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her tormentor; “what will you take for that ?--or where “Here's a letter of Mary Dacey's, directed to Ben repetition of the first word can reach the ear, the in the world did ye find such satin ?”
Tomlines, and that's her sweetheart, I know," exclaimed speaker has time to utter a number in succession, “ What's that to you ?" she replied tartly; "give me one of the children, who had been rummaging over the which, in like manner, do not reach the obstacle early back my goods, and don't be stopping a poor traveller on pedlar's basket with childish delight. her way." “ I'm not stopping you,” replied Mrs Mulvany, who covered—then she knew all was over, for the letter, which which, like the preceding, is compound in a double Then, indeed, the lady's maid saw her plot was dis- enough
to confuse the echo of the first.
At Roseneath, in Argyleshire, there is an echo, remembered that Mary had said in her letter she thought the goose-plucker had engaged to convey to her lover what the lady's maid had given the goose-plucker was one of the worst fellows in Clonmel
, and that is saying a sense. If a person, placed at the proper distance, blue. This determined her on a singular course of pro- great deal), exulted in very strange orthography over the plays eight or ten notes of an air on a trumpet, the ceeding.
success of her scheme to turn the pricst's niece out of echo faithfully repeats them, but a third (that is, two " What's yer basket worth ?"
her place ; it evinced how impossible it is for bad people notes) lower ; after a short silence, another repetition 6 Myself can't tell.”
to appropriate proper motives to the most virtuous ac- is heard, in a tone still lower ; and a third time, after “ Did you give ten shillings for what's in it ?"
tions, for it contained
interval, the silence is broken by a third repe“ Where would a poor craythur like me get ten shil- has not done me any karm yet, but I'm sure she will, for she tition, in a tone the lowest of all. lings?"
has the power." The ingratitude of this wicked girl speaks It has been mentioned as somewhat difficult to comThere's ten-and-sixpence for it, then," said Mrs Mul- for itself;
but I hope it is unnecessary to make
any observa- | prehend, how nature, without the aid of smooth revany, quickly, throwing her half a guinea. “ There's tion on Mary Cassidy's culpable weakness, which brought Hecting surfaces, and indeed by the agency often of ten-and-sixpence for it. Will that do?.. Go on, Jerry; all this trouble upon her. When she saw that her fel: surfaces extremely rough and broken, can so perfectly ye heard her say it wasn't worth ten shillings."
low servant persisted in a course which was decidedly at concentrate and throw back sounds as we find done in The goose-plucker stood with staring eyes, looking variance with her employers' interests—a course which the case of most natural echoes. The fact that sound after the rapidly trotting horse
of Mrs Mulvany,
while she had moral proof was dishonest.-she should have said obeys laws of reflection similar to those of light, rather Jerry, delighted at his mother's frolic, turned round grin- so. She should have told her mistress; and any servant increases than diminishes the difficulty. This fact ning most gloriously, and waving his Clan Alpin in who does not, becomes the accomplice of thieves. adieu to the outwitted rogue. But suddenly gathering Mrs Mulvany remained all that evening at Castle will be apparent from a description of what is called the op her energies, the goose-plucker set off screaming after Hazard, and Mary, after
seeing the folly of her ways, was magic mirror.” This mirror is constructed as follows. the horse and its riders, while Mrs Mulvany, having dis- reinstated in her mistress's favour, while those who de A concave mirror is fixed in a vertical position, opcovered that the basket had a false bottom, sat coolly served it, lost both place and character.
posite to a partition-wall in which there is an aperture examining its contents.
“I have heard,” said the poor girl, before bidding her of the same size as the mirror, and facing it exactly. A When she arrived at Castle Hazard, Mrs Mulvany had friend good night, " I have heard from=you know who small thin curtain may conceal this aperture, and also good reason to rejoice at her promptness. She found in the midst of my trouble the letter came; he knows the mirror, without impeding the passage of the sound. that Mary Dacey had got up a well-arranged plan to de- all; and what do you think he says? That he's got pro- On the other side of the wall, at a very short distance stroy Mary Cassidy's character. Several things had been moted, and is in the rank of a gentleman. A gentleman from it, a second mirror is placed, exactly facing the missed by the lady of the house, and the charge of rob- at sea !—and when I came to that, my heart sank. But hole in the wall and the first mirror. If a small bery laid both directly and indirectly upon the priest's a little farther on-here-you can read it yourself. He figure be fixed with its ear or head in the focus of one niece. Mary Cassidy was in tears; but protesting inno- says that he will be home, and we shall be m-am mirror, any person who places his ear in the focus of cence is not proving it.
There, dear Mrs Mulvany, you can read the word, and he the second, will hear distinctly the slightest whisper Mary Dacey was wicked enough to say she'd take her does not think the worse of me FOR GOING TO SERVICE." oath that she saw the blue satin, which was one of the
which may be uttered in the ear of the figure alluded things her mistress missed, in Mary Cassidy's possession.
to. In other words, although the mirrors are in difIt so happened that Mrs Mulvany arrived at the very
ferent rooms, the slightest sound uttered in the focus moment the examination was going on in the parlour; The manner in which echoes are produced, common straight lines, through the aperture in the wall, to the
of one mirror is reflected from it, and conveyed in and she said at once, “ Mary, let your boxes be searched." as the phenomenon is, has not been very perfectly other mirror, in the focus of which it is condensed cence, and saw, when it was too late, that truth cannot it is now understood, is propagated by vibrations of aid of thin curtains, and all proper apparatus, jugglers
80 as to be audible there, and there alone. With the " Oh, Mary Dacey !" she exclaimed, “ how could you the air, which, originating in a centre-point, pass have made this magic mirror a source of mighty wontreat me so, when you knew right well what I saved you spherically outwards, in all directions, like the waves derment. It is upon the same principle that the famous from "
produced by the dropping of a stone into a pool. On echoing or whispering galleries of Florence and other This led to the inquiry, what she had saved her from ? | meeting any obstacle, these vibrating waves of elastic places are constructed, or rather that they act, since and then came a daring appeal from the young sinner. air must first sustain a certain degree of condensation, such qualities were not intentionally given to them by She turned to her master and asked him if it could have and then rebound in a direction contrary to that of the architects. In these galleries, the least whisper been possible that she was in the goose-house the night their former movement, carrying back the sound. emitted at a certain point at one end is heard at a cerhe entered without his seeing her ? This boldness in lying almost paralysed Mary Cassidy, of course, the reverberated sound is intrinsically the of the echo. The following curious instance is mentioned
This repercussion constitutes what is called an echo. tain point at the other, or, in other words, in the focus and her master was compelled to confess he did not think same as it was before ; the difference lies only in the in Herschel's Treatise on
Sound :-“In the cathedral of it could. " How often,” continued the artful girl, « have I found degrees of force and clearness.
Girgenti, in Sicily, the slightest whisper is borne with money, madam, that you lost, and brought it you!—this
This explanation is simple, and may seem, at first perfect distinetness from the great western door to was not the act of a rogue, was it ?”
view, satisfactory. But it must be admitted that there the cornice behind the high altar, a distance of two Her mistress was obliged to admit the fact, and the are difficulties attending the subject, which are not hundred and fifty feet. By a most unlucky coinfeelings of their fellow servants not in the plot wavered explicable by a reference to any such simple funda- cidence, the precise focus of divergence at the forfrom the priest's niece to the lady's maid.
mental theory. We find, by experiment, that sound mer station was chosen for the place of the confesMrs Mulvany kept her purchase all this time concealed is reflected in nearly the same manner as light; yet sional. Secrets never intended for the public ear thus beneath the shadow of her riding-skirt ; then suddenly light requires a polished surface for reflection, whereas, became known, to the dismay of the confessors and producing it, she said, “ Mary Daccy, do you know this in the case of many natural echoes, the repercussions the scandal of the people, by the resort of the curious basket ?" “ It's mighty like-a-a-basket,” she stammered.
of sound appear to be produced by the most uneven to the opposite point (which seems to have been dis" Whose basket ?" inquired Mrs Mulvany, fixing her truth, all that we really understand of the matter had his curiosity somewhat overgratified by hearing
surfaces, by shapeless rocks, and even by clouds. In covered accidentally), till at length one listener, having “Why, I don't know; sure I can't tell; how should I is, that the columns of vibrating or sonorous air, by a confession of a disagreeable nature
from his wife, know?"
