« ZurückWeiter »
printing-office knocks to pieces all the old-fashioned which, in three compartments, are all working at the Society's plates, many of which are fairly entitled organisation of the establishment ? The “ office” is no same time. The simultaneous revolution of so much to the rest they are enjoying, having already given longer an office on a second floor ; it is a whole house complicated machinery, crowded together in compa- hundreds of thousands of impressions to the world. -compositors are sextupled in number—the wooden ratively a very small compass, coupled with a mo- Among the plates in this store there are to be seen presses disappear, being thrust as lumber into some ment's reflection upon the important purpose for reposing those of thirteen varieties of bibles and tesout-of-the-way den, where they are released from all which it is in motion, is astounding to the mind; and taments, of numerous books of hymns and psalms, of their mortal toils—boys are seen stuck about at various as broad leather straps are rapidly revolving in all fifteen different dictionaries, and of a number of other odds and ends of employment—there is a loud rumbling directions, the stranger pauses for a moment to con- books of acknowledged sterling value ; it is with feelnoise of machinery in the lower regions, and the whole sider whether or not he may not get entangled in the ings of pride and satisfaction that the stranger beholds concern wears a bustling joyous aspect, quite a diffe- process, and against his inclination, as authors gene- before him, in a single cellar, a capital, principally rent thing from what used to prevail in the dull rally say in their prefaces, go to press.'
devoted to religious instruction, amounting to no less Dutch-spectacle-on-nose days of the eighteen hundred We will not weary our reader by attempting athan L.200,000.” and ones.
minute delineation of the wonderful picture before Ascending to the drying and sorting rooms, where A visit to a modern printing establishment, as may him, or even introduce to his notice the intelligent the printed sheets are gathered and packed—“ the be imagined from these few observations, opens up a engineer, who, in a building apart from the machinery, quantity of paper here amounts to about 3000 reams, new scene for thought. You have for some time been is in solitude regulating the clean, well-kept, noiseless each weighing about 25 pounds. The supply of white perfectly aware of the fact, that there was an immense steam-engine which gives it motion ; we will merely paper in store, kept in piles about 20 feet high, avedeal of printing executed—that the world was becom- describe the literary process. The lower part of each rages about 7000 reams ; the amount of paper printed ing a kind of great book-shop, and all the men and of the nineteen steam-presses we have mentioned, every week and delivered for publication amounts to women merely readers—but you never exactly formed consists of a bed or table, near the two ends of which about 1500 reams (of 500 sheets), each of which avean idea how this prodigious supply of literature was lie prostrate the two sets of 'forms, containing the rages in size 3893 square inches. The supply, thereeffected. Here, then, the miracle is at once explained. types we have just seen adjusted, and from which im- fore, of white paper kept on hand, would, if laid down Printing is now a manufacture. The printing-office pressions are to be taken.
in a path of 221 inches broad, extend 1230 miles ; the is a Factory. And the interior of one of these con- By the power of machinery, these types, at every quantity printed on both sides per week would form a cems usually presents a remarkable spectacle of in- throb of the engine, are made horizontally to advance path of the same breadth of 263 miles in length. The dustry, animate and inanimate, which to a stranger and retire. At every such movement they are met half ink used in the same space of time amounts to about leaves a lasting impression on the memory. We have way by seven advancing black rollers, which diagonally 12,000 lbs. The cost of the paper may be about a distinct recollection of our feelings of wonder on pass over them, and thus, by a most beautiful process, L.100,000; that of the ink exceeding L.1500.” seeing for the first time printing machinery in full | iinpart to them ink sufficient only for a single impres- But it is necessary to draw to a conclusion, and we operation ; and though now accustomed to the sight, sion. Above the table, the forms, and the rollers we may do so in the valedictory language of the reviewer: we always pause a few moments in respectful admira- have described, are, besides other wheels, two ver —“ It is impossible for the mind to contemplate, for tion of the process, and the intellect which brought large revolving cylinders, covered with flannel ; the a single moment, the moral force of the British press, it into use. To see printing on a grand scale, how- whole apparatus being surmounted by a boy, who has without reflecting, and without acknowledging, that ever, it would be necessary to visit the establishment on a lofty table by his side a pile of quires of white under Providence it is the only engine that can now of Messrs Clowes in London, which is much the largest paper. Every time the lower bed has moved, this save the glorious institutions of the British empiro in Britain, and, consequently, in the world.
boy places on the upper cylinder a sheet of paper, from the impending ruin that awaits them,” from A writer in a late number of the Quarterly Review which is ingeniously confined to its station by being the hand of intemperate ignorance and violence. records his astonishment and delight on visiting this slipped under two strings of tape. It is, however, no very large concern, of which lie has noted a few par- sooner affixed there, than by a turn of the engine, ticulars which are worthy of the reader's notice, as revolving with the cylinder, it is flatly deposited on CORAL ISLANDS-HOW THEY ARE CLOTHED giving a graphic picture of a modern printing-house. the first of the 'forms, which, by the process we have
WITH VEGETATION. “ The printing establishment of Messrs Clowes, on described, has been ready inked to receive it: it is A VALUABLE addition has lately been made to geography the Surrey side of the Thames (for they have a branch there instantaneouly pressed, is then caught up by and natural history, by the publication of a narrative of office at Charing Cross), is situated between Blackfriars the other cylinder, and, after rapidly revolving with the surveying voyages of the “ Adventure and Beagle." and Waterloo Bridges. Their buildings extend in it, it is again left with its white side imposed upon the The southern shores of South America were the parts length from Prince's Street to Duke Street, and in second 'form,' where it is again subjected to pressure, chiefly explored, but notices are given of other quarters breadth about half the distance. The entrance is by from which it is no sooner released, than it is hurried of the globe. Amongst a number of very interesting rather a steep declivity into a little low court, on ar- within tho grasp of another boy at the bottom part of details in the volume devoted to natural history, thie riving at which, the small counting-house is close on the machinery, who, illumined by a gas light, extri- production of Mr Darwin, naturalist to the expedition, the left ; the great steam-presses, type and stereotype cates it from the cylinder, and piles it on a heap by not the least so are the descriptions of some of the more
recently formed coral islands in the Pacific Occan. We foundry, and paper-warehouse, on the right; and the his side. apartments for compositors, readers, &c., in front. In By virtue of this beautiful process, a sheet of paper, give the following extract as a specimen of Mr Darwin's the last- mentioned building there are five compositors' by two revolutions of the engine, with the assistance
“ The next morning, after anchoring, I went on shore halls, the largest of which (on two levels, the upper only of two boys, is imprinted on both sides, with not being termed by the workmen 'the quarter-deck") is only, say sixteen pages of letter.press, but with the hundred yards wide ; on the lagoon side we have a white
on Direction Island. The strip of dry land is only a few two hundred feet in length. The door is nearly in various wood-cuts wliich they contain. Excepting an
calcareous beach, the radiation from which in such a the centre, and, on entering this apartment at day- hour's intermission, the engines, like the boys, are at
climate is very oppressive ; and on the outer coast a solid break, the stranger sees at once before him, on his regular work from eight a. M. till eight P. m., besides broad flat of coral rock, which serves to break the vioright and left, sixty compositors' frames, which, though night-work, when it is required. Each steam-press is lence of the open sea. Excepting near the lagoon, where much larger, are about the height of the music capable of printing one thousand sheets an hour.* there is some sand, the land is entirely composed of stands in an orchestra. At this early hour they are Notwithstanding the noise and novelty of this scene, rounded fragments of coral. In such a loose, dry, stony all deserted, their daily tenants not having arrived. it is impossible either to contemplate for a moment soil, the climate of the intertropical regions alone could Not a sound is to be heard save the slow ticking of a the machinery in motion we have described, or to cal- produce a vigorous vegetation. On some of the smaller gaudy-faced wooden clock, the property of the workmen, culate its produce, without being deeply impressed islets
, nothing could be more elegant than the manner in which faithfully tells when they are entitled to re- with the inestimable value to the human race of the which the young and the full-grown cocoa-nut trees, freshment, and which finally announces to them the art of printing-an art which, in spite of the opposi- into one wood. A beach of glittering white sand formed
without destroying each other's symmetry, were mingled joyful intelligence that the hour of their emancipation tion it first met with, in spite of the envious clouds has arrived. which seemed bent to dim its glory and check its
a border to these fairy spots.
