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CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF «CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”

“CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

NUMBER 424.

SATURDAY, MARCH 14, 1840.

PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.

THE PLEASURES AND ADVANTAGES OF shot.” You have therefore either to deny yourself ture is so attached, and so fond of a walk, that ten to KEEPING A DOG.

the pleasure of walking over the grounds, on which one he is at your heels before you have got to the end THERE is in the first place the extremely agreeable you had set your heart, or to resolve upon having it of the street. Poor fellow! what can you do but take state into which one is every now and then put by under all risk of the destruction of your dumb friend. him with you? The Dorlings are kind friendly people, personal contact with the dog, whose kindness, lead- Choosing the safer course, you pursue your walk, and particularly Mrs Dorling : they will not take it amiss ing him to a very familiar intercourse, causes your your dog being young and excursive, he is every mo- if I bring in honest Roger. So to the door of the clothes to be sometimes embroidered in the herring- ment over the enclosures at one side of the road or the Dorlings you go, and finding Mrs D. at home, you are bone fashion with his hairs, and sometimes curiously other, and scouring through the adjacent fields, where ushered into the drawing-room. To do you jusmarked with the impressions of his soiled paws. It is should he find a flock of sheep, he is instantly in the tice, you would not have allowed Roger to come in also very pleasant, if he is a water-dog, to be occa- midst of them, barking like mad. The sheep disperse with you, if the day had been wet, and the streets sionally besprinkled with the contents of his shaggy in consternation ; the dog pursues; and the shepherd, dirty; but the day being dry, and the streets clean, coat, as he shakes himself convulsively by your side on aftera phrenzied endeavour to protect his charge,comes you can see no harm he can do. You have altogether coming out of his favourite element. How interest- up breathing fire and darts at you, as if you were to forgotten that Mrs Dorling keeps a cat-a favourite ing, too, when the poor animal, in the spirit of sin- blame. Some cursory remarks are made on both sides, Tom, almost as large as Roger himself, and who cere friendship, comes up unexpectedly, and thrusts and you are glad in the end if you can get yourself and always sits on the hearth-rug, an object of great a nose as cold as his heart is warm, into your half- dog away without a bodily collision of some kind with veneration to the family, and the wonder of visitors. closed hand, as it hangs beside your chair! There are the incensed barbarian. As you go along, Roger meets The moment, then, that you enter the room, Roger some people who at first start under this application; many others of his own species, belonging to other and Tom become mutually aware of each other's prebut babit soon reconciles them to it, as it proverbially gentlemen who are taking walks. With some he is very sence. Tom gets up his back and his tail, jumps upon will to any thing. We shall suppose the dog to be friendly, and all passes off agreeably. In other cases, the sofa, and spits and screams like one possessed. well bred for domestic existence on the more impor- he and the other quadruped, being much about a size, Roger, good innocent creature, makes no manifestatant points. This is generally considered desirable. and feeling some instinctive mutual hatred, draw up tion of hostility whatever ; but Mrs Dorling is neverBut still enough of nature will be apt to remain about opposite to each other two yards off, look suspiciously theless alarmed in the extremest degree, and, in her him, to remind the company from time to time in and angrily for a minute, then declining a little each phrenzied fear, gets upon the sofa also, and, making the most agreeable manner, that a dog is after all still to a different side, go stiffly past each other, keeping an adroit use of her nether garments, smothers up a dog.

their bodies as straight onward as possible, each mur- Tom under a shield more manifold than that of Ajax, The love that man or woman bears to dog is honour. muring exactly the same amount of wrath and defi- deliriously shouting and crying at the same time to you able to man or woman; but the course of this love, ance, each looking by the tail of his eye at the other to take away that frightful monster. You instantly like that of the much-berhymed passion which man with exactly the same glare of deadly enmity, and seize Roger, and, taking him down stairs (poor fellow, and woman bear for each other, is one which I have then pass on at an exactly corresponding pace, till, he goes as meekly as a lamb), you put him gently out never found from tale or history, or any sort of expe- reaching two hillocks about a hundred yards apart, at the door, and then return by yourself to apolorience or observation, to run smooth. Love in all its they let each other know by a subdued bark and an gise for the disturbance. Mrs Dorling, a really kind shapes implies sacrifices. Much must be conceded, intense scraping of the earth, that, if it had not been and friendly woman, receives your apologies with a much endured, if we would love. It is so eminently more for one thing than another, each would have rueful suavity, which marks only too truly how much with respect to dogs. You may love your dog ; but un- respectively put an end to his opponent for ever. It she has been discomposed, and for some minutes Tom happily, and in despite of the proverb, no other body is well when they content themselves thus; but some- gets much more of her conversation than you. At does. On the contrary, all other people wonder what times a worry will take place. Then, seeing the be- length, all irritation is smoothed away, and the conyou can see in the animal to regard it so tenderly, and loved of your heart in the death-gripes with another versation begins to get into a pleasant strain, when whenever an opportunity occurs, they will not be averse dog evidently large enough to devour him, you rush you begin, through the subsiding storm, to hear an from letting it feel how much they despise and loathe to the rescue. The other gentleman, under the impetuous scratching at the outer door, accompanied it. Many a secret kick and tramp on toes does the same feelings, does the same. Having fortunately a by a short impatient yelp and whine, such being the poor creature get from friend and servant ; many a stick, you commence using it with all your force and mode which worthy Roger has adopted of making the time is he defrauded of his due aliment down stairs. strength on the back of the other gentleman's dog. inmates aware that he regrets being separated from Trifles light as air are brought to his door as great The other gentleman, having an umbrella, immedi- his master. Mrs Dorling evidently has heard it too, offences, and often is he accused of things of which he ately begins to use it with all his force and strength and a shade of anxiety passes over her face, which you is entirely innocent. Rarely indeed does he experience in belabouring Roger. Over they go, over and over have no difficulty in tracing to a freshly laid coat of either justice or kindness from any body but yourself