which any sound is propagated, meet a peculiarly this tell-tale peculiarity became generally known, and “Do you know this blue satin-this lace--this fine shaped obstacle, and rebound, so forming an echo to the confessional was removed.” scent-box?” And she continued drawing forth a curious any ear which is within the range of the repercussion. A very peculiar echo has been noticed at a spot assemblage of things, peculations not only from Castle There will be no echo, however, if the original sound called Genesay, near Rouen. At this place the perHazard, but other houses. How frightful is vice at any is still affecting the organ of hearing. The car does son who speaks or sings hears only his own voice, and age, but in the young it is awful.
not distinguish the succession of two sounds unless not the echo; a person, listening near by, hears only “Well!" exclaimed the hardened girl, “now I do there be between them an interval of the twelfth of a the echo, and not the voice ; to others, standing still look at the basket, it is mighty like Nanny the goose- second, and as sound travels about ninety-five feet in farther apart, there appears to be a mixture of voices plucker's; the creature has been about the house, and the course of a second, the obstacle or object which or sounds, to an amazing extent ; and, finally, while ov coorse Mary turned the ready penny with her!” Just as she had so said, Mrs Mulvany observed the that distance away, or about forty-eight feet from the
causes the repetition of a vocal sound must be half one person hears it on the right, to another the echo goose-plucker advancing down the avenue at a much utterer, in order to permit the echo to be distinguish report varies constantly with each party's position.
or voice seems to be on the left, and so on. The more rapid pace than she could have conceived possible, able by him. her blue cloak flying behind, and her progress marked by
This oblique echo is formed by a semicircular range the escape of sundry feathers that floated away upon the heard"; "a compound echo, where two or more are Sciences an attempt is made to explain the whole
A simple echo is that in which one repetition is of buildings, and in the Memoirs of the Academy of She observed that Mary Dacey changed colour, but audible. In the case of a single echo, there appears phenomena by a reference to the form and arrangeMary Cassidy wept as before.
to be but one obstacle to the passage of sound; in ments of the edifice. But the marvel is, why such “ I have one favour to ask, madam,” said Mary's friend, that of compound echoes, there are either various ob- echoes are not common, seeing that in the case of advancing to the lady who had been so wrought upon by stacles, so placed that the separate reflections of sound ordinary echoes we cannot generally discern any cause this bad girl.
caused by them strike the ear at different times, or for the concentration of the echo into a single report. . Will you permit me, and me only, to have a word the locality is such that the sound, once reflected, When a hill, or a building, or trees, form the resonant with that woman before she enters here P and Mrs Mul- meets new obstacles, and is re-echoed for a greater or obstacles, as they do in most cases, we commonly obvany pointed to the advancing enemy.
lesser number of times. This request was granted. Mary Dacey at first en
serve about them so many angles and inequalities, that treated and expostulated, saying Mrs Mulvany and the
Compound echoes are those of course which have we might naturally expect them to yield, one and all, goose-plucker would sell her betwixt them, but in vain. chiefly interested philosophers, simple echoes being echoes similar to that of Genesay. A conter portion And when the woman entered the room with Mrs Mul- comparatively common. One of the most remark of the locality ought to yield a much weaker and more kony the girl saw that the truth would be known, for
the able echoes noticed any where, is that which Mr Ad- diffused sound than a concare object ; and there can goose-plucker imagined it was known already. Still the dison mentions as existing at the villa of Simonetta, be no doubt that such causes will always produce such love of lying, aided by the natural quickness of a clever but corrupt nature, swayed them both. The goose- here repeated about forty times, and the report of a near Milan. A man's voice, speaking in full tones, is results, could we distinctly trace the connection on
a large scale. plucker's evidence was most cautiously given ; and it pistol about sixty times; but they follow each other so The subject of echoes is of great importance, when was marvellous how she acted upon the hint of Mary rapidly that it is scarcely possible to number them. we consider it in relation to the diffusion of sound in Why, not two minutes ago," said Mrs Mulvany, “ you by the reflecting of the sound between the two paral- and the original sound are heard in succession, as is the
According to travellers, this phenomenon is occasioned churches and other public buildings. Where the echo elbase your silence, as you and the hen-wife determined sist of dead walls, standing at right'angles to the main disagreeable, and prevents the speaker from being to tell all you knew, and get her out of her place if she edifice. This seems to be a case, therefore, where the heard. The desirable plan is, not to destroy the echo; "Ah!"
said the old wretch, assuming the most simple echo of the original sound is re-echoed, again and again. but so to concentrate it, that it may chime in with expression of countenance, “ you bothered me, so you At Woodstock, in Oxfordshire, there is another re- and strengthen the speaker's voice. Dr Boswell Reid did, betwixt the two Marys-it was Mary Cassidy 1 markable compound echo, which repeats a single sound effected this in the temporary edifices for the two
not less than fifty times. In addition to this power, Houses of Parliament, by placing peculiarly shaped Mrs Mulvany looked—but no matter how she looked ; the Woodstock echo repeats, by day, seventeen syl reflecting boards around the building, in order to conde goose-plucker had confessed all to her, yet now seemed lables in succession,
and by night twenty. This repe- centrate the sound, and by flooring the house with a determined to turn that all to the ruin of an innocent tition of several syllables or words depends on the matted substance, which could not reflect or diffuse
distance of the obstacle from the speaker. Refore the the sound anew.
But it is to natural echoes that we wish to confine It was as much as I could do to take a few steps under hand. There are Jews of all trades, of all professions; ourselves at present, and we shall, in conclusion, give the burden. • Poor thing !' said I, as I threw it down, my tinman is a Jew. As I have occasion for a good
many tin boxes and cases to hold valuable objects, I see some remarks of Herschel upon the echoes of Menai. looking at the curé, how old is she ? Not more than “ Beneath the Suspension Bridge across the Menai sixteen, I daresay.' Sixteen !' said he; she is not thir: him frequently; and his assiduity, his indefatigable acStrait in Wales, close to one of the main piers, is a teen;' and, addressing her in Arabic, he asked, “How old tivity, always fills me with surprise. A quality peculiar
are you, my girl ?' • Twelve, sir.' I took from my pocket here to this class of persons, is a civility which forms a remarkably fine echo. The sound of a blow on the pier with a hammer is returned in succession from she accepted with a lively demonstration of joy. But to the other inhabitants. Have you lost your way? Are
some pieces of money, which I handed to her, and which singular contrast with the rude, uncouth behaviour of each of the cross beams which support the roadway, go so far for water is not the only task of the poor
Beth- you seeking a street ? A Jew, be sure, will offer to conand from the opposite pier at a distance of 576 feet : lehemites. The town is destitute of wood, nor is any to duct you ; he will even accompany you for a considerable and in addition to this, the sound is many times re be found nearer than some leagues. It is the women who distance; and, too proud to ask for pay, too fond of gain peated between the water and the roadway. The effect
are obliged to provide this also. But what wrings one's to make an absolute sacrifice of it, when you have reached is a series of sounds which may be thus described :- heart, and I must confess makes my blood boil, is to see the place to which you are going he will look at you The first return is sharp and strong from the roadway these wretched worn-down emaciated creatures, having hand, he will cast an eye at your pocket: if you choose to overhead; the rattling which succeeds dies away misery stamped on their faces, sinking beneath their take the hint, well and good.” rapidly, but the single repercussion from the opposite loads, passing in sight of their husbands, listlessly seated
The name of Djezzar Pacha has been made familiar pier is very strong, and is succeeded by a faint palpi- in the public square, smoking and chatting by way of tation, repeating the sound at the rate of twenty-eight pastime, while not a thought ever enters the head of any to English ears by his desperate defence of Acre times in five seconds, and which therefore corresponds of these heartless husbands to relieve his partner of her against Napoleon, which rolled back the tide of war to a distance of 184 feet, or very nearly the double burden, and to carry for her at least from that spot to his from Syria to Egypt, and prevented the establishment
of a French empire in the Levant. Even among interval from the roadway to the water. Thus, it home what she has had to bring whole leagues. appears that in the repercussion between the water which has cost such toil, she is obliged to heat the water
Is this all ? No, my friend. At night, with this wood oriental despots, Djezzar, or “the butcher,” as his
name signifies, holds the pre-eminence for remorseless and roadway, that from the latter only affects the brought from such a distance, she has to wash the feet cruelty ; ears, eyes, and noses, were rare appendages ear, the line drawn from the auditor to the water of that man, then to cook his supper, then to wait upon among his courtiers ; and had he preserved the heads being too oblique for the sound to diverge suffi- him standing-upon him and his eldest son---without of his victims, he might easily have raised a loftier ciently in that direction. Another peculiarity de- taking the least share in the meal, and to wait till they pile than the ghastly monument erected by Nadir serves especial notice : the echo from the oppo- have done before she can step aside to eat by herself what Shah. Yet Djezzar is regretted at Acre ; he was insite pier is best heard when the auditor stands pre- they have left... The pen drops from my tingers. Is flexibly just when nothing interfered with his caprice; pier, and strikes just on that point. As it deviates to all the attentions, of all the affections
of man, can be and there mingled in his judgments a bitter humour one or the other side, the return is proportionably thus treated by man? Is it possible that she can be and sarcastic spirit of jesting, which were highly grafainter, and is scarcely heard by him when his station thus treated, who carries him in her bosom, who brings tifying to oriental imaginations. The following speis a little beyond the extreme edge of the pier, though wm forth with pain, who suckles him with her milk, cimen of his deciding disputed possession by a parable, another person, stationed (on the same side of the who warms him on her heart, who rocks him upon affords a favourable view of his character: her knees, who guides his first steps, who strives by
“ A young Christian, carrying on business at St Jean water) at an equal distance from the central point, so
education to transfuse into him all that is gentle and d'Acre, had won the good graces of Djezzar by the dealas to have the pier between them, hears it well.” In kind, who delights to throw a charm over his life, who ings which he had had with him, when selling him varithis case, possibly from the superior skill and accuracy shares his sorrows, who best knows how to soothe his ous European commodities. He lived in a handsome of the observer, we find an intelligible connection woes, to comfort him, to nurse him in illness and infir- house with his father, an aged and infirm man. The pointed out between cause and effect. It is only from mity, to lighten and sometimes to embellish his old age, latter occupied the best and most convenient apartment a similarly close examination of natural echoes, in and to perform for him, until his last moment, services on the second floor. general, that architects will arrive at just principles of which any other courage, any other devotedness, any The young man, who was about to marry, requested for their guidance in the erection of buildings intended other love, would be incapable? And that at Bethle- his father to give up his room to him for a few weeks only, for public speaking. hem !"