I will now give a sketch of the natural history on these By eight o'clock the whole body have arrived. bright course,' has triumphantly risen above the mias-islands, which, from its very paucity, possesses a peculiar Many in their costume resemble common labourers ; matical ignorance and superstition which would will. interest. The cocoa-nut tree, at the nrst glance, seems others are better clad ; several are very well dressed ; ingly have smothered it.
to compose the whole wood; there are, however, five or but all bear in their countenances the appearance of In the fifteenth century (the era of the invention six other kinds. One of these grows to a very large size, men of considerable intelligence and education. They of the art), the brief-men or writers who lived by but, from the extreme softness of its wood, is useless ; have scarcely assumed their respective stations, when their manuscripts, seeing that their occupation was another sort affords excellent timber for slip-building. blue mugs, containing cach a pint or half a pint of tea about to be superseded, boldly attributed the inven. Besides the trees, the number of plants is exceedingly or coffee, and attended either by a smoking hot roll tion to the devil, and, building on this foundation, limited, and consists of insignificant weeds
. In my colstuffed with yellow butter, or by a couple of slices of men were warned from using diabolical books' written lection, which includes, I believe, nearly the perfect flora, bread and butter, enter the hall. The little girls, who by victims devoted to hell." The monks in particular there are twenty species, without reckoning a moss
, with well-combed hair and clean shining faces bring were its inveterate opposers ; and the Vicar of Croy: added, one of which was not in flower, and the other. I these refreshments, carry them to those who have not don, as if he had foreseen the Reformation which it only heard of. The other is a solitary tree of its kind in breakfasted at home. Before the empty mugs have subsequently effected, truly enough exclaimed, in a vanished, a boy enters the hall at a fast walk with a
the whole group, and grows near the beach, where, withsermon preached by him at St Paul's Cross, 'We must out doubt, the one seed was thrown up by the waves. I large bundle under his arm-of morning newspapers : root out printing, or printing will root out us !?”.
do not include in the above list the sugar-cane, banana, this intellectual luxury the compositors, by a friendly At Messrs Clowes's, the businesses of type-founding some other vegetables, fruit-trees, and imported grasses. subscription, allow themselves to enjoy. From their and stereotyping are carried on in aid of the general | As these islands consist entirely of coral, and at one time connection with the different presses, they manage to concern, by which means there is an ever-fresh supply probably existed as a mere water-washed reef, all tho obtain the very earliest copies, and thus the news of of material. " The number of sheets now standing in productions now living here must have been transported the day is known to them—the leading articles of the type in Mossrs Clowes’s establishment, each weighing by the waves of the sea. In accordance to this, the flora different papers are criticised, applauded, or con- on an average about 100 pounds, are above 1600. The has quite the character of a refuge for the destitute : demned-an hour or two before the great 'statesmen weight of type not in forms amounts to about 100 Professor Henslow informs me, that of the twenty species, of the country, have received the observations, the tons !--the weight of the stereotype plates in their nineteen belong to different genera, and these again to castigation, or the intelligence they contain. It is impossible to contemplate a team of sixty prietors (without including the original composition rity of Mr A. S. Keating, who resided twelve months on possession to about 2000 tons; the cost to the pro- no less than sixteen orders !
In Holman's Travels an account is given on the antholiterary labourers steadily working together in one of the types from which they were cast) about these islands, of the various seeds and other bodies which room, without immediately acknowledging the impor- L.200,000. The number of woodcuts is about 50,000, of have been known to have been washed on shore. Seeds tant service they are rendering to the civilised world, which stereotype casts are sent to Germany, France, and plants from Sumatra and Java have been driven up and the respect which, therefore, is due to them from &c. The stereotype plates (as we have already by the surf on the windward side of the islands. Among society. The minutia of their art it might be deemed stated) weigh 2000 tons. They are contained in two them have been found the Kimini, native of Sumatra and tedious to detail; yet with so many operators in view, strong rooms or cellars, which appear to the stranger the peninsula vf Malacca ; the cocoa-nut of Balei, known it is not difficult, even for an inexperienced visitor, to to be almost a mass of metal. The smallest of these by its shape and size; the dadass, which is planted by distinguish the different degrees of perfection at which receptacles isoccupied entirely with the Religious Tract the Malays with the pepper-ving, the latter intaining they have individually arrived."
round its trunk, and supporting itself by the paicles on Passing over the account of the process of composing,
* (This is a little exaggerated. The steam-press for book-work its stem; the soap tree, the castor-oil plant, trunks of and also of correcting the proof sheets, as containing hund-press, wrought by ewo men, produces only 125 sheets or
turns out between 730 and 84*) sheets an hour; and as a common the sigo palm, and various kinds of seeds unknown to nothing new, we accompany the visitor to the ground 230 videu per bour, euch machine may be suid to do the
work of supposed to have been driven on shore by the north-west
the Malays who settled on the islands. These are all floor, whence, on approaching the northern wing of about six presces, or twelve men. Some machines employed in the establishment, he hears a deep rumbling sound, printing newspapers, execute 11W) imprensions or sides per hour,
monsoon to the coast of New Holland, and thence to
these islands by the south-east trade-wind. Large masses the meaning of which he is at a loss to understand, and thus individually do the work of thirty-two men. Practiuntil the doors before him being opened, he is sud- bevand the reach of human labour, and if not done by machinery, sides immense trees of red and white cedar, and the blue
of Java teak and yellow wood liave also been found, bedenly introduced to nineteen enormous steam-presses, it could not be done at all.]
gum-wood of New Holland, in a perfectly sound condi
BY AN OFFICER OF THE FRENCII ARMY.
