little by time. The only rival, almost, of the baron beautiful spot of ground within about two miles of with the other new cemeteries, I observed a number the first appearance of the baron, this youth had cast
was a young man, named Florestan de Blavaux. At the Norwood cemetery, of exactions of a most unexpected nature ; for ex
upon him a doubtful eye, as if afraid that the hour of We now come to a cemetery which has been esta- ample, there are fees for different hours of the day, M. de Valville's captivations had not yet past by. blished on a much broader principle than any other as if it were of the least consequence when an in- Indeed, there was a more special and precise reason in the neighbourhood of London. I allude to that terment took place ; and, if I recollect rightly, there for the alarm of Blavaux. He was in love.
Some time after the baron had settled down in his lately opened in the environs of Stoke Newington, is a certain fee exigible for the use of a temporary
new scene, Blavaux and he met in a spot where they about three miles from the city in a north-easterly cover from the weather for the funeral company.*
were almost obliged to converse. The baron could direction. The Abney Park Cemetery, as it is called, altogether, there is an elaborate minuteness in this not help smiling at the appearance of the other. was established by a company of shareholders who and other cemetery tariffs, which, though perfectly Though young, tall, and well formed, Blavaux wore were anxious to see a burial-ground open to all classes conformable to the cut-and-dried system of petty immense blue spectacles, and leant over his cane, as if of the community and to all denominations of Chris- charging for civility which one meets with almost bent down by years. He saw the baron's scanning tians, without restraint in forms. To accomplish this every where in England, is any thing but creditable glance, and said, half seriously, half, smilingly, “ You
see before you, sir, a victim of war." "What !” said object, they did not encumber themselves by an act to respectable associations.
de Valville ; "you have served, then k-you have been of Parliament, nor consecrate the ground according Not being consecrated, Abney Park is exempted wounded ?" « Wounded ! yes, ruined by the enemy to the usual ceremony, but proceeded as a private from all interference of parochial authorities, in that wounds us all,” replied Blavaux. association possessing the ground in freehold. Their which respect it occupies a very different standing perty has been ravaged by the enemy, perhaps ?" said
Yes, the enemy called the capital is small, being only L.35,000, divided into 3500 from all other cemeteries in and about London. One conscription," was the answer : " for ten years I have shares of L.10 each. When I visited the cemetery of the advantages to which it lays claim is, that any struggled with it, and, unequal as was the contest, as in October, it was only newly opened, and a handsome clergyman, of whatever denomination, is allowed to yet I have triumphed. But at what a cost ! dear chapel, in the Gothic style
, situated in the centre of perform a funeral service within it, according to the have been my victories ! Sir, I have given eight dethe ground, remained unfinished. The locality, though wish of the parties concerned—a thing not at all per- under our banners. You know how costly substitutes environed by straggling lines of streets and villas, is missible in consecrated ground, which falls within always are. Mine have cost me ten thousand francs yet sufficiently in the country, and freely enough ex- the jurisdiction exclusively of clergymen of the esta-a-piece." posed, to give assurance against the evils arising from blished church. Before the other cemeteries could “That makes, in all, eighty thousand francs," said the crowded city churchyards. The ground is flat, obtain the benefit of consecration, the parties con
the baron ; “a goodly sum !" and of an irregular shape, measuring about thirty cerned had to come under an agreement, sanctioned defray the expenses, I was obliged to sell my property.
“ Yes," continued Blavaux, in a rueful tone, "to acres ; and as there remain some fine tall trees, by act of Parliament, for the payment of fees to the I had fifteen thousand livres of income, and now I which embellished it while a private garden, the parochial clergy. The Kensal Green company, for ex have but three. One or two new conscriptions, and place is not without an air of sylvan beauty. On one ample,“ is bound,” says Mr Collison,“ to pay a fee to I am a beggar. Our fighting government won't hear side of the ground, but fronting to the main street of the incumbent of the parish from which any body is already a soldier-in fact, that I am eight soldiers at
It is in vain for me to tell them that I am Stoke Newington, still stands an old red brick man- brought for interment within the consecrated portion once ; that I am serving in three armies, fighting in sion, possessing a certain aristocratic air, which, at the of the cemetery, provided the parish be within the three places, north, east, and south ; that I have rebeginning of last century, was the residence of Sir weekly bills of mortality and in the diocese of Lon- ceived more than thirty wounds, and have lost threo Thomas Abney, Lord Mayor of London, with whom, don. The amount of this fee corresponds with the legs and five arms; and that I have even been twice
kisled on the field of battle. It is needless for me to as afterwards with his widow, Lady Abney, lived species of interment, and is regulated by a scale : a for many years the venerable Isaac Watts, who fee of five shillings is payable with respect to a corpse simply say, 'We have need of men, and we take you.'