protesting that he would then restore it with many A deeper interest belongs to the condition of the thanks. The old man complied; and going down to the
Jews in Jerusalem ; outcasts and aliens in the city of first floor, though it was disagreeable and unwholesome, GERAMB'S TRAVELS IN PALESTINE.*
their fathers, with the symbol of foreign dominion be settled laimself in it. At the expiration of the time TWENTY-FIVE years ago, there appeared in London a and worship displayed over the spot where once their specified, he claimed his room ; the young couple begged whiskered German baron, driving a chariot of inexpli- national temple stood—“the abomination of desolation
him to wait; he consented, and allowed a further term. cable construction, dressed in a costume that combined in the holy place"-ever before their eyes ; spurned the ungrateful son, unmindful of what he owed to his
At the end of it he again urged his claim. But this time the oddities of every nation under heaven, and proclaim- alike by Mussulmans and Christians; slaves, nay, the parent, insolently declared that he intended to stay where ing himself a victim of Napoleon's tyranny. Such an bondsmen of a slave, it is no wonder that moral de he was, and desired that he might not be troubled any arrival at a time when the long war had made a fo- gradation has followed in the train of political suffer more on the subject. The unfortunate father bore the reigner a rare sight in England, produced a sensation ing, and that intellect has been crushed beneath the injury in silence, but as his compliance with the wishes of which the present generation can form no concep- hoofs which trampled down the heart. It is highly of his son, and the restrictions which he had attached, tion. Baron Geramb became the great lion of the creditable to the baron, bigot though he be, that his were known, the unworthy conduct of the young man day; his portrait appeared in every print-shop ; his sympathies were awakened for this proscribed race ;
soon became public. movements were recorded in every paper ; no party indeed he speaks of them in more favourable terms
Djezzar, by means of his numerous spies, knew all that was complete without his presence ; even Carlton than any preceding travellers, and we gladly do them passed. Being informed of this circumstance, he sent for House courted him as a guest; and he never appeared the justice of quoting his testimony.
the son. The young man relying on a good-will, of which in public without a crowd at his heels. He reigned “The Jews of this country have been represented by tened to the pacha, without hesitation and without fear,
he had previously received habitual testimonies, has'supreme in the fashionable world some six or seven some writers in a light that seems to me absolutely false. He found him in the divan, surrounded by his ministers weeks longer than ever lion reigned before, but at It is true that here, as every where else, they retain that length suddenly disappeared. After the lapse of nearly characteristic type which distinguishes them from all bad incurred his displeasure.
and his executioners, and very soon perceived that he as much time as nature assigns to a generation of man, the people in the world ; that seal, that stamp, which • Of what religion art thou ?' cried Djezzar, darting at the baron suddenly comes again before the world as if neither time nor climate effaces; it is true that at Je him
a look that made him turn pale with fear, and de he had risen from the dead, no longer a man of fashion, rusalem the Jew is still a Jew, and there, too, interest prived him of the power of reply. I ask,' he resumed, but a monk of La Trappe, in which capacity he in- is his idol, he has expatriated himself to come and raising his voice, of what religion thou art ?" forms us he has traversed Palestine as a humble pil- die there. In order that after his death he may be laid
•I-I am a Christian, as your excellency knows. grim. The book before us is the result of his journey. beneath a few stones in the valley of Jehoshaphat, he "A Cliristian! thou liest! Let us see! Make the
It must be owned at the outset that the guise under has left the country in which he was born, his home, sim of the Christians !
The young man, trembling, made the sign of the cross. portunities of becoming acquainted with some portions sheds floods of tears over the destruction of the holy his dagger.
• That is not it,' said the pacha, clapping his hand upon of the population which escape the notice of the gene- city, and the dispersion of his nation : and with a heart
* Pronounce aloud,' continued he; 'prorality of travellers. An Englishman or a Frenchman
nounce aloud the words which accompany that sigu!' wrung, with eyes yet dim with tears, he is ready to lend, armed with a firman is transmitted from one Mahom at an exorbitant interest, to him who unfortunately is Holy Ghost,' replied the terrified Christian.
In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the medan authority to another, and all that he sees of obliged to have recourse to his purse. But, on the other the Christian population is in hasty visits to monas- hand, it must be confessed that the Jews of Jerusalem
• Repeat them,' said the pacha,' and speak louder. I teries, and a few of the most celebrated churches.
am old, and growing deaf.'' are in general well educated, and not deficient in attainThe humble monk visits the cottages of the Catholic ments; they understand several languages ; almost all of and repeated in as loud a voice as he could, ' In the name
The young man lifted his right hand to his forehead, Arabs, whose very existence is almost unknown to them speak Spanish and Italian. The school in their of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' other tourists; and though our author gives fewer synagogue, though inferior to that which they have at
• Aha!' cried Djezzar, in a voice that made the divan particulars of this interesting race than we could Tiberias, which is the most celebrated of all, is directed shake, and thrilled the young man with horror. Aha! desire, still inquiries in other quarters have convinced by masters who devote themselves with zeal to the in- wretch! the Father is on the forehead, the Son on the us that his facts are authentic. The severe tasks treat their pupils with the more severity, because they Father is above, and the Son below. Go, scoundrel! go
Knowest thou what that means ?-the which the Arabs generally impose upon their women have been fully described by Burckhardt and Niebuhr; precepts of the Bible. When I visited the boys school, thy head shall roll in the dust."
conceive that in so doing they are conforming with the home ; and if in a quarter of an hour it is not so there, the baron informs us that Christianity has not led to I was struck to see a little urchin, seven or eight years any amelioration of the female condition in Palestine, old, tied with a cord, and receiving the bastinado on the himself at the feet of his father, to beg his pardon, and to
I need not say what haste the culprit made to throw and his description of the toils that they are compelled to endure at Bethlehem possesses much melan- without crying as children generally
do. I immediately give up the room which he liad dared to withhold from solicited his pardon through my dragoman.