tion. All the hardy seeds, such as creepers, retain their when off trotted the dog to fetch the provisions, which
ANECDOTES OF TURENNE. germinating power ; but the softer kinds, among which he religiously respected. If his master wished to invite
MARSHAL TURENNE, an eminent French general, is the mangostin, are destroyed in the passage. Fishing any friend to come and see him, he had but to utter
who flourished in the reign of Louis XIV., was one canoes, apparently from Java, have at times been washed the name, and the dog would run off, and pulling the on shore. It is interesting thus to discover how nume- intended guest by the coat, inform him that he was
of the most generous and high-minded men of his rous the seeds are, which, coming from several countries, wanted. Every body was fond of the dog, and every age. It has been said that his generosity and beneme, he believes that nearly all the plants which I brought body called it the dog of Bretten. One day the sports- volence had no limits. No one ever begged of him,
man sent his dog with his basket, and a note to the without receiving something; and if he had nothing India Archipelago. From the direction, however, of the butcher, who was a zealous Catholic, whereas the in his purse at the moment, he borrowed from any winds and currents, it seems scarcely possible that they sportsman was a Protestant. The animal arrived at officer near him, desiring the lender to ask it back can have come here in a direct line. If, as suggested the shop, wagged his tail, and presented his note, from his treasurer. That functionary, in reference been carried towards the coast
of New Holland, and exclaimed the butcher, colouring with rage: Meat said that he suspected some persons of coming to with much probability by Mr Keating, they have first which was for some sausages. Sausages on a Friday!' to this practice, came to the marshal one day, and thence drifted back again, together with the productions on a Friday! Well, if you must have meat,' said the ask sums which they had never lent. “Give them, of that country, the seeds, before germinating, must have ruftian, taking a hatchet, and cutting off the poor dog's nevertheless, all that they ask,” said Turenne ; if travelled between 1800 and 2400 miles.” The list of land tail close to the rump, and then putting it into the they hate lent money to me, they must in justice be animals is even poorer than that of plants. Some of the basket, there it is.' The poor dog, bleeding and in pain, repaid ; if they have not lent it to me, the poor rogues islets are inhabited by rats, which owe their origin to
returned home, laid his basket before his master, must be in great distress, else they would never bare a ship here wrecked. There are no true Jand birds, but stretched himself out, and died. Judge of the fury of his thought of making such a request ; and so we should plenty of the web-footed species. Of reptiles, only one
master. He rushed out of his house, armed with a sword, assist them.” He was ingenious in devising means sinall lizard was found. A great many kinds of insects determined to kill the butcher. Fortunately for him for sparing the feelings of those to whom he gave as were, however, obtained in numbers. Spiders were very abundant, and a small species of ant swarmed under the self, the wretch got notice of the intended visit, and sistance. A poor gentleman having come to the army loose dry coral. Although the productions of the land escaped from the town, for men, women, and children, ill furnished with necessaries, the marshal feigne were this scanty, the surrounding seas were found had sworn to avenge the cruel murder of their favou; an anxiety to have certain horses of his, and gave crowded with life. Whence, it may be asked, came even
rite. On the following day it was unanimously voted him an admirable set in exchange for very infethese few land animals? There seems to us but one that as the poor dog could not be brought to life, his rior animals, affecting to be the party favoured and answer to this query---their eggs must have been wafted portrait should be embodied in the town arms." benefited by the bargain. A large sum of money hither by the winds.
once fell to him as his own property. Pretending to
have received it purposely from the court, he assem
SCRAPS FROM LORREQUER.
bled all those officers who most required aid, and The following anecdote of Curran is too good to be divided it betwixt them, as the bounty of the sorelost, and is not generally known :
reign. On another occasion, when an officer had got In the year 1811, I quitted the grand army, then in
Poor Philpot, when he dined with the guild of mer- his horses killed in battle, Turenne supplied their Germany, on a mission to Spain ; and on my way chant tailors, they gave him a gold box with their arms place at his own cost, at the same time telling the stopped at Bretten, a little town of the Grand Duchy upon it-a goose proper with needles saltier wise, or
Officer not to speak of the donation, as “ he had not of Baden. I proceeded to the Rath-Ilaus (town hall), something of that kind; and they made him free of their the means of so acting by every one ;” thus, upon a to apply for a billet, and there found the burgomaster grand dinner. Well, Curran was mighty pleasant and pretext of economy, getting his generosity kept secret
. conversing, or rather disputing, with one of the inha- | agreeable, and kept them laughing all night till the mobitants, who did not spare big words, which are ment he rose to go away, and then lie told them that he better displayed than by mentioning the single fact, still more big in German than in French. The burgo- never spent so happy an evening, and all that.
that while all other generals of the day grew rich, he But,
ended his campaigns poorer than when he began. master appeared delighted at the arrival of a stranger, myself away; so, wishing you now every happiness and One day, when he was in the enemy's country, the as it delivered him from his disagreeable tête-à-tete. prosperity»--there were just eighteen of them—“ permit inhabitants of a neighbouring city sent to offer him a He sent off his man in a very bad humour, who pre- ine to take my leave," and here he stole near the door-hundred thousand crowns if he would take his army sently returned and said, “ I have served you faith- " to take my leave, and bid you both good night." by a route different from that in which their city lay. fully, and find that the proverb is verified. I am A very curious incident in the life of the Rev. “As your city does not lie in the line in which I al. treated in the same way as the dog of Bretten. They Arthur O'Leary is humorously transferred to the ways intended to take my troops, I cannot accept the have put his picture into the town arms, and in order Knight of Kerry: When O'Leary was a student in money you offer me.” Delicacy of conscience was never that it may be complete, you should write my name France, he went to see an exhibition of “ The Wild carried farther. Well might the enemies of France under it.” This language was, of course, unintelligible Irishman stitched into a bear-skin. Lorrequer has Man of the Sea," and found that the show was an weep, as they are said to have done, for Turenne.
The care which he took of the fortunes of his offito me ; but looking towards the wall, I saw the arms
removed the exhibition to London, and substituted cers and soldiers, from the greatest to the least, was of Bretten surmounted by a dog without a tail. My the knight for the friar, with what effect the reader incessant. He made known their services to the brare Medor, who had made with me all the campaigns may judge for himself.