. in the mud, tearing each other like wild-cats, and still mahogany colour, which you remember observing on The very neighbours are in a conspiracy against him. whenever an opportunity occurs, you insinuate a the door between the ringing of the bell and the comIf he but howls a little in the court-yard or street by thwack upon the head or rump of the other gentle- ing of the servant, and which you thought remarkably night-merely following his poetical propensity for man's dog; the other gentleman in like manner putting well executed. You instantly, of course, descend again, baying the moon—then have you civil-angry mes- in a lick whenever he can upon Roger. This goes on and getting Roger confined in an outhouse or cellar, sages in next morning on all hands, remonstrating like a whirlwind for a minute or two, you and t’other think you have at length secured peace. But scarcely against what they spitefully call the annoyance. If, gemman looking all the while like two blacksmiths has the conversation been well resumed, when you in the merest good nature, he leaps up upon a nurse- alternating their strokes on the anvil, but far too hear such a burst of yelping and howling as might maid, as she parades the street with her interesting eagerly engaged upon the dogs ever to think for a awake the dead ; this being the remonstrance which charge in the forenoon, then, as soon as papa comes moment of each other. At length poor Roger gets the affectionate creature thinks proper to make against home to dinner, may you look for a peremptory note yelpingly and discomfitedly away, and you suddenly your cruelty in locking him up. You now see the day from that gentleman, representing the fact in the find yourself planted right opposite a furious military is against you. It may chance that you are in love most alarming light (the maid having exaggerated it looking gentleman, who meets your own wrathful face with Miss Leonora Dorling, and had it in your mind to mamma, and mamma having in her turn exag- with one quite as wrathful, and seems, in fact, on the to sound Mrs D. on the subject. The opportunity gerated it to papa), and demanding no less than that point of commencing a not less envenomed combat may be otherwise excellent. No matter. The game your innocent favourite shall be chained up a prisoner with yourself. “ Your dog began, sir!” “No, sir ; it is up. Off you must go, to relieve Roger from his for life, as otherwise the complainant will feel it neces- was yours!” “It was yours, sir. My dog never confinement, and Mrs Dorling from an annoyance sary, " for the sake of his family," to take legal steps. attacks any one.” “I say it was yours, sir!". These such as even her good nature can scarcely speak of in The police authorities, too, are serious enemies to dogs. and such liko phrases are exchanged; and it is well if civil terms. Every summer they take it into their heads that the the affair ends by your passing each other much in Dogs are but dogs, and it is canine as well as human creatures are on the point of turning mad, and out the samo growling, but mutually respectful way, as to err. Roger was originally a good moral dog, or at comes an order, commanding that every one of them the dogs in the former case. Do not be surprised, the utmost never was known in his early days to steal shall be muzzled, under pain of being apprehended and however, if you should find yourself two mornings more than a bone. But keeping bad company is poisoned. This is nothing, of course, but an emana- after planted once more opposite to the military-look ruinous to both quadrupeds and bipeds. He has the tion of that spite which all men bear towards all dogs ing gentleman, with a pistol in your hand, he having misfortune to become acquainted with a dog of rather which do not belong to themselves.

the like weapon in his, while a friend, far more con- wild character in the neighbouring street, and begins The inconveniences entailed upon you by your cerned for your honour than you are yourself, stands to be a good deal out at night. You are at first in no affection are particularly felt when you and your dog a little aside, prepared to say, “ Make ready-present fear for his youthful innocence, but by and bye you take a walk. In the course of your stroll you come -fire!"

apprehend that all is not right. You observe that, to a pleasant garden or park open to the public, and The attendance of your affectionate Roger is apt in the mornings, after any of his nocturnal rambles, which you therefore enter; but lo, immediately within to be not less troublesome when you go to make a call. he has a remarkably worn-out debauched look, and is the gate you behold the malicious placard, “No Dogs Perhaps, with this intention, you leave him at home, not so ready for his walk on those forenoons as usual. Admitted-All found within the enclosures will be l or think you are doing so; but the good faithful crea- You fear he is a misled dog, but you cannot imagine

istence in a scientific way, by means of prussic acid. / nated abruptly. Chairs, stools, bottles and glasses, of ladies and gentlemen, on a terrace walk overhans

in what way he has been misled. At length, some In a number of houses the bells rang; one house of several wells in the neighbourhood of Inverness, which fine morning, the awful fact comes out. Roger is three stories, situated in Crieff, has been rent from the derive their springs from fissures in the old red sanddiscovered to have acquired from his wicked compa chimney-top half way down the gable ; and we have stone of the district

, are only now {January 1840 sheep in a neiglıbouring park. He and his companion heard that a number of corn-stacks have been thrown slowly beginning to yield part of their wonted

supply."*

The weather on the day and night of this earthwere this morning detected at their unhallowed sport, down. At Comrie the consternation was such that with eight dead sheep strewed around them, and the people ran out of their houses, and, late as was quake is universally described as having been rainy. other two just expiring in their hands. Being marked the hour, many assembled for prayer in the secession " At Kincardine in Monteith (this place is not far from and recognised as your dog, and traced home to his meeting-house, where religious exercises were con

Comrie), the atmosphere to the south was observed to of course expected to pay for the ten sheep worried tinued until three in the morning. There was a of a hurricane." When the subsequent and lesser this morning, as well as for all those which hare been second shock at twenty minutes to eleven, and a shocks were felt during the night, there was, as worried during the past two months; and you are third somewhat later, but both inferior to the first." before, a very glowing and varied light, and a tint of further called upon to surrender him as a malefactor, At Perth the shock was felt for nearly a minute, and glowing yellow pervaded the atmosphere." A singular that the laws of his country may be executed upon

was so violent that the room in which the editor of fact was observed in Edinburgh during the ensuing him. It is vain to remonstrate. It is clear he is guilty. Affection has many struggles, and you attri- the Perth Advertiser was writing seemed " as if it the height of 304 inches

, or sa Fair, although there buto the whole mischief to his wicked end. But were about to tumble about his ears.” At Ballater, was rain every day, and often in heavy showers. there is no remedy, no alternative. The most you can in Aberdeenshire, within the range of the Grampians, On Sunday the 19th January 1840, about half past do for the unfortunate victim of bad company is to but nearly a hundred miles from Comrie,“ it com

three in the afternoon, another earthquake was felt in pay a policeman half-a-guinea, that he may not be menced tremulously, and gradually increasing, termi- Perthshire, particularly in the vale of the Earn. The hanged ignominiously or cruelly, but put out of ex

sound was also heard in the Carse of Gowrie. A party leaving you full of Byronic

reflections on the wringing duration might have been about five seconds ; the them has described to us as “a low underground ap of tender affections, and deeply impressed with the sensation was as if the movement had been from west palling

sort of noise, which came as if from the westmaxim of the noble poet, that love and woe are one to east.” These are the principal places near the--the direction of Strathearn. In a few minutes they thing. Grampians from which we have seen reports. As we

heard the same again. A number of minor evils beset the gentle heart recede from that range of mountains, we find the

We pass over a number of minor tremors which that indulges in an attachment to a dog. For example, motion described as less and less violent. At Aber- have occurred during the last twenty-four years, and He whiten od fihom, gan long be kept clean where he is deen it was not of that energetic and irregular take up the remarkable earthquake of 1816. The down with wet and dirty sides upon the lambs”-wool character which usually distinguishes volcanic action, and hail-storms, the effects of which were felt in the mat at the parlour door. Newly raked garden-ground but of a gentle kind, producing a horizontal movement, scarcity of grain during the ensuing season. It was assumes under his feet an appearance which a geolo- not unlike the rolling of a vessel in an easy sea-way." observed, that during the prevalence of the severe gist might prize, if the soil were a clay of the second At Inverness it was felt slightly and produced no weather the barometer did not afford its usual correct ary formation, and he an undescribed genus of the serious effect. At Montrose, also, it was slight. In indications, the mercury frequently rising immediately Pachydermata, but which (the circumstances being Edinburgh it was felt chiefly in the low parts of the before heavy rain, and falling upon the approach of as they are) the gardener is apt to take very testily northern suburbs, but so slightly that many persons fair weather. The earthquake which took place on On one account and another, he is scolded, complained living there did not remark it. There seems to have the evening of the 13th of August, about ten minutes of, and absolutely ill used, every hour of the day; been more motion in the peninsular district compre- before eleven o'clock, was felt throughout the greater which you naturally feel to be just the same thing as if hending Fife and Clackmannan. At Cupar “the part of Scotland, but evidently was strongest in a you were scolded, complained of, and absolutely ill used tremulous motions were continued for sixty or seventy tract extending from western Ross-shire, through yourself. The sufferings which a man thus endures seconds. No subterranean sound accompanied the eastern Inverness-shire, and so on through the proout of affection for a poor dumb animal, that only can convulsions, which seemed to pass eastward in rapidvince of Moray—the direction being from W. N.'W. wag its tail in his face and lick his hands occasionally, succession, at first with considerable violence, and a to E. S. E. Directly to the north and south of Inverare altogether quite remarkable. It presents both disagreeable complex motion, but which gradually ness, it was comparatively slight, but yet was percep the affections and the patience of our nature in a