" “ As the reservoirs and the canals which supply Beth- willingly granted by the master. Notwithstanding the We shall not follow the baron in his pilgrimage to lehem as well as Jerusalem with water, are in ruins, and severity of the discipline, and the incessant studies to the various localities which tradition has consecrated dry eleven months in the year, the women are obliged to
which they are kept, all these boys have a cheerful look. as the scenes of the events in Gospel history. His go a league to fetch what they want for household use,
The parents, and even the children, have a certain po- credulity on these subjects, whether real or affected, and to bring it back themselves in skins. Add to this
liteness in their manners, which form a singular contrast is so outrageously extravagant, that it is painfully, the toil of Climbing steep hills under their burden, and with those of the inhabitants belonging to other nations. ridiculous. "His account of Egypt, though superficial then say, my dear friend, if it be possible to suppress a
I have never seen a Jew asking charity; I have never painful feeling, especially when you consider that this seen one covered with the rags of wretchedness, which
and sketchy, contains some vivid descriptions, which task is to be performed three or four times a-week. are but too frequently met with among the Arabs and bear internal proofs of their fidelity. His picture of
A few days since I was taking a walk outside the town the Christians ; and this is owing less to the relief which the present state of Alexandria is equally accurate and with the curé. About three quarters of a mile from it,
the poor receive from the rich, or from that which foreign amusing. we met with a young girl returning with her provision synagogues transmit to their indigent brethren, than to “ In its present state it exhibits the most extraordiShe had set down her skin upon a fragment of rock, and activity and industry. The Jew is a stranger to that nary, nay, even the most hideous contrasts: it is a con. was standing beside it, out of breath, and wiping the slothful fondness for rest so common among the people fused assemblage of palaces and cabins, a mixture of spiration from her face. Curious to know the weight of
of the Levant, whose useless and indolent life is the luxury and poverty, of indolence and activity, of Turkish the skin, I begged her to put it on my shoulders ; my principal cause of their indigence. The Jew employs habits and European manners, which astonish the fo request astonished her not a little ; she nevertheless himself; he spreads out sometimes upon a tottering reigner. Here you are amidst bustle, the din of business complied very cheerfully.
stone, wares of such small value, that you are utterly or of pleasure, there all is the silence and solitude of the
astonished that he can hope to derive any profit from desert. A man superbly dressed, covered with shawls of ' * Journal of Travels in Palestine, Egypt, and Syria. By Marie
them ; but should he sell no more than will enable him great value, walks by the side of a naked wretch; an Joseph de Geramb, Monk of La Trappe. London, Colburn.
to procure a morsel of bread, that appears him pre- | English chariot, drawn by four magnificent horses, with ferable to the shame he would feel in holding out his footmen in laced liveries, is crossing a pile of camels
driven by squalid Arabs; European ladies, perfumed, in Gui Pope relates that going to Chalons (this must hunting leisurely through that distance, which is comthe most elegant costume, are tripping along by those have been about the middle of the fifteenth century), posed chiefly of wide fat prairies, with few and rehideous figures, barefooted, without any other garment to present his homage to the king, he saw upon a motely situated habitations of the frontier settlers. than a chemise of blue cloth, that is falling to rags, with. gibbet a pig
which had been
hanged for killing a child. At a small village on the river, the steamer arrived out any other veil than a piece of dirty linen with which On the 228 of September 1543, at an assembly held with the baggage, and part of the proposed company; leaves nothing exposed but two dull eyes that tell of dis- by the principal council of the city of Grenoble, one and now the ulterior arrangements were made for set tress and want ; Europeans seated at a sumptuous ban- of the members represented that the slugs and cater- ting out.
There were amongst the men, to compose the caraare driven along under their
windows with sticks, and manding “ that they should petition the ecclesiastical van, a great variety of dispositions. Some who had quet, singing about liberty, while at the moment men pillars did dreadful mischief. He concluded by deboys of twelve years old are dragged with chains about judge to excommunicate the said creatures, and to not been accustomed to the kind of life they were to their necks, to be made soldiers and sailors against their proceed against them by means of restriction, to lead, looked forward to it with eager delight, and talked will ; intelligent workmen, under the direction of a skil- obviate the damage they daily committed, and would of stirring incidents and hairbreadth escapes. Others, fal architect, erecting monuments which attest and do occasion in future ;” and the council decreed in con- who were more experienced, seemed to be as easy and honour to the progress of the arts ; while others are rum- formity to this demand. A similar case, which oc- unconcerned about it as a citizen would be in contemmaging in the ground, breaking up capitals and shafts of curred in 1584, is more particularly related by Chorier plating a drive of a few miles into the country. Some columns, and statues, which time has spared.
in his History of Dauphiny. “This year," says he, were evidently reared in the shade, and not accustomed One thing which appears to me worthy of remark, be- “ was remarkable for continual rains; there was an to hardships: many were almost as rough as the grizzly cause I have not met with it elsewhere, is, that at the infinite number of caterpillars : and the same causes bears, and not a little proud of their feats, of which corner of every street you find asses well
caparisoned, of corruption were renewed in 1586. Extraordinary they were fond of boasting; but the majority were city, or to go from one quarter to another, and whom measures were taken against the insects, which
became strong able-bodied men. During the day, the captain they follow on the run without
even flagging? There are extremely multiplied. The walls, the windows, and kept all his men employed in arranging and packing few streets frequented for the sake of trade in which you the chimneys of the houses, were covered with them, a vast variety of goods for carriage. In addition to do not meet with these animals going and coming almost even in the towns. It was a lively and hideous the necessary clothing for the company, arms, ammuincessantly; they are the hackney coaches and the representation of the plague of Egypt by locusts. The nition, &c., there were thousands of trinkets of various cabriolets of the country.”
Grand Vicar of Valence caused the caterpillars to be kinds, beads, paint, bells, rings, and such trumpery, inWe close these volumes with some feelings of pain cited to appear before him, and ordered an attorney tended as presents for the Indians, as well as objects and disappointment. Human nature delights in ex- to defend them. The cause was solemnly pleaded, of trade with them. The bales were usually made to tremes ; the change of the dandy into the ascetic, and and he condemned them to depart from the diocese. weigh about eighty pounds, of which a horse was to of the baron into the monk, is not after all very sur- But they did not obey : human laws have no control carry two. Captain Wyeth ensured the good-will prising. But how a man possessing such talents as
over the instruments of divine justice. It was then and obedience of the men, by his affable but firm the baron manifestly does, should hope to gain sym- deliberated and agreed upon to proceed against these manner, and showed himself every way suitable for pathy, by displaying a spirit of sour fanaticism and animals by means of anathema and imprecation, and, his very important mission. acrimonious bigotry, is truly astonishing.
as it is said, by malediction and excommunication. On the 28th of April, at ten o'clock in the morning, But two lawyers and two divines having been con- all things being prepared, the caravan, consisting
sulted, the grand vicar was induced to change his of seventy men and two hundred and fifty horses, LAW PROCEEDINGS AGAINST ANIMALS. intentions, so that abjuration, prayers, and sprinkling began its march towards the west. All were in high Ir appears to have been by no means unusual in with holy water, were alone had recourse to. The life spirits, and full of hope of adventure ; uproarious France, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to of the caterpillar is short ; and these devotions, having bursts of merriment, and gay and lively songs, coninstitute legal proceedings against animals, allowing lasted during several months, were supposed to have stantly echoed along the line of the cavalcade. The them an advocate to defend them, and treating them had the miraculous effect of exterminating them !" road say over a vast rolling prairie, with occasional in every respect as fairly as if they had been human
small spots of timber at the distance of several miles beings. How far it was done in a serious spirit, and
apart, and this was expected to be the complexion of how far in the spirit of drollery, it would now be MR TOWNSHEND'S EXCURSION TO THE
the track for some weeks. For the first day and night difficult to say ; but certain it is that such proceedings
the journey was agreeable, but on the second day a occasionally took place, and were conducted with all SINCE the enterprising John Jacob Astor made his heavy rain fell, which made the ground wet and muddy, the external gravity desirable in similar cases where celebrated overland journey from the valley of the soaked the blanket bedding, and rendered camping human beings are concerned. The following is a Mississippi to the shore of the Pacific in 1810, with at night anything but pleasant. The description given notable instance.