court, and never allowed his veterans to suffer distress of Napoleon, waz by my side ; he was a good creature, The knight paid his money, and was admitted. At in their old age, or merit to go unrewarded. To his but by no means handsome ; his tail had been cut first the crowd prevented his seeing any thing --for the domestic servants his liberality was extreme. On one short off, which did not improve his appearance. place was full to suffocation, and the noise awful - for, occasion a servant of his went to Colbert, the financial “ Sir," said the burgomaster to me, “ your dog is besides the exclamations and applause of the audience, minister, and had the audacity to use his master's exactly like that of our town armis. I hope, how- there were three barrel-organs playing Home, sweet name in asking for some small place for himself. ever, ihat he will not meet with the same mishap, or Home,” and • Cherry Ripe,” and the wild man himself Colbert was charmed with the opportunity of serving rather with something equivalent, for his tail has been contributed luis share to the uproar. At last the knight
Turenne, and brought to him in person the commiscropped short already.” This is the second time," said obtained, by dint of squeezing, a view of his person, and, I, “ that I have heard the dog of the town arms iento his very great horror, beheld a figure that far eclipsed
sion or document appointing the petitioner to the
office. The marshal was surprised, but said nothing, tioned. Pray tell me its history." “ Willingly,
the portrait without doors. replied the burgomaster ; “ but you are fatigued, and hair, that grew even over his nose and
cheek bones. He his knees, and begged for mercy. Turenne raised It was a man nearly naked, covered with long shaggy
till he called for the domestic by whom the thing had
been done. The man, conscious of his fault, fell on are in more need of a dinner than a history. Your sprang about, sometimes on his feet, sometimes all-fours, billet is to my house, and if you will go there with this but always uttering the most fearful yells, and glaring
him, and put the commission into his hands, saying, lad, who will show you the way, I will soon follow upon the crowd in a manner that was really dangerous. “ If you had spoken to me, I would have done this you. I have a few orders to give, and in the mean- The kniglit did not feel exactly happy at the whole pro- for you ; I am only sorry that any thing should have time, whilst the dinner is preparing, my wife will do ceeding, and began heartily to wish himself back in the occurred to take you away from my service.” The hier best to amuse you.” Having accepted the kind - house," even upon a committee of privileges, when confounded domestic stammered something about his offer of the burgomaster, I set off with my guide, who, suddenly the savage gave a more frantic yell than before, "large family," and the generous hero aided him with as soon as we were in the street, said, “ Looking at and seized upon a morsel of raw beef
, which a keeper
money to enter on his new office. Turenne had a your dog, sir, one would say that you had stolen lim extended to him upon a long fork like a tandem whip, as degree of self-command and power of restraining his out of the town arms.” As we went along, men, women, he was not safe, it appears, at close quarters. This he
passions, equalled only by what we are told of some and children, cried out, “ Look! look! there's the dog tore to pieces eagerly, and devoured in the most voracious
great men of antiquity. One day, while passing along of Bretten! the town dog come to life!" When we had manner, amid great clapping of hands and other evidences arrived at the house of the burgomaster, I was very the knight, " for God knows whether in lis hungry moods
the streets of Paris in his coach, the vehicle became of satisfaction from the audience. “ I'll go now," thought
entangled with others, on which a young gentleman well received by his wife, but she cried out, “ Der he might not fancy to conclude his dinner by a member
grew angry with Turenne's coachman, and coming up Bretten's hund !" as soon as she saw my dog ; and then of parliament.” Just at this instant some sounds struck
to him, struck him with a cane. « What !” cried a added, “ I hope, sir, he will not be served like the dog upon his ear, which surprised him not a little. He lisof Bretten. But that is impossible ; for his tail is cut tened more attentively; and conceive, if you can, his
bystander,“ will you dare to beat the servants of
Turenne ?" The young gentleman believed he had off as short as it well could be.” Madam,” said I, amazement to find that amid his most fearful cries and ruined himself, but Turenne merely said, with a “ I have not been in your town more than half an wild yells the savage was talking Irish. Laugh if you smile, “ You understand how to chastise my people, hour, and I have heard of nothing but the dog of like, but it's truth I'm telling you ; nothing less than Irish. sir, most admirably; they need it sometimes; and Bretten. The worthy burgomaster has promised to There he was, jumping four feet high in the air, eating when occasion again occurs, I shall send for you." tell me its history ; but as I am curious to know it at
his raw meat, pulling out his hair by handfuls, and amid once, perhaps you will have the goodness to relate it.” all this, cursing the whole company to his heart's content
Reproof lay under this remark, but of a gentle and
generous kind. The lady replied that she would not deprive her hus- in as good Irish as ever was heard in Tralee. Now,
His integrity was proverbial. All the nations with band of that pleasure; but as to the history, it was well though the knight had heard of red Jews and white known to every urchin in the town. The burgomaster an African Irishman ; so he listened very closely, and by Negroes, he had never happened to hear any account of
whom he came in contact in war, knew this so well,
that, in making treaties or entering into engagements soon arrived ; and when he had feasted me with true degrees not only the words were known to him, but the of any kind, they always sought the guarantee of his German hospitality, I reminded him of his promise. very voice was familiar. At length something he heard personal word, and, having obtained this, cared for no " It is a very old story, said he, “ for the proverb left no further doubt on his mind, and turning to the other security. Even French diplomatists, at distant which you have already heard is to be found in the savage, he addressed him in Irish, at the same time fixoldest books. It is mentioned by Fischart, who wrote ing a look of most scrutinising import upon him.
rts, gained their ends by the mere aid of his name in the middle of the sixteenth century. In our
for good faith. The modesty of this great general
“ Who are you, you scoundrel ?" said the knight. country, when a man has not been rewarded for his
was an equally conspicuous trait in his character. His
* Billy M.Cabe, your honour." services, we say, “He is treated in the same way as
“ And what do you mean by playing off your tricks
dispatches, even when announcing the grandest sue, the dog of Bretten.' There was formerly in Bretten a here, instead of earning your bread like an honest man?" unexaggerated. His letters show him to have had a
cesses, were brief statements of fact, unvarnished and sportsman whose dog, which was full of sagacity, had
" Whisht," said Billy," and keep the secret. I'm been admirably trained. IIe wanted nothing but earning the rent for your honour. One must do many a
profound sense of religion. Many such passages as the speech, and the want of this he sometimes seemed to queer thing that pays two pound ten an acre for bad following occur :-"We are about to open the cam
land." supply by the peculiar wagging of his tail. He was
paign. I have prayed earnestly to God that he will alike valuable in the field and in the town. He exe
This was enough: the knight wished Billy every suc
enable me to pass through it in his fear, knowing no cuted all the commissions of his master, who had no
cess, and left him amid the vociferous applause of a well greater earthly blessing than to have a conscience at thing to do but to put a basket in his mouth, with a
satisfied audience. This adventure, it seems, has made ease, as far as our weak nature will permit.” note to the butcher, or the baker, or the grocer, in poor-laws, for, he remarks very truly, “ more of Billy's EDINBURGH: Printed and published by W. and R. CHAMBERS, 19,
the worthy knight a great friend to the introduction of which was enclosed the money for what he wanted, countrymen might take a fancy to a savage life, if the and to mention the word butcher, baker, or grocer, secret was found out."
Waterloo Place.- Agents, W. S. ORR, London; W. CURRY Jun. & Co. Dublin ; J. MACLEOD, Glasgow; sold by all booksellers.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
“CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.
PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.