tell them all this, true as it is. The government here wrote several of his beautiful hymns and divine interred in the consecrated catacombs, vaults, or brick Never was there such a system ! Being no longer songs. At the same period Daniel Defoe occupied a graves (which, by the bye, have never been conse- able to pay with my purse, I am growing ill to avoid house on the opposite side of the way, which also re- crated, seeing that they were built after the ground new and worse evils. I have certificates of rheumamains in existence, though in a modernised form. had undergone that ceremony), and a fee of one shil- tism, and can prove that my sight is weakening
daily." Thomas Day (the author of Sandford and Merton), ling and siapence for a corpse interred in the open The baron smiled at this tirade.
« Excellent preJohn Howard, the philanthropist, and, in later times, ground.” In the case of bodies brought from the texts for escaping being a hero!” Dr Aiken and Mrs Barbauld, were also numbered parish of Marylebone, for interment within the con “ Yes, baron," said Blavaux, " that is all very well. among the inhabitants of the village. At a previous secrated part, an extra tax of two shilings and sixpence But my sufferings are not without some alloy of era, during the Protectorate, Stoke Newington con- is levied for the incumbent of Marylebone, who thus, good. I have made great sacrifices for my country, tained the residence of General Fleetwood, who mar
as we understand it, gets 73. 6d. instead of 55, per the only young man in the place. I may marry well." ried Ireton's widow, the eldest daughter of Oliver also to pay a fee to the incumbent of any parish baron. “I
have,” said Blavaux, after a short pause ; body. The Highgate Cemetery Company are obliged And have you fixed on an object ?" replied the Cromwell; and the house which they occupied still whence a body is taken, situated within five miles of "I have fixed my affections_yes, affections on a remains. The cemetery comprehends the greater part the ground. The Westminster Cemetery Company is certain object, and I am not sorry to have an oppor of the grounds formerly attached to Abney House, as much worse off, being, says the same authority,“ com- tunity of speaking to you on the subject. Bow, and well as those connected with the mansion of General pelled to pay to the incumbent of any parish, within smile, and Hirt, baron, with all the world but one per Fleetwood, who is said to have planted some of the ten miles of the cemetery, from which any body shall son;”. “ And who may that be ?" said De Valville. trees now ornamenting the burial-ground with his be brought for interment within the consecrated porn have given my heart to the young and charming
“ Madame de Nercy,” returned the young man ; " I own hands. Towards the side of the cemetery verg- tion—no matter whether in vault, catacomb, or open widow. I know that she will not give away her hand ing on the village, there is a magnificent cedar of adult-the sum
of ten shillings for each body! and to but
to one of her
own age, so that you need not come Lebanon, one of the finest I have ever seen, and be the parish clerk of the parish (if he was in office at in my path with serious intentions. Pray, be warned! lieved to have been one among a number with which the time of passing the act) the sum of one shilling !" I will not bear interference in that quarter. Flirt Fleetwood embellished the ground; if such be the A cemetery company at Gravesend has been more
with all else whom you please.". case, it is now nearly two hundred years old. The leniently dealt with, a fee of two shillings per body
The baron only laughed at Blavaux's injunctions ; authority to which I am indebted for some of these only being payable to the incumbents of either of two nor did he afterwards alter his conduct in the slightparticulars,* mentions that some years ago a mower's employ and pay clergymen who perform the actual trary, he was continually by her side, and seemed ever
parishes. As, in all cases, the cemetery companies est degree towards Madame de Nercy. On the conscythe was suspended by the point in the trunk of
to call up his whole powers of pleasing when in her * Cemetery Intermont. By George Collison, solioitor. I vol.
* For a whimsical account of the London cemeterial charges, presence. He was in some measure not unsuccessful. London : 1840.
we beg to refer to an article in No. 415 of the Journal, extracted The lady seemed to listen to him with delight, but from a clever metropolitan print.