the view of planting a fur-trading emporium on the of a nightly camp is interesting :—“The party is From about the year 1522 to 1530, the rats in the Columbia river,* the vast territory lying between the divided into messes of eight men, and each mess is bishopric of Autun had multiplied to a vast extent, United States and the Pacific Ocean has been repeat- allowed a separate tent. The captain of a mess (who insomuch that, from their ravages, serious appre- edly traversed by bands of white men engaged in is generally an old hand') receives each morning hensions of famine were at length entertained. All carrying on a precarious though lucrative traffic in rations of pork, flour, &c., for his people, and they human remedies having been tried without any im- furs with the native tribes. Since the comparatively choose one of their body as cook for the whole. Our portant effect, a resolution was at length formed to primitive times of Mr Astor, the region on both sides camp now consists of nine messes, of which Captain petition the ecclesiastical judge of the district to excom- of the Rocky Mountains has become better known, W.'s forms one, although it contains only four permunicate them. It was conceived, however, that this the Indian races have diminished in numbers by their sons besides the cook. When we arrive in the evening remedy was the more likely to be efficacious if all the incessant wars, and the companies of fur-traders have at a suitable spot for encampment, Captain W. rides usual forms of law were observed. A proctor there now somewhat less to fear and suffer in their pro- round a space which he considers large enough to fore lodged a formal complaint against the rats. The tracted wanderings. Still, all such excursions from accommodate it, and directs where each mess shall judge ordered that they should be summoned to appear the eastern to the western waters are not without pitch its tent. The men immediately unload their before him. The period having expired without their many perils and troubles. The setting-out of an ex- horses, and place their bales of goods in the direction having presented themselves, the proctor obtained a pedition resembles a caravan of pilgrims sallying forth indicated, and in such manner, as, in case of need, to first judgment by default against them, and demanded across the African deserts ; civilisation is for months, form a sort of fortification and defence. When all that the final judgment should be proceeded to. The perhaps for years, left behind ; no vestige of house or the messes are arranged in this way, the camp forms judge, however, deeming it but fair that the accused road is seen on the apparently interminable wastes ; a hollow square, in the centre of which the horses are should be defended, officially named M. Barthelemi journeying is performed only on horseback during the placed and staked firmly to the ground. The guard Chassanée, a young advocate, to be their defender.' day, while repose is enjoyed in tents pitched for the consists of from six to eight men, and is relieved three
Chassanée, being like most young barristers anxious night; a constant outlook must be kept for prowling times each night, and so arranged that each gang may to distinguish himself, readily undertook the task; and wild beasts, or the not less stealthy steps of the Pawnee serve alternate nights. The captain of a guard (who knowing the discredit in which his clients were held, Loup Indian ; in short, all is wild nature, romantic is generally also the captain of a mess) collects his he resolved to do all he could to delay proceedings, in enough, perhaps, to untamed minds, but, as we can people at the appointed hour, and posts them around order to afford time for prejudices to subside. He at imagine, altogether unendurable by persons accus- outside the camp in such situations that they may first contended that, the rats being dispersed amongst tomed to the quiet and orderly life of cities. Strange command a view of the environs, and be ready to give a great number of villages, a single summons was not as it seems, however, there are highly cultivated in the alarm in case of danger. The captain cries the sufficient to warn them all. He therefore demanded, dividuals who, inspired by a love of science, or for the hour regularly by a watch, and all's well, every fifteen and it was ordered, that a second notification should mere sake of sport-such as having a shot at a buffalo minutes, and each man of the guard is required to be given to them by the clergyman of each parish at or black bear-voluntarily make part of the fur-trad- repeat this call in rotation, which if any one should the time of his sermon. This occasioned a consider- ing bands, and consent to remain for years from home, fail to do, it is fair to conclude that he is asleep, and able delay, at the end of which, the rats still failing to friends, and the world of refinement. A notice of the he is then immediately, visited and stirred up. In appear, M. Chassanée made a new excuse for the de- excursion of a gentleman possessing the character of case of defection of this kind, our laws adjudge to the fault of his clients, by dwelling on the length and both naturalist and sportsman, will form the subject delinquent the hard sentence of walking three days. difficulty of the journey ; on the danger they were of the present, and probably a succeeding article ; the As yet, none of our poor fellows have incurred this exposed to from the cats, their mortal enemies, who traveller's own words, from his published narrative, penalty, and the probability is, that it would not at would lie in wait for them in all directions, &c. When being occasionally introduced.+
this time be enforced, as we are yet in a country where these evasive pleas were exhausted, he rested his de- Mr Townshend, an enthusiastic ornithologist, accom- little molestation is to be apprehended ; but in the fence upon considerations of humanity and policy. panied by his friend Professor Nuttal (of Harvard course of another week's travel, when thieving and “ Was there any thing more unjust than general pro- University), an eminent botanist, being desirous of ill-designing Indians will be out, lying on our trail
, it scriptions levelled at whole families, which punished increasing the existing stock of knowledge in the will be necessary that the strictest watch be kept, and, the child for the guilt of the parents , which involved, departments of science to which they were respectively for the preservation
of our persons and property, that without distinction, those of tender years, and even attached, agreed to accompany a body of traders, our laws shall be rigidly enforced.” those whose incapacity equally renders them incapable commanded by a Captain Wyeth, to the Columbia Proceeding onwards, the party passed through a of crime," &c.
river, and adjacent parts. The traders belonged to friendly tribe of Kaw Indians, with whom they traded We are not informed how the case ended. But De an association called the Columbia River Fishing and a little. Some parts of the prairies are described by Thou, who relates the circumstances above stated, Trading Company, and on this occasion they designed Mr Townshend as beautiful :-“The little streams adds that the ingenuity shown by M. Chassanée laid to fix a permanent branch-establishment in the west. are fringed with a thick growth of pretty trees and the foundation of his reputation,
and he rose in time on the evening of the 24th of March 1834, the two bushes, and the buds are now swelling, and the leaves to be first president of the parliament of Provence. friends arrived in a steam-boat at St Louis, on the expanding, to welcome back the spring. The birds, A more grave result has been hinted at. While he Missouri, from Pittsburg. At St Louis, which is the too, sing joyously amongst them-grosbeaks, thrushes, held this high office, severe proceedings were instituted last great town within the settlements, they furnished and buntings-a merry and musical band. I am paragainst the Protestant Vaudois ; and M. Chassanée themselves with several pairs of leathern pantaloons, ticularly fond of sallying out early in the morning, was called upon to take the part assigned to him by enormous overcoats, and white wool hats, with round and strolling around the camp. The light breeze just bis office in their persecution. The unfortunate people, crowns, fitting tightly to the head, and almost hard bends the tall tops of the grass on the boundless at this juncture, put to him the severe question, how enough to resist a musket-ball. Leaving their baggage prairie, the birds are commencing their matin carolhe could reconcile it to his conscience to dispense with to come on with the steamer, about three hundred lings, and all nature looks fresh and beautiful The the usual judicial forms towards them, his fellow- miles farther up the Missouri, Mr Townshend and his horses of the camp are lying comfortably on their creatures, when he had some years before insisted on friend set off to amuse themselves by walking and sides, and seem, by the glances which they give me in their scrupulous observance towards the rats of Autun.
passing, to know that their hour of toil is approaching, The president was staggered, and he actually seems to
* See our article, “Irving's Astoria," Number 286.
and the patient kine are ruminating in happy uncons have, in consequence, given a silent protection to the Philadelphia. An edition, with a slightly altered title, has lately - † An Excursion to the Rocky Mountains, by J. K. Townshend.
sciousness." Vaudois. appeared in London.