THE MANAGEMENT OF THE POOR. what is raised in England. A great part of the funds carry off the adult than the young, it burdens the That there always will be poor in all communities, arises from collections at the church-doors ; for, though public with immense numbers of orphans, many of is, we believe, pretty generally acknowledged. It is, there is an act empowering the raising of a rate, it is them the children of persons who, if spared, would have however, matter of debate, by what regulations the acted on only in about half of the number of parishes, kept them above public charity. Thus, so far, the renumbers and sufferings of the poor are most likely and there very hesitatingly and inadequately. Prac- strictive system seems to spread, instead of limiting, to be kept at a low amount. The opinions on this tically, the helpless poor get, in most parishes, some the evil of pauperism. When a fatal epidemic breaks
out in one of the towns in question, subscriptions are subject are very various and opposite, and the practice small weekly pittance, generally about a shilling, often is also different in different countries. It is obviously as low as ninepence, and even sixpence (the allowance generally raised by the wealthy classes to succour the a question for which a settlement is greatly desirable, for children being proportionally less); from which suffering poor ; and the evil is thereby perhaps alleseeing that the comfort of individuals and of commu- they are expected to support themselves in their own viated in some, but only in a slight degree. The vicnities in so great a measure depends on it.
homes. In many parishes there is absolutely no relief tims of the pestilence have been prepared for it by It is scarcely necessary to remind our readers that of any kind, and in none is the claim of persons pos- years of unrelieved suffering, and that generosity in England, since the end of the sixteenth century, sessing health and strength admitted, however desti- which once might have prevented disease, is now the poor, both those who are so from helplessness, and tute they may be from circumstances. There are work- unable to arrest its calamitous progress. those who are so from want of employment, have been houses only at two places, and there the average an- The popular doctrine in Scotland is that advanced supported by a tax on the more fortunate part of the nual sum expended on the support of paupers is about by some political economists, that systematic relief community. From a period near the end of the last L.6. The smallness of all these provisions is not to be for the poor leads to habits of improvidence, and encentury, a special regulation existed, by which wages rashly attributed to want of feeling on the part of the
courages marriages amongst persons unable to supto a certain amount were guaranteed to labouring nation. There is in Scotland a strong prejudice against port their offspring, thus tending to increase, instead men; but as this was found to lead to abuses, it was
all but self-dependent modes of existence. It is a ge- of diminishing, pauperism. Dr Alison, on the conabolished in 1834. In that year, the general arrange- neral opinion that all succour held out to any but trary, maintains that “poor-laws, such as exist in ments respecting the poor underwent considerable the helpless poor, is productive of evil instead of good, England, do not interfere with moral restraint, but changes ; but the principle remains unaltered, that even to the poor themselves. This succour is thought support and strengthen it ; and that moral restraint the poor, without the least regard to the circumstances
to be particularly detrimental, when it is the result of is nowhere so feeble, and population (in a long-inhawhich have brought about their poverty, are entitled
a fixed assessment or rate, for then it is supposed that bited country) nowhere makes such rapid progress, as to be supported out of the fruits of the industry of the the poor are led more particularly to depend on the where there is no legal provision for the destitute, and rest; and supported they are accordingly, in mansions public charity instead of their own exertions. The where therefore the prospect of destitution is always, reared throughout the country for the purpose. The smallness of the sums given to the helpless can only clear, obvious, and immediate.” He appeals in the total sum required for the support of the poor in Eng- be attributed to this general prejudice against pauper first place to experience. “In England a poor-rate land and Wales in 1836, was L.6,413,119, being less by relief, for it may be presumed, that, if there were an- has been generally enforced for 250 years, and in some two and a third millions than was required in 1833, other feeling in the case, the ordinary slender funds respects been carried to an injudicious height during the last year of the abused system. The expense is would be augmented by a sufficient assessment. What at least fifty years. We know that the population of calculated to be at the rate of about six shillings per proves very strikingly, that opinion, and not want of
a country may be doubled in twenty years. There annum for each individual in the whole population. benevolent feeling, is the main cause of the small pro- has therefore been abundance of time for the English In all the other European states, some provision is vision, is, that the poor have as great a disinclination poor-laws, if they really afford the direct, constant, made for the poor ; but it is only in the northern and to ask public charity as the wealthier classes to give and systematic encouragement to marriage' which has some of the German states that there is a legal ac- it. This is, in the rural parishes particularly, always been supposed to cause such an increase of the popuknowledgment, as in England, of the right of every
a last resource, and one which is never resorted to lation there, and such an amount not only of pauperperson to be rescued from destitution by the public; without a pang of the severest kind. A wish to keep ism, but of misery, consequent on redundant popuin others, namely, Holland, Belgium, France, Portugal, up a spirit of independence in the humbler classes, is lation, as would have put beyond all doubt the truth the Sardinian States, Austria, Greece, and Turkey, perhaps one of the main sources of that anxiety which of the theory. But how stands the fact ? the applicant's legal right does not seem to be so dis- is always manifested by the wealthy to restrict by all We find that the population of England has kept tinctly acknowledged, though provision is nevertheless possible means the amount of the funds devoted to strictly within her proper limits, while that of Irelargely, and in some cases amply, made from public the relief of the poor.
land has so completely outrun them, that famines in funds for his relief. In Ireland, till very lately, there
The object of Dr Alison's pamphlet is to prove that Ireland are of nearly periodical recurrence, the lives was no sort of legal provision for the poor; and in
this system of restriction is attended by evils which of the people are continually shortened by cold and Scotland, though a legal provision has long existed, it
ought to make it a subject of shame rather than pride hunger, and the overflow of her population has pauis on a scale far beneath that of England.
to the community. He contends that, in large towns perised both England and Scotland, besides extending What has brought the subject at this time under
more especially, it is productive of wide scenes of to America.” England (in the opinion of Mr Senior) our attention, is the recent publication of a pamphlet,
misery, shocking to all benevolent feeling, and posi- stands in the most favourable position of all the counbearing particularly upon the management of the poor tively dangerous in some respects to the rest of the
tries of Europe with regard to wages. The average in Scotland,* but in reality illustrating the whole
inhabitants. He shows that in Edinburgh, Glasgow, annual expenditure of her labouring families is L.33, question in a manner calculated to arrest general atDublin, and other large cities, where there is no
while that of Ireland is L.5, 8s. The proportion of tention. The author is Dr W. P. Alison, professor of thorough system of relief for the poor, fever has been
the annual births to the whole population in England medicine in the Edinburgh University, and late Pre
of late years prevalent to a degree quite unknown in is small. The number of paupers is as one in ten, sident of the Edinburgh College of Physicians—a
any English town; a fact which must in the main be while in Ireland there are 2,300,000 people who are gentleman whose name has not been heard in connec
ascribed to the wretched condition of great hordes of wholly or partially mendicants, out of an entire popution with the agitation of any of the great questions people gathered in the meaner parts of those towns.
lation of about seven millions. The difference is here of the day, but who has at length deemed it proper to Will it be believed that, in two late years, one-sir- too great, Dr Alison justly remarks, to allow of a supstep out of comparative privacy in a cause which must
teenth of the population of Edinburgh, and one-sirth of position that the pauperism of Ireland is attributable interest every philanthropic mind. We readily own
the population of Glasgow, were affected by dangerous solely to circumstances independent of pauper relief. that, though we have long suspected great errors on
fevers ? The average number of cases treated in the “ It is true," he remarks, “ that the lower Irish are this subject, we were never fully aware of them till hospitals of Glasgow during the last seven years, has a rude and imperfectly civilised people, but they are we perused this admirable emanation of just reason
been 1842, while in Leeds, where the inhabitants are not so illiterate as many of the English poor, in whom ing and genuine benevolence.