subsided to a sliglit horizontal rocking that gradually tible to many in Edinburgh and Glasgow. At no striking point of view. Upon a review of the whole died away. Houses shook, windows rattled sharply, considerable seat of population was its action nearly case, we feel inclined to say that, if men manifested loose pieces of plaster fell from the walls, and light so intense as at Inverness. The streets of that town the same resignation under unavoidable calamities articles of furniture were moved in their places.'* had been emptied of the inhabitants, most of whom and annoyances which they exhibit under the self- The report from Dollar, in Clackmannanshire, is an had retired to bed, when suddenly the percussion took imposed torture of keeping a dog, they would be more interesting one, both for its minuteness and on account place. “I could think of nothing,” says a gentleman angels than men.

of the situation of the village under the Ochils, a range residing there," that could give so good an idea of of liills nearly connected with the Grampians. “ Last what we felt, as that of a person being seated on the

night I had gone to my bedroom a little before ten back of a horse, when he suddenly and violently shakes EXPERIENCES OF EARTIIQUAKES IN o'clock, and was sitting reading with my face to the himself.” A noise like distant thunder was heard. GREAT BRITAIN.

south. The house stands quite detached from other The tremor lasted for about twenty seconds, or, in the EARTHQUAKES are not frequent in our island ; but felt a sudden chock, accompanied with a loud and sufficient to throw some persons out of bed. All

buildings, and faces the west. About ten o'clock I opinion of some, nearly a minute. The force was neither are they very rare. Every few years they are uncommon sound, the house strongly undulating in a others who had gone to rest instantly sprang from felt in some part of the country, more generally in the west and east direction. I felt myself moved in the their places of repose, and, with little ceremony asnorth than the south. No one of great violence or

same direction, and the furniture in my room and the to clothing, joined the crowds who had rushed into destructiveness has occurred within the reach of his-windows shook very much. I was not afraid, but felt the streets, which immediately became a scene of tory; but if there be any truth in Mr Lyell's surmise singularly confused; the noise was as if within the wild and unusual terror, no one knowing but that that a liability to these tremors may shift about over ing a heavy table forcibly along the floor. Some of the ruins of their houses.

a second shock was instantly to bury them under

Under this apprehenthe face of the earth, and after being long absent from the inmates of the house had gone to bed, but they sion, many hurried, ill prepared as they were, out of a country, take possession of it again, it is not impos- were so alarmned that they instantly arose and ran to town, and spent the greater part of the night in the sible that our soil (so much of it being volcanic) may be. I resumed my reading, and about half-past ten

the lobby, not knowing what the consequences might fields. It was found that already great damage had once more become the scene of dreadful calamities of o'clock there was a momentary shock, attended with

been done to the buildings. Many were rent from top this kind, while they gradually cease to affect South noise, but not nearly so loud as the former ; yet it is shaken down. From a stalk of chimneys on the Mason

to bottom; great numbers of chimney tops had been America, Southern Italy, and other districts, where for remarkable that the sensation was much more unplea- Lodge, a coping-stone weighing fifty or sixty pounds ages they have been exhibited on a tremendous scale. sant than the former, which lasted about four seconds. was thrown to the other side of the street, a distance

The latter part of the past year, and the beginning Many people here, who had no idea of an earthquake, of not less than twenty yards-a fact strikingly showof the present, have been remarkable for the number bottles, and dishes, were shaken, and some articles that the newer houses suffered more dilapidation than

conceived their houses were falling, as the furniture, ing the extent of the vibration. It was remarkable and violence of earthquakes in Great Britain. For a suspended from the walls fell down. After the second the older. Amidst the crashing of falling stones and fortnight in the middle of October, slight tremors were shock I went to sleep, but upon inquiry this morning tiles, and the shrieks and lainentations of alarmed felt at Comrie, a village in Perthshire which enjoys I found there had been another shock, comparatively women, one curious circumstance was not observed in the unenviable distinction of more frequently expc- slight, at twelve o'clock, and another of these shocks the town, but was noticed by three gentlemen who riencing earthquakes than any other place in the remarked that most people who were in bed at the bell tolled twice. In the morning another important

was felt last night at eight o'clock.” It was generally were approaching it from the westward : the great British islands : it is situated in the vale of the Earn, time when they felt the principal shock of this even fact became known, namely, that the beautiful steeple just within the frontier of the Grampian mountains. ing, started from their places of repose, even before which had recently been attached to the county jail had On the evening of the 23d of October, about a quarter they knew it was an earthquake, as if through an in- suffered a twist at the distance of a few feet from the past ten o'clock, an unusually violent shock took place stinctive tendency; A gentleman who remeinbers the top. The spire was there of octagonal shape, and the here, and spread away in different directions, chiefly was made on that occasion. earthquake of 1801, assures us that the same remark twist, which was from the east towards the north, was

to the extent of about a sixteenth of the whole cirto the east. It was felt over a great part of the island, By far the most remarkable proof of the force of cumference, the angle of the removed part being but nowhere so violently as at Comrie and the adja- this earthquake which has been recorded, was the turned to the centre of the adjacent face in that dicent districts. A reporter at Monzie, a gentleman's bursting of a great dam formed on Cringate Muir in rection. The present writer speaks of this result from seat a few miles from Comrie, thus describes what was

Stirlingshire, for the supply of water to the manufac- personal observation, for in 1826 he saw the steeple in experienced at that place and its neighbourhood :

tories on the Carron. This reservoir was surveyed the condition described; it has since been repaired.

and considered as perfectly secure by two of the most Most of the stones detached from the chimney tops " At thirteen minutes past ten in the evening we ingenious men of our country, Mr Smith of Deanston were thrown in the same direction, and it was from this heard a sound like that of a numerous body of cavalry and Mr Thom of Rothsay; but it nevertheless gave fact that the inference was drawn that the direction approaching at full gallop along a grassy sward. When way under the shock, producing great damage to pro- of the motion in the first instance was from norththis had continued a few seconds, we felt two or more

perty in the vale below. At Blairingone, a tremor west to south-east, for, such being the case, loose parts abrupt concussions, as if a solid mass of earth had

which took place at five in the morning, elsewhere at the top of a tall building would naturally be left

unnoticed, shook down the sides of a pit, and buried behind, or thrown in the contrary direction. Some struck against a body more ponderous than itself, and three working men, who were with great difficulty gentlemen who had been in the West Indies, where rebounded. The rattling of furniture combined with extricated. Some remarkable results have since been earthquakes are frequent, remarked of this shock, that the subterranean thunder, and the reeling of what we

observed—“A small tract of boggy land in Moray- it was smarter than any they had ever known in that had hitherto deemed terra firma, communicated at this shire, which, during the winter seasons of at least the part of the world. moment a feeling of the terrific that must have made half under water, has remained dry ever since ; and gaged from a precipice, and the gable wall of a newly

last hundred years, has been invariably more than At Cromarty a huge fragment of rock was disenthe stoutest heart quail. The sound passed off as be. fore, far to the east, carrying fear into other districts.