Some difficulties were encountered in passing ono of the larger streams, and in a day or two afterwards from each side removed ; these pieces of skin were the satisfaction and comfort of our poor jaded horses. the camp was visited by three Indians of the Otto placed upon the ground, with the under surface upper- Our tents are pitched in a pretty little valley or intribe. These people smoked the pipe of peace with most, and the fleeces, or masses of meat, taken from dentation in the plain, surrounded on all sides by low
Near us flows the clear deep the captain, and were otherwise friendly; but one of along the back, were laid upon them. These fleeces, bluffs of yellow clay them was regarded with the most malignant looks by from a large animal, will weigh, perhaps, a hundred water of the Siskadee, and beyond, on every side, is Richardson, an old weather-beaten hunter, who after-pounds each, and comprise the whole of the hump on a wide and level prairie, interrupted only by some wards explained the cause of his anger to Mr Towns- each side of the vertical processes (commonly called gigantic peaks of mountains and conical butes in the hend. ““Why,' said he, that I njen that sat opposite the hump ribs), which are attached to the vertebræ. distance. The river, here, contains a great number to you is my bitterest enemy: I was once going down The fleeces are considered the choice parts of the of large trout, somó grayling, and a small narrowalone from the rendezvous with letters for St Louis, and buffalo, and here, where the game is so abundant, mouthed white fish, resembling a herring. They are when I arrived on the lower part of the Platte river nothing else is taken, if we except the tongue and an all frequently taken with the hook, and, the trout par(just a short distance beyond us here), I fell in with occasional marrow-bone. This, it must be confessed, ticularly, afford excellent sport to the lovers of angling. about a dozen Ottos. They were known to be a appears like a useless and unwarrantable waste of the Old Izaac Walton would be in his glory here, and the friendly tribe, and I therefore felt no fear of them. goods of Providence ; but when are men economical, precautionary measures which he so strongly recomI dismounted from my horse, and sat with them upon unless compelled to be so by necessity?" The food of mends in approaching a trout stream, he would not the ground. It was in the depth of winter ; the the hunters consists for months of nothing but this need to practise, as the fish are not shy, and bite ground was covered with snow, and the river was kind of buffalo meat, roasted, and cold water-no quickly and eagerly at a grasshopper or minnov. frozen solid. While I was thinking of nothing but bread of any kind. On this rude fare they enjoy the Buffalo, antelopes, and elk, are abundant in the vicimy dinner, which I was then about preparing, four best health, clear heads, and high spirits ; and what nity, and we are therefore living well.”. or five of the cowards jumped on me, mastered my more, says Mr T., does a man require to make him On the 2d of July the party bade adieu to the renrifle, and held my arms fast, while they took from me happy?
dezvous, packed up their moveables, and journeyed my knife and tomahawk, my flint and steel, and all The country now began to alter in appearance for along the bank of the river. The horses were much my ammunition. They then loosed me, and told me the worse. Having passed the Platte river, a consi- recruited by the long rest and good pasture, and, like to be off. I begged them, for the love of God, to give derable tributary of the Missouri, the party arrived on their masters, were in excellent spirits for renewing me my rifle and a few loads of ammunition, or I a great sandy waste, forming a kind of upper table- the route across the wilderness. should starve before I could reach the settlements. land of North America (about latitude 42 degrees No I should have nothing, and if I did not start off north, and longitude 100 degrees to 105 degrees west immediately, they would throw me under the ice of of Greenwich)-a region without a single green thing PORT-ROYAL AND ITS SOLITARIES. the river. And; continued the excited hunter, while to vary and enliven the scene, and abounding in swarms The word “ Port-Royal” must have repeatedly met he ground his teeth with bitter and uncontrollable of ferocious little black gnats, which assail the eyes, the eye of general readers in connection with the names rage, that man that sat opposite to you was the chief ears, nostrils, and mouth of the unhappy traveller of various eminent writers of France, and must have of them. He recognised me, and knew very well the It is necessary, however, to pursue a route in this di- excited a wish to know its meaning, and the object or reason why I would not smoke with him. I tell you, rection, in order to find accessible passes through the objects to which it applied. Port-Royal, sometimes sir, if ever I meet that man in any other situation Rocky Mountains, which are impenetrable more to the called Port-Royal-des-Champs (Port-Royal of the than that in which I saw him this morning, I'll shoot north-west. Making the best of their way over the fields or country), was the title originally given to a him with as little hesitation as I would shoot a deer. inhospitable desert, and fortunately escaping any conventual establishment for females, attached to the Several years have passed since the perpetration of roving bands of unfriendly Indians, the cavalcade order of the Benedictines, and founded so early as the this outrage, but it is still as fresh in my memory as struck through a range of stony mountains, called the year 1204. Its site was about three leagues to the ever ; and I again declare, that if ever an opportunity Black hills, and in a few days afterwards came in south of Versailles, and its foundress was Matilda, offers, I will kill that man. “But, Richardson, did sight of the Wind river mountains, which form the wife of Matthew de Marly, of the house of Montmothey take your horse also ? To be sure they did, loftiest land in the northern continent, and are at all rency. For four centuries the history of the conand my blankets, and every thing I had, except my times covered with snow of dazzling whiteness. From vent was unmarked by any event of particular imporclothes. But how did you subsist until you reached the great height above the level of the sea, which the tance. Towards the close of that period, the establishthe settlements? You had a long journey before you.' party had attained, the climate was found to be cold, ment partook of the relaxation of discipline which "Why, set to trappin' prairie squirrels with little even although in summer; the plains were covered gradually spread through so many of the eotemporary nooses made out of the hairs of my head.' I should only by the scantiest herbage, and frequently there religious
houses of the continent. A regenerator arose remark that his hair was so long that it fell in heavy was great difficulty in obtaining a supply of water for at length in the person of Maria Angelica Amauld, masses on his shoulders. “But squirrels in winter, the camp. The painfulness of the journey, therefore, who was appointed abbess of Port-Royal about the Richardson !-I never heard of squirrels in winter. was now extreme, both for man and beast.
year 1608, and who speedily made the convent a model Well, but there was plenty of them, though ; little At length, on the 19th of June, the party arrived of order and disciplíne to all the similar institutions white ones, that lived among the snow.'” Such is a on the Green river, or Colorado of the west, which of France. The celebrity which she gave to it induced trait of human nature in these far-western regions. they forded, and encamped upon a spot which was to a number of the noblest ladies of the land, and even
On the 18th of May, the party arrived at the Platte form a rendezvous for all the mountain companies some of the princesses of the blood-royal, to take up river, beyond which herds of buffalo begin to make who left the states in spring, and also the trappers successively their residence near Port-Royal, that their appearance, thousands, or rather tens of thou- who come from various parts with furs collected by they might participate in its religious exercises, and sands, in a single herd. They generally fly from hunt- them during the previous year. Unfortunately, our profit by the example and counsels there brought ers, and are overtaken and shot only with great traveller in passing the river was subjected to a severe within their sight and reach. difficulty. Being shy and keen of scent, they cannot ducking, which brought on a fever, and confined him Succeeding events elevated Port-Royal into still be easily approached in silence. The Indians resort to his tent for several days. His account of the en-greater notice. Towards the middle of the sevento a remarkable stratagem for killing them. “The skin campment affords a glimpse of the wild life led by the teenth century, Antoine Arnauld, doctor of the Sorof a calf is properly dressed, with the head and legs left mixed race of trappers and hunters.
bonne, and one who left a standard name in French attached to it. The Indian envelopes himself in this, “June 22-We are now lying at the rendezvous. literature, was led to fix his abode at Port-Royal, and with his short bow and a brace of arrows, ambles W. Sublette, Captains Serre, Fitzpatrick, and other where, besides his sister the abbess, his mother and off into the very midst of a herd. When he has leaders, with their companies, are encamped about a five others of her daughters, with no less than six selected such an animal as suits his fancy, he comes mile from us on the same plain, and our own camp is of his nieces, had their permanent residence. Arnauld close alongside of it, and, without noise, passes an crowded with a heterogeneous assemblage of visitors. was accompanied in his retreat from the stir of the arrow through his heart. One arrow is always suffi- The principal of these are Indians, of the Nez Percé, world by his brother Amauld d'Andilly, Antoine cient, and it is generally delivered with such force, Banneck, and Shoshoné tribes, who come with the furs Lemaistre, an advocate famous for his eloquence, and that at least half the shaft appears through the oppo- and peltries which they have been collecting at the by Simon Lemaistre and Isaac Louis Lemaistre, brosite side. The creature totters, and is about to fall, risk of their lives during the past winter and spring, thers of Antoine, and the latter of them well known when the Indian glides around, and draws the arrow to trade for ammunition, trinkets, and fire water.' for his translation of the Bible. Five or six other from the wound lest it should be broken. A single There is, in addition to these, a great variety of per- individuals, all of them inen of talent and virtue, sought Indian is said to kill a great number of buffaloes in sonages amongst us ; most of them calling themselves at the same period the seclusion of Port-Royal
, disthis way, before any alarm is communicated to the white men, French-Canadians, half-breeds, &c., their gusted with the follies of an age on which their lessons herd.”