a little more than a half, the average for the same In Scotland, the whole funds raised as a systematic period has been 274 ; and in Newcastle and Gates
the principle of moral restraint is much more power
ful; and the law of nature, by which the improviprovision for the poor amount to only about L.140,000 head, where the inhabitants are about a fourth, only dence of parents leads to the destitution of children, per annum, or about ls. 4d. for every individual in
39; there being in Bath, during the same period, "only is, as Mr Malthus himself observes, intelligible to the country, being in proportion less than a fourth of
a few cases.” It is true, that want of cleanliness, bad the humblest capacity. Even if the advocates of the
ventilation, and so forth, are among the causes of * Observations on the Management of the Poor in Scotland,
theory resort to the extravagant supposition that there and of its Effects on the Health of the Great Towns. By William
fever; but Dr Alison contends, and apparently with is something in the Irish character specifically differPulteney Alison, M.D., F.R.S.E., Professor of the Institutes of success, that destitution is the main and primary ent from all others in this respect, and making them Medicine in the University of Edinburgh. Blackwood and Sons. cause. He also shows that, as fever is more apt to reckless and improvident where others would be pruthe trial of the parties concerned, before the crimi:ial wurts of
dent, this will not avail them, for any one who chooses | abled by injury or disease, and unable to provide for finally recommends the required changes in the Scot
tish poor-laws, the most important of which is an to make the observation will see, that among the edu- his family. If this happens in Ireland, his widow or cated poor of Scotland the same union of reckless family has no resource but in vagrancy and casual uniform assessment sufficient to give relief to the improvidence with extreme destitution, is uniformly charity ; and in Scotland, the legal relief granted is whole of the poor, not only those who are sick or imfound ; and we shall see afterwards that the same often a mere pittance : the children are brought up in potent, but those who from any cause are destitute, holds of other countries.
misery, they cannot possibly acquire any artificial and this relief to be of sufficient amount, instead of The truth is, that below a certain grade of poverty, wants, or look forward to the enjoyment of any com- being, as at present, a kind of mockery of the wants the preventive check of moral restraint has no power. forts, and all experience (if on so large a scale as to be to which it professes to be applied. We greatly regret Twenty-five years of observation of the habits of the freed from accidental fallacies) teaches, that in these that we are unable to transfer any of the excellent poor have shown me, that there are none among whom circumstances there is no moral or prudential check arguments brought forward by Dr Alison against the population makes so rapid progress as those who see on their increase. But in England they fall under the common but short-sighted doctrine as to moral or continually around them examples of utter destitution protection of the law; they are fixed to their parishes, other merits being necessary on the part of poor apand misery. In such circumstances, men hardly look and brought up under the eye of persons more or less plicants to constitute a claim for relief. His riews 61 forward to the future more than animals. It is easy interested in their welfare ; their habits are prevented this subject exactly meet those which we have oftener for us to say, that by cutting off from a poor family from degenerating; they grow up under the influ- than once advocated in this journal. There are fe any prospect of relief, in case of destitution, we can ence of artificial wants, and would feel themselves things which have more forcibly impressed us throughmake them careful and prudent. The practical result degraded if they were voluntarily to part with such out life than the unreasonableness of expecting all is widely different. Another alternative is uniformly of the comforts of life as they have hitherto enjoyed, kinds of virtues from human beings when they are embraced. They lower their habits; and those who and descend to the filth and penury of the Irish unfortunate, and only then.
We conclude with an earnest hope that the excelhave not been accustomed to observe them, are not cabin. They live on wheaten bread, as Mr Malthus aware how much reduction of comfort the family of a himself tells us, and are practically content to remain lent purpose which this pamphlet has directly in ries labouring man, disabled or deprived of employment, in smaller numbers than they might have been, had will not be disappointed, but that the attention which may undergo, and not only life be preserved, but the they been satisfied with coarser fare. Experience it has already excited in the more thinking circles of capacity for occasional irregular and precarious em- proves that their numbers do not become redundant, our two largest cities will be felt ere long over the ployment continue. Their better clothes may be and that their standard of comfort in after-life does whole country, and that, all existing prejudices being pawned, their furniture and bed-clothes may be sold, not degenerate from that of their fathers.
undermined, it will be the means of introducing a they can lie on straw or shavings of wood, sometimes That the artificial wants, which nature never fails system of poor-relief more agreeable to our pretensions on bare boards, and never undress; two or more to awaken in the minds of all young persons who are
as a Christian community. families may be crowded into a single room, and brought up in tolerable comfort, are in reality an instruggle to pay the rent among them. Such associa- finitely more effectual check on early marriages and
THE MULETEER. tions of ó lone women,' who have only occasional em- excessive population, than the mere prospect of want
A STORY OF RECENT OCCURRENCE IN SPAIN.* ployment, and of unemployed and disabled men, of food is in the minds of persons brought up in utter widows and orphans, are continually formed. They destitution, must, I think, appear obvious to any one One evening in the autumn of the year 183-, Ciriaco gather cinders on the streets late at night and early who reflects on the difference in this respect between Martinez, the muleteer or carrier who passed regularly in the morning, they beg for bread, wherever they are the higher and lower ranks of society in all countries. between Madrid and Alicant, was seated at the gate permitted, among the rich, and if repelled from them, How many men are there, in the different ranks which of a hostelry near the western outport of the last in the week will support life for many weeks. I have purposely defer the period of marriage until they shall mentioned city. Ciriaco was almost ready to set out known instances, where I had satisfactory moral evi- be able, not merely to maintain a family, but to
on his stated journey, one of a rather momentous cliadence that the mothers of such families lave submitted, maintain it on that precise level on which they are racter in the existing state of the country, and he was for the sake of their children, to such privations for themselves moving, and who die childless before they now enjoying himself for the last time with a few of months together. If they fall sick, as after a time can accomplish their design! How many women of his intimates, who were seated around him, smoking, they infallibly do, the medical charities come to their these ranks pass their lives in single blessedness, not relief. Thus, almost without visible means of sub- because they are afraid of starvation for themselves and drinking from a leathern or goatskin bottle, alsistence, many of the poorest families in this and other or their offspring, but because taste, or vanity, or ready somewhat flaccid with passing from hand to great towns manage to pass the winter, while in sum- sundry other considerations, forbid their forming hand. Ciriaco was in high and jovial spirits, but he mer they find precarious and desultory employment unions with men whom they consider their inferiors still had an eye to business. Taking a long pull at the of people who have fallen 'thus low, or watch the respect, of hope, of pride, of avarice, of ambition; landlord! hang me if I shall put up any more at this in fields and gardens. Now, if you mark the conduct How many motives of filial affection, of duty, of self- skin,
he exclaimed, “ Hollo ! uncle Melchor ! master future progress of children brought up in this state of combine to determine the question of marriage, or misery and degradation, you look in vain for the prin- celibacy, in the ranks of which we now speak! These hostelry of yours. Your wine is as sour as vinegar, ciple of moral restraint, or for indications of pruden- ranks, in reality, never become redundant ; many die and your Babieca up there, your sign of the Cid's tial motives, counteracting the natural tendency of without offspring, but few of them descend into the horse, brings me no good luck. Here have I two of human passions. Many of the children die miserably lowest rank, and none have their lives shortened by in early youth, and those who survive are uniformly mere privations. The lower in society that these my mules yet without their load ; neither passenger reckless and improvident. The daughters of families complex motives operate, the more effectual is the
nor burden have I got to go upon them. Hollo." thus circumstanced receive no education which fits preventive check. That some of them are in full continued he, addressing the casual passers by, “wh them even for service; they are almost uniformly operation in the English paupers, and restrain their will go to Madrid ? It shall never be said that Ciriaco mothers at the age of twenty, and the progress of increase, the facts already stated sufficiently prove; Martinez went with an idle mule from Alicant. Who population is thus rendered most rapid in that por- but which of them finds place in the Irish cabin ?" will go to Pavia, Monfort, Monover, Vecla, or Albation of society which lies nearest the verge of absolute After some quotations from another author, showing cete? Come forward; you will find me accommostarvation.