* The Witness (Edinburgh newspaper), January 22, 1840.

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built house was rent diagonally from top to bottom. six inches, but a wave eight feet high rushed against time discovery. Sebastian sailed from Bristol in the Farther to the north, three arches, which had recently one end of Pibley Dam.

spring of 1497. He directed his course to Iceland, been built as part of a roadway across a small arm of Perhaps no good end would be served by going with the intention of breaking the length of the voythe sea in the county of Sutherland, were thrown further into the history of British earth-tremors. age by a halt there. From Iceland he pursued his down. To the cast of Inverness, in the line of the Enough has been done to show that we are by no voyage into the great western seas, and on the 24th of tremor, the effects were not much less severe than in means exempt from this class of physical calamities, June came in sight of Labrador, or, in other words, of that town itself. At Relugas House, on the river though

fortunately far from the seats of their greatest the continent of North America. In consequence Findhorn, at Auldearn, and at Forres, the shaking violence. The general result of our inquiries is, that of various erroneous translations and interpretations of and noise were frightful. Furniture moved, house Perthshire and the neighbouring districts are much old authorities, foreign and domestic, the majority of bells were set a-ringing, and kitchen utensils rattled more visited by carthquakes than any other part of modern writers have held the land thus discovered on the walls. A man who was walking at the time the empire, the little village of Comrie being, as it to be Newfoundland, and have consequently deprived amongst the mountains near Lochindorb, “ was first were, the metropolis of the country in this respect. Cabot of the honour of first landing on the American alarmed by a sudden and tremendous noise of a rush- Volcanic hills are thickly strewed over this tract, the continent ; but a Memoir of Cabot, published in 1831, ing wind, which came sweeping up the hills like a roar action of which has long ceased to be apparent on the clearly shows the injustice which has thus been comof water : this was instantly followed by a rumbling surface. It is probable, however, from the frequency mitted. Among the numerous proofs there adduced, noise, and the ground uas sensibly heared up and down of these concussions, that in the north of Scotland it is unnecessary to mention any others than that under his feet." At Peterhead the rumbling noise subterranean fire resides at a less distance beneath of the new patent granted in the following year, 1498, was heard, and many people thought it arose from than in other parts of the island.

which distinctly and repeatedly alludes to the separate thieves breaking into their houses. A family in that

discovery of land and isles in the voyage of the town observed that the clock in their stair warned

SEBASTIAN CABOT, THE NAVIGATOR.

preceding year; and that of a very old and nearly twice before striking eleven. The shock was violent

contemporary map, existing in the king's library, at Aberdeen, and a second one, of a slighter nature, It has been a frequent subject of regret, that the which marks the continent of Labrador as “ land diswas there felt at half past eleven. The same motion name of a comparatively unimportant voyager, Ame- covered by John and Sebastian Cabote in 1497." and the same noise were observed at Montrose, where rigo Vespucci, should have been prominently and Now, as Columbus did not sail upon his third voyago the apprehension that their houses were about to fall indelibly associated with the New World, in place of till the

30th of May 1498, and as Amerigo Vespucci upon them. Near the town, two excise officers were that of the earliest traverser of the Atlantic, and 1499, the first discovery of the

continent of America on the watch for

smugglers, whom they expected to greatest of all maritime discoverers, Christopher Co- must be held to be the work of Sebastian Cabot. approach in a certain direction. They had lain down lumbus. But a double injustice has been done here, From the scanty accounts that exist respecting this on the ground, and when the shock took place, one of although few are aware of it. If the name of any voyage of Sebastian Cabot, we can only learn that he them leapt up, calling to his companion, There they other man but Columbus ought to have been bestowed was compelled, after reaching the latitude of 67 degrees are! I feel the ground shaking under their horses' on the great Transatlantic continents

, it was not that discontinue his researches and return to England, feet !"

No meteorological appearances of any importance of Amerigo Vespucci, but of Sebastian Cabot, the first This was done much against the wish of the youthful were observed on the evening of this earthquake. The voyager, indisputably, who landed upon the conti- commander, who imagined, and not without good night was calm and mild. It is, however, a circum- nent of America. It is well known that Columbus, cause, that he had entered on the waters leading stance too important to be overlooked, that on the in his first two voyages, did not penetrate beyond the directly by the north-west to India. But the discon

In a retrospective view of British earthquakes, no islands of the Mexican Gulf. On the occasion of his forced him to yield to their wishes for a return. other we believe of any importance occurs till we get third voyage, he certainly reached the American con- Sebastian brought home, therefore, only the im. back to that of 1801. This occurred on the 7th of Sep- tinent; but in the interval Sebastian Cabot had portant information, that a huge body of hitherto tember, at six o'clock in the morning, and was felt anticipated him in the accomplishment of that honour- unknown land, with various islands, lay in the western over a large part of Scotland, but particularly at Crieff able feat. The fact, as here stated, has lately been way to India. So little was then understood of the the New Town, but not in the Old, the sensation within established beyond dispute by the investigation of ori- he first saw Labrador, imagined that it must be Cathay, doors was as if the house had been gently lifted up-ginal documents, previously neglected or misinter- or India

itself, but the cold sterile character of the wards, and then shaken violently in a direction from preted.

country seems to have undeceived him. Undeterred north to south. Some hours afterwards, a house in

Sebastian Cabot was an Englishman by birth. His by the comparatively unproductive character of his the Old Town sank so much as to require being con; father, John Cabot or Cabota, was a native of Venice, voyage, he immediately applied for a new patent to barn near the city fell in upon some reapers

, two of who had come to England to follow the trade of was granted, and bore date February 3, 1498, being whom it crushed to death. ‘In 1799, on the 17th of merchandise,” and had settled in Bristol, where, about again directed to John Cabot and his sons. John January and 24th of February, earthquakes were felt the year 1475, Sebastian, the second of three sons, was Cabot died immediately afterwards, but this did not at Comrie and its neighbourhood. The same place was born. As this youth sprang up into manhood, the prevent Sebastian from at once setting out, accompavisited in like manner in 1792, and at several

times subject of maritime discovery became the all-engross- nied by a crew of three hundred men. The particulars late in the year last mentioned, the ice on a piece of ing one throughout the civilised

world. The voyages state

that he endeavoured to colonise a portion of the water near Lawers House was shivered to atoms-an of the Portuguese to the East, and of Columbus to the northern coasts of America, but found it impossible to effect which we have nowhere else seen observed. On West, had opened up a new and most brilliant field effect his purpose on account of the cold. He then the 30th of September, in the same year, a tremendous for the operation of the spirit of enterprise, and one, passed along the coast to the south as far as the 38th Italy, swallowing up many houses and destroying besides, which held out such hopes of gain as might absence we do not know, to the shores of England. many lives : it is said that on the same day three well dazzle the imaginations alike of prince and private Though our records of this

, as well as of his other distinct shocks of earthquake were felt at the house of adventurer. Sebastian Cabot was precisely in that royages, are miserably defective, there can be no Parson’s Green, on the north side of the (volcanic) position of life to be peculiarly acted upon by such doubt that bis reports were of great value in their day, hill of Arthur's Soat near Edinburgh.”* Four days motives. His father seems to have acquired very con- They afforded landmarks to future voyagers, showed before, a shock had been felt in the county

of Wilts
. siderable wealth by commerce,
and had consequently them points to run for, and took away from them

that the Isle of Man, and on the same day the sea at Dun- the command of shipping to a certain extent. At the awful feeling of uncertainty which must ever press on bar suddenly receded. early age of four, Sebastian first went to sea, being

mariners entering great unknown seas.