colour nearly as dark, and their manners wholly as could make no impression. Their labours were more The surprise of our traveller was very great on first wild, as the Indians with whom they constantly asso- productive of good in the solitude to which they reseeing one of the large buffalo herds. "Towards even- ciate. These people, with their obstreperous mirth, tired. Fixing their joint habitation near to the coning, on rising a hill, we were suddenly greeted by a their whooping, and howling, and quarrelling, added vent, they divided their time between the cultivation sight which seemed to astonish even the oldest amongst to the mounted Indians, who are constantly dashing of their little lands, the instruction of the boarders of us. The whole plain, as far as the eye could discern, into and through our camp, yelling like fiends, the the convent, the education of young people confided was covered by one enormous mass of buffalo. Our barking and baying of savage wolf-dogs, and the inces to their care, and the composition of those learned vision, at the very least computation, would certainly sant cracking of rifles and carbines, render our camp works which have given immortality both to themextend ten miles, and in the whole of this great space, a perfect bedlam. A more unpleasant situation for selves and to Port-Royal. The “ Logio of Arnauld, including about eight miles in width from the bluffs an invalid could scarcely be conceived. I am confined the “ Rudimentary Greck and Latin Treatises” of Lanto the river bank, there was apparently no vista in the closely to the tent with illness, and am compelled all celot, the “ Ethics" of Nicole, and the “ Ecclesiastical incalculable multitude. It was truly a sight that day to listen to the hiccoughing jargon of drunken tra- History" of Le Nain de Tillemont, are instances of would have excited even the dullest mind to enthu- ders, and the swearing
and screaming of our own men, the able and useful works which had their origin here. siasm. Our party rode up to within a few hundred who are scarcely less savage than the rest, being heated Port-Royal, in fact, became a famous school, where yards of the edge of the herd, before any alarm was by the detestable liquor which circulates freely among many statesmen as well as men of letters of great communicated; then the bulls—which are always sta- them. It is very much to be regretted that at times subsequent celebrity received their training. It was tioned around as sentinels—began pawing the ground, like the present there should be a positive necessity here that the distinguished poet, the elder Racine, was and throwing the earth over their heads ; in a few to allow the men as much rum as they can drink; but educated, and here were those seeds of virtue sown in moments they started in a slow clumsy canter; but this course has been sanctioned and practised by all his mind, which, repressed for a time by the seductive as we neared them, they quickened their pace to an the leaders of parties who have hitherto visited these flatteries of the world, burst forth into light and vigour astonishingly rapid gallop, and in a few minutes were regions, and reform cannot
be thought of now. The at a more advanced period of his careor. Racine entirely beyond the reach of our guns, but were still principal liquor in use is alcohol diluted with water. showed his sense of the benefits he had derived
from $c near that their enormous horns, and long shaggy It is sold to the men at three dollars the pint ! To- Port-Royal, not only by devoting various poems to beards, were very distinctly seen. Shortly after we bacco, of very inferior quality, such as could be pur- the celebration of its many local beauties—its gardens, encamped, our hunters brought in the choice parts of chased in Philadelphia at about ten cents per pound, fields, waters, and woods--but by writing a history of five that they had killed.”
here fetches two dollars ! and every thing else in pro- the convent itself, and also a memoir vindicating the of the animals belonging to those vast herds which portion. There is no coin in circulation, and these name and fame of its inhabitants. The virtuous the hunters kill, only a small portion is usually taken articles are therefore paid for by the independent Pascal, also, who had a sister and a niece in the estafor food. Mr Townshend and two of his associates mountain-men, in beaver skins, buffalo robes, &c. ; blishment, enrolled himself in the band of the solihaving killed a bull buffalo, they proceeded to cut it and those who are hired to the companies, have them taries of Port-Royal, and, although he had his
perup in the following approved manner :-“ The animal charged against their wages. was first raised from his side where he had lain, and
manent dwelling elsewhere, remained in intimate supported upon his knees, with his hoofs turned under respect, and as several days have elapsed since we
30.-Our camp here is a most lovely one in every relations with them up to the period of his death.
Thus it was, that, in an age of gaudy show and glitter, him; a longitudinal incision was then made from
the came, and I am convalescent, I can roam about the these poor conventual sisters, who could boast of no nape or anterior base of the hump, and continued country a little and enjoy it. The pasture is rich and attractive renown apart from that derived from their backward to the loins, and a large portion of the skin very abundant, and it does our hearts good to witness sanctity of life, became as it were a common bond of
union-a tie to gather and bind together in one spot | names of the principal occupants of the mansion en- rested by order of a farmer, upon one of whose hay all that was most eminent for rank, virtue, and learn- graven upon it. A number of these names have been ricks the balloon had alighted,
and by which it had ing, in the capital and country of France.
mentioned. They amount in all to the number of been burned to the ground. Poor Katerfelto could From the year. 1648 to 1679, Port-Royal enjoyed twenty-two, every one of them of no mean repute in not pay the damages demanded, and was obliged to its greatest celebrity, and stood at its highest point of the annals or literature of France.
go to prison. utility. But its very renown gradually led to its fall, Before the house, is a garden on the site of the old It has been mentioned that the name of Katerfelto by exciting an envious and hostile spirit in other sec- one, and in the corner of which is to be seen the frago was probably an assumed one. The conjuror, however, tions of the religious establishment of the country. ment of an old column, having a broad top, and so seemed by his speech to be really a foreigner. Some Moreover, its friends and supporters, Pascal and Ar- placed on the ground as to form a table, traditionally have asserted him to be a Prussian soldier, who had nauld, had distinguished themselves by their opposition called the Table of the Recluses. Here it is pleasant got his discharge. He is said to have died at Bristol to the sect of the Jesuits, then the most powerful to rest, and permit the mind to wander back to the about the beginning of the present century. clerical body in France, as well at court as elsewhere. time, when, in the calm of morn or eve, much grave Through these adverse agencies and influences, a and sweet discourse was wont to take place on the blight fell on the prosperity of Port-Royal. It ceased same spot, between Pascal and Arnauld, Nicole and ACCIDENTS IN THE COAL-MINES OF to be a seat of learning and education. The great Saci, and those others who had come hither to seek
NORTHUMBERLAND AND DURHAM. men who had adorned it died away one by one, and that peace not to be found among the haunts of men. others were afraid or were forbidden to take their From the site of these relics of the Port-Royal soli- Tue immense sacrifice of human life, occasioned
from places and sustain its repute. By various arbitrary taries
, it is necessary to descend into the centre of time to time by the explosion of inflammable gas in means, the sisterhood were reduced to one-fourth of the vale, in order to reach the scene where once the the extensive coal-mines of Northumberland and their original numbers, and, in part, were dispersed old convent of Matilda de Marly stood. But its Durham, has been perhaps the most deplorable
evil over the land. But the enmity of the party in power foundation stones were torn up and sold, and on the connected with the production of any great and valudid not rest here. “ After long years of inveterate spot where it was, gardens and orchards now appear. able article of commerce. Previous to the introduepersecution,” says the author of a supplement to Ra- A fragment of a turret (now a pigeon-house), covered tion of the safety-lamp into those collieries, in the bearing a royal warrant, and accompanied by various busts of the antique architecture, is the sole rem- ventilation, explosions were necessarily of frequent commissaries, notaries, and magistrates, as well as by nant of the once massive and ample convent. The occurrence, and attended with the most calamithree hundred policemen, took the road to the convent lake or pool which has been celebrated in the verses tous loss of life, and destitution to those connected of Port-Royal early on the morning of the 29th of of Racine, and which will thence be remembered for with the sufferers.. This rendered the vocation
of the October 1709. On his arrival the lieutenant invested ever in France, has been drained and dried up; a
miners one of considerable danger and vicissitude, for the building, took possession of the gates, caused all change to which scarce even
the increased salubrity of they were in a great measure unprotected against the papers whatsoever to be delivered up, and formally put the spot can reconcile a lover of friendship and poetry.” occurrence of explosions. It was an event of common them under seal. When this part of his commission
Such is the story of Port-Royal, and such was its occurrence for the miner to leave his home for his was ended, he announced the further orders with which fate. The claim of Louis XIV. to be called The Great, subterranean occupation, in the enjoyment of the most a band of fifteen poor
, inclusive of the superior stances, would be irretrievably so by his participation brought back to his family a mangled and distorted without protestation, without a murmur, they submit- ship of Port-Royal. and seven lay or serving
sisters. Without resistance, in the persecution and overthrow of the noble fellow- corpse. Nor was the loss of life directly occasioned ted themselves to their lot, chanting the while their
by any means the extent to which they were confined. accustomed closing services, in the midst of the men
The great number of individuals dependent on the wlzo pushed them from their home. Some of them
sufferers, consisting of their widows and families, were so aged and infirm that it was necessary to pro
whom those accidents in the coal-mines suddenly cure litters to take them away. They were
conducted In that graphic
and well-known passage of the “ Task” | plunged into one common state of helpless destitution each to a different dwelling, as if their cruel enemies of Cowper, where the poet describes the varied contents and bereavement, and left to public protection, was had resolved that no two of them should have the poor of a newspaper of his day, the following lines occur :- not the least lamentable part of the evil. consolation of weeping together."