Blavaux had not misrepresented ber, in ascribing to
“ You are
her a dislike to matches, where the age was unequal. the baron, and spoke of duels and death. The baron this will be the case (say the true believers) though She had, in truth, suffered too much in her former only smiled, and begged him in courtesy to allow the even both should then be married. If more than one wedded state, from the disparity of tastes caused by ceremony first to pass, to which request M. Florestan, woman be seen standing at man's left hand, they disparity of years, not to feel strongly on the subject. being an anti-conscription man, gave his consent. will be married to him in rotation, as they stand Thus it chanced that, when she had listened long to The ceremony passed over, and Madame Adrien de nearer or farther from his arm. A seer often anthe attractive converse of the baron, she used to cast Valville returned alone from her country seat, shed nounces that such and such a guest will arrive at a a glance at his grey locks, and think to herself, ding many regretful tears, not on account of the cere certain hour, and, though a hundred miles away, the “What a pity that he is fifty !" Widows are famed mony, certainly, but because she had seen her young guest, it is said, will appear at the stated time. If a for telling their mind with freedom, and the baron and handsome husband quit her side to seek a safer seer observe a vision of trees and crops in some spot or was not long in catching up some expressions from retreat, there to wait for more fortunate days. She another, though perfectly barren and bare at the moher lips, which revealed the state of her thoughts. came to her house, expecting there to meet, and to ment, wood and grain will
, it is believed, there be seen “ Then you will only wed with one of your own age; receive consolation from, her father-in-law. To her in due tiine. A visionary house is beheld by the gifted lady ?” said the baron. “I confess to that weakness," surprise, she saw there not the grey-haired baron, but eye, in a place where stone and lime were never laid, or returned Madame de Nercy with a smile. her own husband.
expected to be laid. Yet there will the real house in error," said the baron ; “men of mature years" “ You here, Adrien !” exclaimed she, in terror; forthwith be seen. To see a seat as if vacant, when “Oh, pray do not trouble yourself to praise them,” “ what imprudence ! yet I embrace you again. Ah ! one is sitting in it, is a presage of the party's death. interrupted the lady ; “ my poor dead husband was of I know what brought you here. You could not depart The seer may behold crowds of people, or single indiyour years, and though he was as good a soul as ever without seeing your dear father!"
viduals, and very frequently he meets imaginary lived,' I learnt from him that age and youth cannot The young husband knelt down before her. “Par- funeral parties, and determines the coming decease assort together.” “ Then why not marry your ad- don me !" cried he ; “I and my father are one ! by the apparent mourners. mirer Blavaux ?" said the baron. “Pshaw, Blavaux,” Beloved wife, forgive me. When you saw me first as These rules of vaticination are said to be unvarying. replied the lady ;“ he is young, to be sure, but I will a man of fifty years, I was in disguise, and-can you No ordinary person sees the vision while it is present never wed a man who would hide in a closet or a tub bear to hear it ?-on account of the conscription to the seer, but the same vision often appears to two to avoid the conscription. No, no," continued Ma. But not because I would not be a soldier. No, I or more of the gifted, either while they are together dame de Nercy, “ I am in no hurry; I will wait for would have served my country cheerfully. But an or apart. The Highlanders believe that children and the peace. And, in the mean time, baron, do you try eccentric relation bound me by his will to marry under the lower animals, such as cows and horses, behold with all your might to grow young again. "If you a certain age. I saw you in Paris, and would have the appearances while they are before the seer. This were twenty years younger-we should see, we should addressed you without disguise ; but I was just then is made plain, they say, in the case of the animals, by see, baron!