that, in the interval between the Reformation and On the other hand, when men are preserved from the commencement of the poor-law, the peasantry
dating.” this state of hopeless and abject destitution, they all of England were nearly in the same condition as those
The latter part of this address of the jolly muleteer (or with few and trifling exceptions) gradually fall, of Ireland, with respect to mendicancy, misery, and did not pass unnoticed. A stranger stept forward, more or less, under the dominion of artificial wants, agrarian disturbances, Dr Alison continues : “I as
and said to Ciriaco, “ When do you expect to arrive and form to themselves a standard of comfort, from sert, then, with confidence, that all experience teaches,
in Madrid ?” “ In nine days," replied the muleteer; which they will never willingly descend, and to main not only that unrelieved suffering is quite ineffectual
“that is to say, friend, I am bound by my engagement tain which they will keep themselves under a degree to teach prudence or moral restraint to the poor, but
to deliver my goods at that time in Madrid. But, to of restraint unknown to those of the poor, who are that it has uniformly the very opposite effect.; and; and say, to myself at least, if time and tide permit.
tell you the truth, I always make a little reservation, continually struggling to obtain the first necessaries on the other hand, that the natural effect of well-timed of life. Such observations have been very frequently and well-directed public charity is not only to relieve
Perhaps your goods would be inconvenient to a self, and they seem to me amply to confirm and easily and strengthen the only check on excessive population kind of merchandise have you?”
The muleteer pointed made on a small scale by many others as well as my suffering, but to prevent degradation,
and so to support traveller, if he were to engage one of your mules," to explain the result of the grand experiment in which which either policy or humanity will allow us to conIreland and England have been engaged during the template. It is not the fear of lowering, but the hope of to a shed behind him, where his packages were lying last two centuries. Indeed, the simple fact, already maintaining or bettering their condition, which really know what sort of stuff I am to carry, but if you are mentioned, of the habitual cleanliness of most of the constitutes that preventive check, and that hope is English poor, even in the most pauperised counties, continually maintained among the poor, by the cer
curious to know, you may look at these bales and as compared with those either of Ireland or Scotland, tainty of assistance in distress, in circumstances where packs. There is something written upon them, but I is of itself sufficient to show where the preventive it would otherwise have been extinguished in despair of the business ; and, besides, the fact is, that my eyes
only know whither they are to go. That is my part check is in fullest operation.”
These views are striking, and they are supported have become cleanly, not in consequence of positive are too weak to read hand writing.”. The light-hearted by the experience of other countries. In the Azores, laws or direct exhortations, but by the silent operation muleteer winked as he said this to his companions, who where there are no laws for granting succour to the of those feelings of human nature which always raise immediately set up a loud laugh, knowing that poer poor, unless they be sick,“ poverty does not appear," the standard of comfort among those who are steadily Ciriaco, like themselves probably, was no great scholar. we learn froin authentic evidence, “ to check matri- preserved from the degradation of hopeless poverty.'
Meanwhile, the stranger went forward to the packe, mony: in general, the poor people marry at an early Dr Alison meets successfully a number of minor
on a number of which were written, in pretty large age. The same, we find, is the case in Sardinia, one objections which have been taken to poor-laws, as
letters, the words, of the countries where there is no adequate legal pro that they diminish voluntary benevolence, that they vision for the poor. The swarms of Neapolitan lazza- rank up the rich and poor in hostility against each
y Pala cra roni need only be alluded to. On the other hand, in other, and that they have an injurious effect on the
hierro y otros. Denmark, Holland, and Prussia, where the provision application of capital and the wages of labour. We The meaning of this superscription, though somewhat for the poor is ample, there is comparatively much are not able to follow him through these reasonings, obscured by the mode of putting it down, might prudence with regard to contracting marriage. Again, but cannot resist adverting to one triumphant fact on readily have been made out to be, * Vessels of sijver the English peasantry eat wheaten bread, and main- the first point--that, during the fainine in the west tain a generally high standard of comfort-a circum- of Ireland in 1822, L.100,000 was subscribed for its articles."
and virgin gold, with fancy-work of iron, and other stance quite incompatible with the theory of a debase- relief in rate-oppressed England, while the land-proment or a redundancy of population by means of the prietors of one of the Irish counties where the distress bales, he said to Ciriaco, “ When do you set out for
After the stranger had looked attentively at the poor-laws ; whereas the Scotch are content with was experienced, could only raise one hundred! Our Madrid ?" plainer fare, and the Irish live on the humblest of all author also enters into arguments to prove the direct * Very well,” said the stranger ; • I do not know yet
“ To-morrow evening," was the reply. esculent substances.
practical advantages of legal provision, namely, its being whether it will be convenient for me to go with you " The whole secret of the preventive check,” says much more effectual for the permanent relief of misery or not, but I hope you will have company by the way Dr Alison, “ appears to me to consist in the growth in the lower orders, and much more just towards the in any case."
artificial wants among the poor. Now, higher orders; its acting much more uniformly, its in order to understand how these are fostered by the amount being much more easily adapted to the real * The above story is a version, without any alteration in the practical application of the poor-laws, it is necessary wants of the poor, and its kind being in cach case important points, of one which appeared in the Spanish journals to look chiefly to their effect on the rising generation. more properly suited to their character and circum
within these few years. The facts of the narrative, for the rea Take the common case of a labourer dying in middle stances; and its securing an interest in the concerns
der must understand that the whole story is true, came out on life, and leaving a family of young children ; or dis- of the poor throughout the whole community. He Alicant.
Vasos de P.lata
On the evening of the following day, according to At the same time, the bales were left untouched, and confounded look of the accused, and the confession purpose, Ciriaco had his mules at the gate of the hos- carefully locked up.
which his question conveyed. “The P. is an abbre. telry of Babieca, ready to depart. A young and high- Putting faith in the statement of Juan de la Rosa, viation of Pulita, meaning fine, polished white iron.” spirited horse, the long grey tail of which swept the rather than in the suspicions of the mob, the magis- The prisoner stared still more wildly, but, heedless ground, stood saddled and bridled beside them, being trates of Caracuel did not neglect to send a messenger of the consequences, he proceeded to satisfy himself. a favourite animal, which Ciriaco preferred to ride to Alicant, to inquire respecting Ciriaco Martinez. “ But the pala cra, the native gold ?" said he. “Oh," while guiding his string of mules on their way. At The answer was immediate and startling—“Ciriaco replied the merchant, “ the words have been disjoined its saddle-bow hung a goodly flask, wherewith its Martinez is murdered.” The messenger also brought by my stupid apprentice boy in writing the superscripmaster might charm away the toils and weariness of an order for the transmission of the stranger, who tion. The last words are pala crasa, cadenas de hierro the journey. With a horn slung round his shoulders, called himself Don Manuel de Basabru of Catalonia, y otros ; meaning altogether, 'coarse shovels, chains of and a pistol or two at his belt, Ciriaco himself ap- to Alicant. This order was immediately obeyed, his iron, and other articles.'” peared, mounted his horse, bade a cheerful adieu to guilt seeming beyond all doubt.