We have no existing account of Cabot's pursuits On the lìth of September 1784, the water of Loch taken by his father on a voyage to Venice, from or employments for a number of years after his Tay receded from the two ends, and rose in a great which city they returned, after a short stay, to Eng- return from his second voyage. We first hear of wave in the middle, after which it flowed towards the land. In 1493, Columbus came back from his first him again in the year 1512, as having then been lateral shores, rising high above its usual level. This voyage across the Atlantic, and the news of his induced to accept of offers of employment from Fer. was repeated every day for a week, with less and discovery spread rapidly over Europe, awakening, dinand of Spain. He was treated by that monarch jess force. It is very remarkable that this summer to an amazing degree, the feelings which have been Council of the Indies, and received the appointment and autumn were remarkable for earthquakes in different parts of the world. On the 18th of July, one

described. Sebastian Cabot has given an account of commander of an expedition destined for the occurred on the borders of Armenia, where it nearly of the impression made on his own enthusiastic discovery of the North-West Passage. But while destroyed the city of Ezerghan, and caused the loss of mind at the time. A conversation of his, reported things were in full preparation for this enterprise, six thousand lives. On the 14th and 15th of August in Hakluyt's Voyages, contains these words :- Ferdinand died, and his successor did not follow up there were severe shocks in Iceland ; and on the 15th “ When newes were brought that Don Christopher his views. Sebastian Cabot, still eager for employof October, an earthquake took place at Grenoble. Colones Genoese had discovered the coasts of India, ment, came once more to England, and in 1517 was During the tremendous earthquakes of Calabria in whereof was great talke in all the court of King placed at the head of a new expedition, the precise of an inch of the bottom of the scale, and the waters Henry. VII, who then raigned, insomuch that ali object of which is not well known. The unfortunate of many of the Highland lakes were much agitated.

men with great admiration affirmed it to be a thing leaves us in uncertainty with respect to the fate of this We have not, however, any proofs of sympathy more divine than humane, to saile by the west into enterprise also. We only know for certain that all between our own island and remote countries so strong the east, where spices growe, by a way never knowen Cabot's purposes were frustrated by mutinies and disas those which were afforded on the dreadful Ist of before, by this fame and report there increased in my obedience among his sailors. “If the mariners would November 1755. That day, at a little after nine o'clock, heart a great flame of desire to attempt some notable then have been ruled (says one oid English writer), the city of Lisbon was nearly swallowed up by one thing. And understanding, by reason of the sphere, and followed their

pilot's mind, the lands of the West of the most violent land-convulsions on record. On that if I should saile by way of the north-west, I should Indies, from whence all the gold cometh, would have the same morning, at a time (half past nine) which by a shorter tract come into India, I thereupon caused been ours." appears to have been exactly identical, when the the king to be advertised of my desire, who imme- The character of Cabot seems only to have been difference of longitude is allowed for, the waters of diately commanded two caravels to be furnished with raised still higher by this expedition. Spain appears Lochlomond suddenly rose upon its banks, so high as to all things appertaining to the voyage.".

to have become jealous of the benefit which might accarry a boat at one place forty yards into the land ; and, By the date of a patent granted by Henry VII. to crue from his after-services to England, as we find him then receding, was in five minutes as low as it ever is John Cabot and his three sons, we find that this en- again invited to Spain in 1518, and bearing there, for remarked to be in dry summers. In five minutes more, terprise was finally resolved upon in March 1496. it rose again as rapidly as before, and then again Although the name of the father was included in this 1526, he took the command of a fleet of four ships,

some years, the honourable office of pilot-major. In receded. Thus it went on for an hour longer, but patent, and although successive modern writers upon titted out partly by merchants and partly at the always rising less each time. Loch Katrine, Loch maritime adventure have given praise to John Cabot public expense, for the prosecution of trado with Long (an arm of the sea), and Loch Ness, were all as a great discoverer, there is no good authority for the Molucca islands, which had been ceded at that agitated in the same way. On the same day, Pibley supposing that any one of the Cabots, excepting Sebas- time to Spain. This expedition was, in some respects, Dam or Pond, in Derbyshire, swelled in like manner tian, had an actual personal share in the conduct of unfortunate from its very outset. Cabot was thwarted. towards one end, and then receded. The highest rise the voyages that followed the acquirement of the in every possible manner by those who were concerned. in Lochlomond above the former level was two feet patent; though, being parties to it, and sharers in with him in the enterprise, the Spaniards being jealous

the fitting out of these expeditions, their names of him as a stranger and foreigner; and, accordingly, Soots Maxine, 1816, p. 145.

are usually associated with his in the history of mari- on the expedition crossing the Atlantic and touching

[graphic]
[graphic]

1

[graphic]

at Brazil, a mutiny broke out against the commander, to injure his fair fame, has been perpetuated in mari- To support his views, he brings the testiinony of at the head of which were two brothers of the name time history respecting him, through the misinterpre- the house-surgeon, who, in answer to queries pat of Rojas, and one Martin Mendez. Cabot acted on tation or neglect of the original authorities. In the to him, says—“ The character and appearance of the occasion with a degree of energy which secured Memoir published in 1831, these mistakes were for the the patients generally are very different from what the future peace of the expedition. Though alone, first time pointed out and rectified, and the name of they were fifteen or twenty years ago. The patients and among strangers, he instantly seized the ring- Sebastian Cabot will henceforth, we hope, take the are much more respectably dressed, and in better cirleaders, and placing them in a boat, put them ashore, high and honourable place that it is entitled to among cumstances. Many now, not from inability to walk, where they were soon after picked up by a Portuguese the great early navigators of the civilised world. are conveyed to the house in hackney coaches. vessel. This has been called a cruel act, but it was

They apply for much more trivial ailments than forone of those pieces of severity rendered indispen

merly.". I'he author speaks of females who come to sable by a proper regard both to private and public FACTS CONNECTED WITH THE MEDICAL the institution in elegant cloaks, shawls, and clogs. interests. Having lost one of his vessels by ship

CHARITIES OF SHEFFIELD.