drawn for the army, and Napoleon himself, knowing the trembling which seizes them at the moment; and M. de Valville was silent for some time. He then our family's former principles, gave me positive orders frequently the children will cry, and, if asked the said, " Madame de Nercy, you encourage me to give to serve in person. My fortune and my love were reason, will tell what unusual thing they behold or utterance to a secret. I am a man of fifty, and young both at stake. I disguised myself, and fled-fled to have beheld. “I was present,” says the author preagain I shall never be ; but I have a son, the very the spot where you were. This is my whole story. viously quoted,“in a house where a child cried out of image of myself in person, and fully twenty years You will forgive me.I trust, you will forgive me—the a sudden; and being asked the reason, he answered younger. In him I see my very self, as I was at his deception I have practised. Now when we are united, that he had seen a great white thing lying on the age. Madame, my son loves you. He saw you but I will
, if you permit me, serve my country wherever board which was in the corner : but he was not be. once, at a ball in Paris, during your last visit. He she has need of me. To you I would have revealed all lieved, until a seer, who was present, said that the boy learnt who you were; but, alas ! he is so unfortunately before now, had not your declaration, that you would was right, and that the board would be made into a circumstanced as to be unable to appear and own his never wed one who fled from the conscription, terrified coffin; and, soon after, it was made into one accordlove. Our family have ever been royalists, and my ine into silence; and then I thought of the scheme ingly,” says the believing Martin. As for horses, it is ill-fated son was mad enough to join in a conspiracy which has been followed. Pardon me, dearest wife !" averred that they will not move forward when a seer against those in power. The plot was discovered, and The lady's pardon was not difficult to obtain. Soon beholds a vision, and that they sometimes run about he became a proscribed fugitive. For some time he after the disclosure which has been related, M. de wildly, without any cause being discovered, till a seer has been concealed in my own house, not in this town, Valville went to visit M. Blavaux. He found that comes forward and explains the matter. “A horse but at the little country villa which I purchased near gentleman too much absorbed in other matters to fastened by the common road on the side of Loch to yours. From that concealment he would ere now think of duelling. The unfortunate Blavaux had Skeriness in Skye, did break his rope at noon-day, and have burst to throw himself at your feet, but for my just been drawn for the conscription for the ninth ran up and down without the least visible cause. But entreaties. I promised to plead his cause with you, time.
two of the neighbourhood that happened to be at a that he might not risk his life by exposing himself tó
little distance, and in view of the horse, did at the the chance of seizure by the police. You have now
same time see a number of men about a corpse.” Ah ! given me an opportunity to fulfil my word.
SKETCHES OF SUPERSTITIONS.
Somebody, who lived thirteen miles off, died soon after, madame, take pity upon him—take pity upon me !
and, “ accordingly, the prophecy was accomplished," Consent to see him, and hear him plead his own SECOND-sight, taking the word in its common accep says Martin. cause !" tation of supernatural sight-seeing, is one of the
In Mr Martin's book, we find numerous instances on the fair widow. A beautiful young man, deeply tions becoming diseased, the sense of sight is imposed lanus,” included in the Miscellanea Scotica, we are This strange revelation made a strong
impression varieties of spectral illusion. Certain mental func- of the exercise of the faculty now described ; and in a charmingly romantic picture to her fancy. “I go to upon by the appearance of things which are purely presented with not less than seventy or eighty cases. the country to-morrow," said she, after some moments imaginary, but nevertheless supposed to be prophetic The greater part of these relate to persons in an infeof blushing yet not unpleasing confusion, “and you of future events. Idleness, solitude, insufficient diet, rior rank of life, but some, also, to people in a higher may come to me at eight in the morning. We will and an imagination led astray by ruminating too in grade ; and all the cases consist of visions seen, and go together.” “Ah, madame,” replied M. de Valville, tensely on the causes of human weal and wo, may fulfilled, in accordance, nearly, with the rules already "that is a pleasure which prudence forbids me to en be assigned as the prevailing causes of the disease. stated. We select a few of the most authentic-looke joy: Beyond a doubt, my movements are secretly Our Lowland ancestors used occasionally to see wraiths, ing and remarkable. watched. My son will be left to greater freedom and or spectral appearances of persons who were soon to
The following case is from the communication of a safety by my remaining here. In truth, it would be quit this mortal scene ; the Irish were also accustomed man of unquestionable veracity, Angus Campbell of well for me to ayert suspicion by going to some other to the spectacle of fetches ; and the Highlanders had Eansay, who “related, that, in a fair sun-shining day, place.” The widow was somewhat averse to go alone, their second-sight--the whole, be it observed, being but he saw a little fleet, consisting of nine vessels, with an but the difficulty was got over by her resolving to a variety of the same mental disease and delusion. easy leading gale, coming under sail to a place called take a confidential friend with her. To the country, Second-sight, however, has formed the subject of Corminish, opposite to his house, where they dropt accordingly, she went on the following day. Soon after a more regular profession than any other species of their anchors, having their long boats after them, and her arrival, she received a visit from a young man, spectral frenzy. There were persons, who, possessing the crew of each walking the decks; and that his whom she could not look upon without surprise. He from infancy a defective mental constitution, or having children and several of his domestics took particular was the very image of his father. It was the same a taste for imposture, gave themselves out as habi- notice of a large sloop among them. As the place figure twenty years younger; eyes, look, and tone of tual sight-seers, and were reverenced accordingly by where they moored in was not a safe harbour, nor that. voice, being the same. The step of the son was more their unsophisticated neighbours. Martin, in his sound a frequented passage to the Western Ocean, ho elastic, and, in place of the grey locks of the baron, account of the Western Islands, a work written up dispatched an express to his servants, who were at a short and beautiful chestnut tresses adorned the head wards of a century ago, when any sort of nonsense good distance about their labouring, with a riew to of the son. . As to the rest, the son proved to have met with popular belief, enters pretty largely into a send a boat to those ships, either to bring them to a the very spirit of the father-intelligent, polished, and definition of the faculty of second-sight, and we shall safe harbour, or to pilot' them out to sea, as they tender. The poor widow's heart was soon in chains. take the liberty of offering a few of his explanations. choosed ; and, after his servants came up, all of them At the end of a fortnight or so, she returned to town, When the seer is visited by a sight, he is deeply saw the vessels, as formerly described; but, wliile they and was soon after waited on by the baron, who, she affected by it, and, for the time, it absorbs his whole were deliberating what to do, the scene disappeared understood, had fulfilled his intention of averting sus- faculties, to the exclusion of all things else. The gradually. In two years thereafter, the same number picion by a short tour.