“And Katorfelto, with his hair on end
A few of the accidents arising from the explosion The enemies of Port-Royal were not satisfied even At his own wonders, wondering for his bread." of hydrogen gas, which have taken place in the colliewith the espulsion of every living being from within The personage here alluded to was a distinguished ries of Northumberland and Durham, may be cited, to its walls. On the 22d of January 1710, another royal juggler and quack doctor, who flourished in Britain give the reader some idea of their extent and freedict was issued, and prompt, indeed, was its execu- at the close of last century. The name of Kater- quency. About the close of the last century, seventytion. The venerable building was razed to the ground, felto, it is probable, was merely an assumed one, and two persons were killed in a colliery at North-Biddick, with all the separate edifices which had been succes- certainly, if this was the case, the selection of it did in the county of Durham. A similar accident hapsively raised around it for its visitants and friends. credit to the magical professor's taste, as few names pened at Lambton colliery, in the same county, on The materials were sold, and the destroyers of Port- could be found more expressively appropriate to the the 22d of August 1766, when it is stated that the Royal seemed desirous of effacing every trace of its character he bore. He took the title of Doctor, noise of the explosion was heard above three miles foundations.
German Doctor—and combined the profession of round, and the flash was as visible as a flash of lightStill there arose from the naked and desecrated spot legerdemain with that of the art medical. The Task ning," whilst the miners were forced up from the pit a sweet-smelling savour, which was hateful to its ruth- was written about the years 1782 and 1783. At that like balls out of a cannon, and every thing that resisted, less enemies. The ashes of Lemaistre, Arnauld, Racine, time, Dr Katerfelto was vending his nostrums to the shared the same fate. By two explosions
which ocand their kindred, yet lay there, and drew pilgrims to people of London, who had then
the misfortune to curred in 1805, at Hepburn and Oxclose, forty-three the scene. In 1711, the graves were opened, the sustain a severe and very general attack of influenza. widows and one hundred and fifty-one children were mouldering bones of the illustrious dead torn from The Doctor, of course, knew the full value of mystery, left wholly unprotected and unprovided for. In 1908, their resting-places, and scattered hither and thither, and used it freely to enhance his medical pretensionsninety persons were killed in a coal-pit at Lumley among the cemeteries of Paris and the adjoining If any one got better or got worse on his hands, it is to On the 24th of May 1812, nincty-one persons were killed villages !
be suspected that the Doctor's remedies were innocent by an explosion at Felling colliery, near Gateshead, This might indeed he termed the closing scene of alike of the good and the evil
, and that the whole was leaving
forty-one widows and one
hundred and thirtythe Port-Royal communion, when its members were attributable to the old principle, “Conceit can kill, three children to the protection of the public. In the not allowed even to enjoy the fellowship of the tomb. and conceit can cure."
burial-ground of the church, at Lower Heworth, in But its enemies could not throw oblivion on the Katerfelto was one of the last specimens of a class the county of Durham, there is a spiral square monumemory of that band of brothers and sisters, and, even that now live only in the pages of novelists—the ment, with an inscription on a brass plate, commemowith all their destructive zeal, they left on the scene race of travelling mountebanks, half quacks, half rative of this last - mentioned accident. In 1815, some tangible and visible memorials of its former inha- jugglers. In his journeys through England he was fifty-seven persons suffered in the “ Success Pit,” near bitants. One who recently made a pilgrimage to the
spot accompanied by his wife and daughter, two black at- Newbottle, county of Durham. In 1817, thirty-eight gives the following account of the appearance which it tendants, and, though last, not least in importance, were destroyed at the Row Pit at Harraton. By three now presents to the traveller's eye :-“ A little to the two or three black cats, usually termed Katerfelto's explosions in the Sheriff-Hill colliery, in 1815 and right of the road leading to Chevreuse and Dampierre, Devils. This goodly company were all packed together 1817, fifty-one persons were killed. In 1821, fifty-two stands the vale formerly inhabited by the conventual in a huge old coach or caravan, which contained, be- men and boys were killed at Russel's Wallsend colsisterhood of Port-Royal. It occupies a low situation, sides, the wizard's stuck of apparatus. On reach- liery; and in 1823, fifty-three suffered at the Plain. minutes walk in length, and about ten in breadth. exhibition, the two sable (biped) assistants, dressed in enumerated, but these
will be sufficient to give the It is a little amphitheatre, enclosed on all sides by antiquated green liveries with red collars, marched reader an idea of their extent and frequency. gently rising heights. The road descends into the round the streets of the place, blowing trumpets, and
In catastrophes of this kind (which are of much vale by a pretty sharp inclination, and when the tra- expatiating on the wonderful powers and perform- less frequent occurrence at the present day than forveller has reached the centre of the hollow, he sees nought but the clear sky above, and on each side the doctor's exhibitions was really of a rational and credit- peculiarly fortunate in being able to find, and bury
ances of Katerfelto and his cats. A portion of the merly), the friends of the sufferers consider themselves dure, and tufted with thick woods. Silence and repose chemical experiments, which he explained in a lively, of the sufferers are never heard of, being buried
alive hang over the scene, and one's first thought is, that no humorous way. Ile 'was a good experimenter, and in the mine, far beyond the reach of the living; place could have been better chosen as a retreat for seldom failed in any thing he tried. But amuse
whilst others are so dreadfully shattered and mangled those who were weary of the din of the world. On ment was the object of those who went to hear him, by the violence of the explosion, as to make their the eastern side of the vale, a vault or cellar is to be and in this they were not disappointed. His ap- identity, in many instances, a matter of painful diffiseen, being all that now remains of the mansions of pearance was provocative of mirth, his long thin culty to their friends ; in others, one of absolute imthe Duchesses of Liancourt and Longueville, two person being commonly enveloped in a tawdry, old- possibility. As was stated in a previous paper* in this ladies who were among the first to retreat to the fashioned green gown, while his head was covered by Journal, the miners are so intimately connected by
a square velvet cap, making him altogether as like as intermarriage, that when accidents occur in the mines, vity stood once the dwelling of Arnauld and his possible to the pietures of the old stage doctors, of there are few of the survivors who have not to feel the friends, and of this
a considerable portion has escaped whom he was the genuine successor and representative. loss of some one more or less nearly related to them. tique fashion, and is now inhabited, in a repaired state, he turned his feline familiars. One thing is certain, that there is some case which stands out in more veneration the old carved wooden staircase, worm- pitch of docility and apparent intelligence. Katerfelts and more general degree of commiseration ; for exeaten though its materials be. The interior had been seems to have fourished through a considerable part ample
, where the father of a family, and perhaps three arranged into a series of little cabinets or rooms for of the last quarter of the eighteenth century. Some or four of his sons, share in one common and untimely study, and these the proprietor has also preserved in times , like the most of his class, he lived in compara: end, and
a widow and a few helpless children remain facin of these cabinets, these words are engraven : "J! himself caged in jail, asma, vagrant and impostor. witness before the Parliamentary Committee on Acci1655;' and on a third, P. Nicole. 1657, 1658, 1659; ward scrapes. While stopping out a small town in must have had its due effect on the committee, namely, indicating the inhabitants to whom these places had Yorkshire, on one of his journeys, he set up a fire that after the accident at Felling, above mentioned, been specially devoted for a time. The proprietor has balloon, to the great amazement of the rustics around. had a stone placed over his principal porch, with the But, in a few days afterwards, the conjuror was ar
* Songs of the Northern Coal-Miners.