Not one half of the applicants have the appearance of filment of the original objects of the enterprise. He which appeared in the 357th number of the Journal indigestion,

coughs

, or occasional pain, or, indeed, for wreck, Cabot deemed it imprudent to attempt the ful. Our readers will perhaps remember a few remarks indigence. The frequency with which they apply river La Plata, on the banks of which he built forts

, (Dec. 1, 1838), on the subject of Dispensaries. It was the removal of disease which just perceptibly mars and where he had much intercourse with the natives, pointed out that these institutions, while of course the beauty of the face or neck, is evidence that their "an infinite people (says an old writer), who with doing much good, are also doing some evil, in as far situation in life is very remote from those circumadmiration came running daily to the shippes.” Sebastian examined the rivers and coasts hereabout as, by the liberality with which their benefits are, it stances which entitle them to the sympathy of the with great attention, and inquired closely into the may almost be said, pressed

on the attention of the benevolent. The really poor never apply for the relief of

slight and unimportant complaints.' Afterwards he regions where the precious metals were most abun- poorer classes, they are teaching many to resort to adds_" In evidence of the trifling nature of many of dant. He spent about four years here in all, and in charity who are not necessitous, and thus are dimi- the medical cases, we may state that one-half are often the interim transmitted ample accounts of his dis- nishing that self-respect and spirit of independence cured in ten days, and two-thirds in three weeks.” coveries to Spain. These accounts led to the mighty which form so valuable an element in human charac

The results of his inquiries at the Dispensary are expeditions by which the Spaniards afterwards ac

nearly the same. The great bulk of the applicants quired the dominion of the greater part of South ter. We also took the opportunity of describing a

are either themselves artisans in the receipt of good America. Unlike his successors, Pizarro and Cortez, mode of obtaining medical attendance and medicine, wages, or the connections of such persons. They come Cabot had only one important quarrel with the natives without these bad results, by small weekly contribu- in respectable apparel, and, when visited at their during his stay. It was an accidental one,

and led tions from the poorer classes themselves—a plan which homes by the medical men, are found to possess every to the destruction of twenty-five of his own men, and is said to have been tried with the best effects in appearance of domestic comfort. Recommendations three hundred of the natives.

It is to be regretted that we possess so few parti- Coventry and Derby. In a volume which has recently procure admission ; but these are given, in seven cases culars of this voyage, in which Sebastian Cabot un- been published by a medical gentleman of Sheffield, out of ten, by persons who have no knowledge of the doubtedly exhibited all the qualities of a great captain we find some facts which throw light upon this ques circumstances of the applicants. “A gentleman who, and discoverer. He returned to Spain in 1531, and tion, and of which we shall therefore endeavour to from his

position in society, is often applied to, informs great honour and repute for many years afterwards

. lay a condensed view before the reader, premising letter from his employer, stating that he is a necesIn Ramusio's Voyages, a high tribute is paid to him, that, in the conclusion, we mean to draw inferences sitous object ; and though promising to give a recomby one who had seen him, and who “found him a most from the facts, somewhat different from those drawn mendation on this condition, not one in twenty returns gentle and courteous person, who treated me with by the author.

to receive it.” great kindness, and showed me a great many things ;

Facts still more remarkable are brought out by our and, among the rest, a great map of the world, on

The book is professedly the composition of an officer

physician. “The distresses of a community,” he says, which the several voyages of the Portuguese and of the two medical charities of Sheffield, the Infirmary meaning such a community as that of Sheffield, “ will Spaniards were laid down.” He is also praised as a and Dispensary. He sets out by stating very broadly be admitted to bear a strict relation to the state of very“valiant man,” and “one that could make cardes as his opinion, that the character of the working- trade. When this is extremely depressed, many hands to have been“ preferred, above all other pilots that degree of deterioration, in consequence of so many and the blessings of plenty are universally experienced. for the sea with his owne hand.” He is said,

moreover, classes in Sheffield is at present undergoing a certain are thrown out of employment. When the trade is besides those already pointed out, were made by Cabot charities, and particularly medical charities, being The amount of misery or destitution cannot be the after 1531, we are unable to say. Certain it is, that thrown open to them, the self-respect connected with same in these very different circumstances. It cannot he left Spain in 1548, and returned to England, being independence being thus gradually worn away, and be a fixed quantity

floating in society. The idea is apparently desirous to lay his bones in his native land, with it the virtues which have never yet been found preposterous ; and yet, if the registered demand for by the fact, that

the Spanish ambassador soon after to exist without it. The Infirmary, we are told, is indeed a quantity subject to scarcely any variation made an importunate demand that “Sebastian Cabot, was established for the benefit of the poor and needful whatever. Grand Pilot of the Emperor's Indies, might be sent of all nations ; but it never, our author argues, could From Midsummer 1835 to Midsummer 1836, beback to Spain, as a very necessary man for the em; have been designed for those who are able otherwise tween which periods trade was better in this town peror, whose servant he was, and had a pension from:" to obtain the desired aid. Now, however, the fact of than it had been known for years, the number of ward VI., not only declined to comply with the being an operative is held as a sufficient claim. “The patients admitted on the books of the Infirmary

was 3126. request, but bestowed on Cabot many personal marks artisan never dreams of the possibility of rejection on

From Midsummer 1836 to Midsummer 1837, beof favour, together with a pension of two hundred and the ground of being in full and regular employment, tween which periods the trade was exceedingly defifty, marks (L.166, 138. 6d.), a very liberal allowance and being amply remunerated for his labour. He pressed, the number was 3431, being an increase only in those days. The veteran navigator was also ap- applies now

as naturally to the charity when he is of 305 patients.

Between the former periods the number of patients time affairs of the country, under the title of Grand sick, as to the tailor for the repair of his clothes, with on the books

of the Dispensary

was 2888. Pilot, or some such name. Nothing seems to have this difference, that he would be perfectly astonished

Between the latter periods, that is, from July 1836 been done by the English, after this period, in the were any one to hint at the propriety of paying for to July 1837, the number was 2575, being less by 313 way of naval enterprise, without his sanction, and to the favours conferred by the former.” Our author patients. him Britain was indebted for the opening of a new

According to these returns there were eight patients outlet of trade, which has been an important source of argues against the following classes, at least, having

more during a prosperous state of trade, recipients of income ever since. In order to remedy the depressed any right to the benefits of the institution-Single men medical charity, than during the serere depression of it.state of the national commerce, Cabot strongly recom- in employment-married men with only young and He elsewhere states that healthy seasons are marked mended an expedition to be sent to the extreme north small families—men with several children but high by no diminution of the number of applicants. “We of Europe, to form a commercial union with Russia. wages—men who have several sons and apprentices hesitate not to assert that, during the last twelve company was established, of which Cabot was named working along with them—servants in situations. months, there has been less disease in this town and governor for life. The whale and Newfoundland fish- All of these persons, excepting the last, must be able and yet during this period the demands on medical

neighbourhood than has been known for many years, eries were in some measure indebted for their existence to provide medical attendance for themselves, if they charities have increased.” to this company, and “hence (says Campbell, in his economise their resources. He presents a hundred Our author ends by suggesting a number of new Lives of the Admirals) Sebastian Cabot may be said, cases of applications, being those within the few regulations for the purpose of restricting the benefits with strict justice, to be the author of our maritime weeks before the time when he was writing, and of the medical charities to the really poor, for

whom provements which have rendered us so great, so emi- out of these he shows that there were fifteen young has not allowed himself to see to the bottom of the nent, so flourishing a people.” In addition to these single men, all of whom but two had been in em

evil. On reading his book, two considerations arise services, it is known that Cabot was the first who ployment till the time of their illness, twelve at in our minds. First, in what measure is this great pointed out the variation of the needle. He explained well-paid crafts, and one as a labourer. Eleven cases

resort of respectable artisans to charities to be attrithe whole subject publicly to Edward VI.