power of the seer is a natural endowment, and can- of ships, the remarkable sloop being among them, “Ah, well !" said he, taking the hand of Madame not be acquired by communication, or in any other came and dropt anchor at Corminish, which was ató de Nercy respectfully, “what have you made of my way. It is usually talked, of by its possessors as a tended with all the circumstances above related, aopoor boy? Does he consent to take care of his safety? painful and troublesome gift, ar.d one which they cording as Eansay told the whole to Mr Kenneth Is he gone ?"
would gladly be rid of, if they could. Its vaticina- Macaulay, present minister of the Harries, from whom The widow looked down and blushed. “No, he is tions relate only to things to coms, and not to past I had this relation ; and who says there are severals not gone yet. Before he goes, we wish to go through events. Young and old may alike possess the second still living witnesses of the above representation and a little ceremony, and I now have to ask your consent sight, and it is common, also, to men and women. its accomplishment.” to it.” “You have it,” replied the baron with emotion, The visions are sometimes predicative of good, and “ Mr John Maclean,” says another case, “late mini" and no one can pray more sincerely for your happi- sometimes of evil. Occasionally, the vision simply ster in Mull, as he was walking in the fields, saw his ness. But the marriage Pit must be so far public, gives indifferent tidings.
daughter (who was then absent at Turloisg) entering and I see in it new perils for my son !" “Oh, fear These are a few of the most coinnion peculiarities his house, her head muffled with linen ; he followed nothing,” exclaimed the lady; "we have arranged all attendant on this faculty. There are likewise num at her heels (as he thought), and asking his domestics that. The mayor, in whose presence it shall take berless rules affecting its exercise, and the interpre- if they had on a good firo, as he was sure his daughter place, is devoted to me, and will be silent, particularly tation of its visions. If a vision occur by day, for wanted much to be warmed. They all denied to have as I mean to give him a piece of ground of mine, example, the accomplishment of what it is supposed to seen her; which passed for that time : but, in eight which he has long coveted. Then the publication predict, will be speedy; if by night, less so. An exact days thereafter, the girl returned muffled, as seen by will seem to be in your name, Adrien de Valville, proportion, indeed, is maintained in this respect the her father, and in a few days fevered, of which sha which is the same as your son's. It will be believed morning vision being sooner fulfilled than that of died.” that I espouse you, and this we will countenance. noon ; the latter more quickly than that of the after “A noble peer of this nation being one morning in Fear nothing, dear baron. All will be done safely, noon; and so on. If the seer beholds a figure in a his bed-chamber, and attended by several persons, though prudence may require you to be absent.” shroud, it is considered a sure sign of death to the party when his servant had put a new coat upon liis lord,
The report accordingly went abroad of the approach- represented by the figure ; and, according to the ex a gentleman standing by presently cried out, “For ing marriage of the baron with Madame de Nercy. tent to which the shroud covers the body, the end will God's sako, my lord, put off that coat!' And being One person was, or seemed to be, greatly annoyed be quicker or slower. If a woman be seen at a man's asked the reason, he replied, that he saw a whinger or thereat. This was M, Florestan Blavaux. He visited left hand, it is a presage that she will be his wife, and poniard stick in the breast of it. The noblo peor,