Sebastian Cabot died about the year 1557, but the were of married persons without children, and thirty- buted to the unreasonable charges made by medical place where he died, and the spot where he lies, are two applicants were married, with only one or two chil- practitioners from working-men, when they are called alike unknown. We have some accounts, however, of dren. In some of the latter instances, “ the only child extent may it be owing to the impression which has

in upon an independent footing? Second, to what his deathbed from his friend Richard Eden, and find is a daughter eighteen or twenty years of age, who has of late years, justly or unjustly, been prevailing in the that the ruling passion of his life kept its hold to the never been allowed to go out to place, or to learn any minds of the operative classes, that the capitalled and last. In the half-sensible moments

of his final hour, business ; in others a son apprenticed to his father, employing class have an undue advantage over them, made to him respecting a new and sure method of find- and both in regular employment. In one instance, ing large and systematic eleemosynary allowances in ing the longitude, but which he was not permitted, he where the wife was the patient, the daughter was in behalf of the employed? The second of these queries said, to disclose.“ The spirit of the dying man (says a warehouse, and the son, a youth of fourteen years of is one which we are forbidden to discuss in this paper ; a writer in the American Review) was hovering, like

a age, was a day scholar in a respectable private academy but we may make the remark that, if the fact be so sea-bird, over that ocean which had been the scene of in the town. The

husband had received regularly to any extent, it is much to be lamented, is even a his harvest of glory; and the stirring

music of its twenty-four shillings a-week for the last twenty years. ing. With regard to the first query, we feel more at billows fell with vivid distinctness upon that inner ear, Many of the thirty-two cases are even more flagrant liberty. whose perception grew more acute, as the outward instances of impositions on the charity.”

We have been at some pains to ascertain the charges organ ceased by degrees to exercise its functions." This intrepid navigator has received scant measure

Certainly in the whole number of applicants for usually made to working-men in England for medi

cine and medical attendance; and though the returns of justice from historians, whether countrymen or relief, as far as our author has described them, we foreigners. A succession of errors, all tending to do not find that proportion of persons likely to be in little reason to doubt that these charges in general are

to our inquiries have been various, we fear there is too deprive him of his merited laurels, and even directly necessitous circumstances, which might be expected. such as must act as a constant temptation to the working-classes to resort to medical charities. We stances, so that the independence of these men would History :-“ Near thirty years ago, I had an oppor. shall first lay before our readers the following extracts be as much preserved with respect to the doctor as to tunity of examining a striking example of somnamfrom a letter with which we have been favoured by the baker? 'If some very moderate fixed charges were bulism. Within a mile of Edinburgh, I happened to a provincial physician eminent in the literature and made by the general practitioners, and that for advice reside some time in a farmer's

house. "Mr Baird, my science of his profession :

or attendance, instead of for medicine, a working man landlord, had a servant maid, whose name was Sarah. "My experience of upwards of twenty years leads would know whether he could afford to call a doctor I was not long there, when I learned from the me to assert that the labouring classes generally are

or not; he would be encouraged to make provision family, that Sarah, particularly after receiving an unable to pay private medical practitioners for ill. against sickness ; he would have the agreeable and affront, or being angered, was accustomed to rise in nesses in their families, if of any severity or extent of honour-sustaining sense of preserving his indepen- her sleep, to go out, and to walk about the fields. duration. This is true with scarcely any qualification dence; and the medical men, on the other hand, would My curiosity was excited, and I begged to be inwith the whole class of day-labourers and farm- probably be as well off with small charges which all formed the first time that Sarah should rise in her labourers, who earn from eight to twelve or thirteen or nearly all paid, as they can be with high charges sleep. A few nights afterwards, one of Mr Baird's shillings a-week. Men of superior rank, such as ar

which only a few can meet. The expedient of medical sons awaked me, and told me that Sarah had got out tisans in good employment, who may earn twenty or clubs is still better, because there the payment is of bed. I immediately hastened to the apartment thirty shillings, if they hate families, can hardly pay actually stored up while the working man and his where she slept. When I arrived, Mr and Mrs Baird, the doctors' bills, unless they are men of very uncom- family are in health : it is an expedient invested with one of their sons, and a servant maid, Sarah's compamon prudence, or have singularly healthy homes or all the respectable qualities of life-assurance. We nion, were present. Sarah was in the midst of them. singularly liberal doctors. The general custom in cannot conclude without again cordially recommend I took my seat by her. We began immediately to England (until lately the universal custom) is for ing the general establishment of such institutions converse. She answered any questions that were put

general practitioners, as they are called--that is, the throughout England, as the measure the best cal- to her pretty distinctly; but she always mistook the sole doctors of the lower and middle classes—to charge culated at once to obtain justice for the practitioner, person who spoke, which gave us an opportunity of nothing for attendance (unless they pay visits in the and to protect the independence of the people. assuming any character within the circle of her accountry at some distance from their homes, when

quaintance. they charge 2s., 2s.6d., 5s., 7s., according to the dis

SLEEP-WALKING.

I knew that one of the farmer's servants, whose tance), but for medicines supplied; but the price put

name was John Porteous, was a lover of hers; and on medicines is always calculated so as to include vir- No phenomenon in the human economy is calculated therefore I addressed her in the style which I supposed tually the charge for attendance. Thus, if an apothe- to excite so much surprise as that called Somnambu- John might have sometimes done. From that moment cary visits an artisan or labourer, he sends him perhaps lism, or Sleep-Walking. If sleep be the intermediate she began to scold me, and in the most peremptory mana bottle of physic, worth possibly a halfpenny or a state betwixt wakeful life and death, somnambulism ner forbade me ever to speak to her again on that topic. charges him 3s., 38. 6d., or certainly 28. or 23. 6d. is a condition intermediate betwixt sleep and wake her mistress, who was in the room, because I knew that This may last two or three days according to circum- fulness. In perfect sleep, all the organs or faculties they had occasional quarrels. Till now, I suspected stances, so that the cost to the patient will be ls., composing the mind, together with the external senses that the whole was a trick, but for what purpose I 1s. 6d., or 2s

. per day. Suppose the man's illness lasts and the powers of voluntary motion, are in a state of could not discover. Sarah, however, abused Mrs but a few weeks, the bill will be certainly 108., 20.

, rest or torpor. Dreaming is a slight approach to Baird in the harshest terms; she said but the other respondent then relates the particular case of the wakefulness, seeing that some of the cerebral organs some bottles of ale ; that her mistress was suspicious, brother-in-law of his housemaid, a jobbing day-la- are then in a state of activity, while others are quies- cruel, and narrow-minded. As the mistress of the bourer, realising at the time 12s. 6d. per week, paying cent. In dreaming, the external senses may or may house was present when these and other opprobrious L: of house rent besides poor-rates, and having a not be in a state of activity. Some people, for ex- terms were used, I began to be shaken in my preconwife and child. This man, falling sick, was attended ample, can be led to dream of particular subjects by ceived notion of imposture, and therefore changed the and the 8th January, being little more than three the talk of others placed near them when sleeping; countenance, and found that her eyes, though open, weeks. The doctor's bill

, which has been transmitted while other dreamers are totally insensible to all sounds wild, and staring, were not absolutely fixed. I took to us, shows a succession of charges for pills, draughts, emitted within the range of their organs of hearing. a pin, and repeatedly pricked her arm ; but not a and mixtures, at 28. and 3s, each, mingled with some in ordinary dreaming, too, the powers of voluntary muscle moved, not a symptom of pain was discoverable, blisters and leeches ; and the whole amount is L.4, 5s. motion are often exercised to a slight extent. A made several attempts to get out by the door ; but that -a sum evidently far beyond the means of such a man, but which he nevertheless paid by taking some dreamer, under the impression that he is engaged in an was prevented by the domestics. Perceiving her inamoney out of the savings' bank, and economising se- active battle, will frequently give a bed-fellow a smart bility to force the door, she made a sudden spring at the verely during the year ensuing upon the illness. The belabouring. Often, also

, in cases of common dream- window, and endeavoured to throw herself over, which worst of it was, that at January 8, when he had thus ing, the muscles on which the production of the voice would have been fatal to her.. To remove every sushad then after all to resort to the medical charities of that portion of the brain which is not in a quiescent precipitate herself from the

window: A seemingly free incurred a ruinous charge, he was not half cured, but depends are set in action, through the instrumentality picion of imposture, I desired the people, with

proper ceiving 30s. per week. “Last year, or the year before, state, and the dreamer mutters, or talks, or cries aloud access was left for her escape, which she perceived, he had some illness in his family, and the doctor's All these partial demonstrations of activity in the and instantly darted with such force and agility, that bills at the year's end amounted to L.15, which he could external senses, and in the powers of voluntary motion, more than one-half

of her body was projected before not pay. I would therefore say,”, continues our cor. form an approach to that remarkable state termed her, and prevented the dreadful catastrophe. She was forced in sickness, either to obtain medical relief from somnambulism, in which all or nearly all of the senses, again prevailed upon, though with much reluctance, charities (hospitals, dispensaries, or the parish), or to and of the muscles of the body, are frequently in perfect to sit down. She soon resumed her former calmness, involve themselves in debt to the doctor, or to ruin activity, the torpor of a part of the cerebral organs and freely answered such questions as were put to her. themselves by paying him, or, finally, to leave their being the only feature rendering the condition diffe- This scene continued for more than an hour. I was sickness to the kind care of Nature. .admit that rent from that of waking life. The degrees in which picions, that the woman was actuated by strong and good many, who might, by prudence, save a little the preceding characteristics are observable in som natural impulses, and not by any design to deceive. I inoney for the day of sickness, do not do so : some, nambulism, vary, as is natural, in different cases, and asked if any of the attendants knew how to awaken her. even, who can well afford to pay the doctor, obtain the causes of this, as well as of the condition itself, are A female servant replied that she did. She immediately, relief ; but, as things now stand, I am convinced that well and forcibly explained by Mr Macnish, in his to my astonishment, laid hold of Sarah’s wrist, forcibly classes and artisans could not get on at all. I am Anatomy of Sleep. “If we dream that we are walk- squeezed and rubbed the projecting bones,

calling out sorry to say that, from the constitution of the profes- ing, and the vision possesses such a degree of vividness Sarah awoke. She stared with amazement, looked sion in this country, the pure spirit of trade prevails and exciting energy as to arouse the muscles of loco round, and asked how so many people came to be in largely among the medical men, and this will be the motion, we naturally get up and walk. Should we her apartment at so unseasonable an hour ? After case until two changes are brought about-1, a better dream that we hear or see, and the impression be so

she was completely awake, I asked her what was the education (preliminary more particularly), to enlarge

cause of her restless and violent agitation! She rethe mind ; 2, the charging for prescribing only, and vivid as to stimulate the eyes and ears, or, more pro- plied, that she had been dreaming that she was purnot for medicines. The only thing that can in any perly speaking, those parts of the brain which take sued by a furious bull, who was every moment on the way mitigate the present evil of dependence as to cognisance of sights and sounds, then we both see any point of goring her.” medical relief, is the establishment of medical clubs objects, or hear any sounds, which may occur, just

In the preceding case there is one point worthy of on good principles (such as proposed by the Poor-Law Commissioners) among the poor. This has been done are excited, and then we simply walk, without hearing will be shown afterwards, this is a phenomenon which as if we were awake. In some cases, the muscles only especial note, and this is the insensibility of the girl

to pain when her arm was repeatedly pricked. As that the great obstacle to such institutions has lain, or seeing;" In other cases, for the reasons given, we has recently thrown quite a novel interest over

somand lies, with the medical profession !

both walk and see, and in a third variety, we at once nambulism, and made it a subject of greater importAnother of our correspondents, a young Scotch walk, see, and hear. In the same way, the vocal physician settled in London, represents, on the other organs alone may be stimulated, and a person may The somnambulist in Smellie's case had not appahand, that the doctors' bills are very frequently left merely be a sleep-talker; or, under a conjunction of rently the perfect power of vision. She did not or unpaid, and that a vast deal is done by the profession impulses, he may talk, walk, see, and hear.

could not recognise the persons about her, yet she saw gratuitously among the humbler classes, from the mere These brief explanations may aid in preventing the a window, and would have leapt through it, knowing spirit of benevolence. This may quite well be, and reader from being puzzled by the philosophy of this that a passage was practicable. The true condition of yet the system upon the whole may be such as to curious condition of the bodily system, or from being the vision in somnambulism is indeed the point most press severely on those who are willing and able to pay disposed to discredit the cases related. The simplest difficult to comprehend. The boy who, according to reasonably. If the prudent and honest man can only and perhaps least surprising cases are those in which the common story, rose in his sleep and took a nest obtain independent medical attendance by the sacrifice the locomotive powers alone of the body are set in of young eagles from a dangerous precipice, must have of the little sum he has been able to put into a savings action by the vividness of a dreaming impulse. The received the most accurate accounts of external obbank, he has but little encouragement to make the at person rises, strikes his head or body against some-jects from his visual organs, and must have been able tempt to save. If he is obliged from absolute poverty thing, and awakes. A leap from bed is also a com- to some extent to reason upon them, else he could to leave a large bill altogether unpaid, he is degraded paratively common and slight species of somnambulism. never have overcome the difficulties of the ascent. in his own esteem, and rises from his sick-bed a worse in the belief of being compelled to cross a ditch by He dreamed of taking away the nest, and to his

great member of society than he lay down. Between the the pursuit of a bull

, a gentleman bounded some surprise found it beneath his bed in the morning in demoralisation thus produced, and that which arises time since from bed, and at one spring found himself the spot where he only thought himself to have put from the direct resort to medical charities, we see placed upon a dressing-table which stood a short way it in imagination. The following case, mentioned by little difference. It may at the same time be true from the foot of the bed. A few inches farther, and Mr Macnish, is scarcely less wonderful. It occurred that the system is not a good one upon the whole for he would have passed through or at least struck a near one of the towns on the Irish coast. “About two the medical men; but if this be the case, why should window. But such cases have little interest in com- o'clock in the morning, the watchmen on the Revenue they oppose the introduction of a better ! Why should parison with those in which

the somnambulism is not Quay were much surprised at descrying

a man disportthey not come to some arrangement for charging the momentary, but of continued duration. The following ing himself in the water, about a hundred yards from operative classes according to their actual circum- case is related by Smellie, in his Philosophy of Natural the shore. Intimation having been given to the re

ance.

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