The confounded prisoner, who, by thus misinterprethis host Melchor, and moved away slowly with his At Alicant, Don Manuel de Basabru was soon ing the superscription, had been led to take away a mules, chanting the while the old romance that tells brought to trial. Besides the identification of Ciriaco's human life, in the hope of acquiring valuable treathe loves of Almanzor and the fair Zoraide. For a mules, and other criminatory circumstances, one man sures, had nothing further to say for himself. The short time the bells of his mules were heard tinkling came forward in evidence, who had actually seen the bales were opened in court, and he there saw the paltry in unison, but soon Ciriaco and his charge were both murder. This witness was Juan Pacheco, a peasant utensils for which he had plunged into deadly crime. out of sight and of sound.
of Monfort, the village adjoining the spot where Though scarcely required, their testimony was conTowards the middle of that same night, the people Ciriaco was found. Juan de Pacheco deposed as clusive against him. He was condemned to death. of the hostelry of Babieca were roused from their follows :
The priest who attended him in prison, and on the quiet slumbers by a violent knocking at the outer “ At the end of last month, our Barille plants were scaffold, endeavoured to induce him to invoke the gate. The sound was so loud, and so remarkable in approaching maturity; and as the foxes are so fond of mercy of heaven. But he was never heard to utter a its character, that every individual of the household some parts of these plants that they sometimes de- sentence excepting one, and that he repeated several was speedily on foot, under the impression that the stroy whole plantations in a night, it is necessary to times. “ White iron !--it was but white iron ! With gate would be knocked to pieces. On going to it, and watch them, and all the neighbours take the watch by the demon's money I killed him, and I have sold myopening it, their amazement was great to behold a turns. On the night on which it was my turn to self for the demon's money!" riderless horse striking the door violently with its watch, I lay down among some tufts of rosemary, in hoofs. Their surprise was still greater when they such a position that I could see, with the help of the discovered it to be the horse of Ciriaco Martinez. moon, a large extent of country, without being myself
THE SALMON. The first thought which struck all, was, that Ciriaco perceived. I had not lain long, till I saw, very near DETERMINATION OF THE QUESTION RESPECTING ITS had fallen asleep, and had been thrown to the ground me, a man whom I did not know, but who resembled by some false step of the animal. They opened the the prisoner in form and staturo. He was armed with The history of the salmon in the earlier stages of its gate wide for the horse to enter. But although it a fusil, like myself, and it was my belief that he was
existence has hitherto, as is well known, been involved came forward so far as to show that it was covered one who had come out, like myself
, to watch the in great obscurity, although the elucidation of it was with foam and streaks of blood, it did not pass into foxes. In this impression I was confirmed when I desirable not only for the satisfaction of men of science, its stable. Wheeling around before they could seize saw him squat down behind some broom-bushes not far but for the protection of the fish itself, as a valuable it, the horse set off at full speed in the direction whence from me, and I was less heedful than I might bave article of commerce. The subject has at length been it had come. The creature was wild and excited, and been in keeping myself awake. In short, sleep came
cleared up, and in a way and under circumstances the blood which had been seen on its sides led the over me, and I know not how long I continued under which, in our estimation, give its elucidation additional landlord Melchor to the sad conclusion that some its influence. The sound of mule-bells awoke me, and interest. serious evil had befallen the merry-hearted Ciriaco. the report of a gun followed immediately after. I
The individual to whom the public is indebted for With the first dawn of morning, Melchor was out raised my head, and distinctly beheld on the road, this good service is Mr John Shaw, resident at Drumwith two companions on the road which Ciriaco had which ran close by the spot, a string of loaded mules, lanrig in Dumfriesshire, and who holds, we believe, followed in his journey. After travelling some leagues, near which lay a man upon the ground, with another the situation of head game-keeper to the Duke of they observed one part of the road to be peculiarly -the person I had before seen--standing over him, Buccleuch, on his grace's estates in that county. marked and trampled. They also saw footsteps lead- and apparently robbing his person.”.
Directed solely by his own intelligence, Mr Shaw ing aside from the place, and, pursuing them, they
Here the witness was interrupted by his examina- commenced some years ago a series of experiments for reached the middle of a piece of untilled ground. tors, who asked him why he did not run to the succour determining the early history of the salmon. He in There, under a rudely and hastily piled heap of stones
of the fallen man. The witness answered that “he the first place constructed three ponds on the bank of and furze, they discovered the corpse of the unfor- was afraid of bringing danger upon himself," and was
the Nith, one of them, which we shall call No. 1, being tunate Ciriaco MartinezHe had received a shot allowed to continue his narrative.
twenty-five feet long and eighteen broad, another through the body, and his head, besides, was horribly “ The man upon the ground struggled, and I heard (No. 2), twenty-two feet long and of the same breadth, mutilated. Melchor immediately went and alarmed him cry to the other, 'Wretch! you will pay for this!" and a third (No. 3), fifty feet long and thirty in the people of the two neighbouring villages of Mon
to which the robber answered, 'Yes, with the demon's breadth. A rill of spring water, descending from the fort and Monover, and å hasty pursuit was com- money;' and as he spoke, he threw a large stone for- neighbouring hill side, and abounding with larvæ and menced in all directions. Judging by the tracks of cibly upon the head of the prostrate man, which ap- insects fit to be food for fishes, was parted into two the missing mules, it was believed that the robbers peared to kill him.* The assassin then threw the streams, one of which fell into pond No. 3, while the and murderers had not continued the route to Madrid, body over the back of a horse standing by, and took other ran into No. 1, and thence passed on through a but had taken some other course. Other travellers it into the middle of the adjoining field. On return-grated aperture into No. 2; the waste water from both had been on the road, however, and this point was ing to the road, the murderer tried to mount the horse, being allowed to fall out through closely wired apernot easily determined. It is possible that the pursuit but it escaped his grasp and galloped off. Ile followed tures, and find its way to the Nith. The arrangewas not carried far enough ; but however this may it for some distance, and then returned to the mules, ments were such as to make it impossible that there have been, certain it is, that the authors of poor
one of which he mounted, and then went off hastily could be any communication between the river and Ciriaco's murder were not discovered by Melchor and with the whole. These circumstances (said the witness the ponds, the bottoms of which were thickly bedded his assistants.
in conclusion) I related to others on hearing of the with gravel. Two or three days after this event, Juan de la Rosa, murder of Ciriaco Martinez."
In January 1837, Mr Shaw caught a male and
When these and other circumstances had been female salmon in the Nith, while they were engaged carrier between Madrid and Cadiz, chanced to be at the village of Caracuel, near Ciudad Real, where the brought out, Don Manuel de Basabru still stoutly in spawning; and having pressed a quantity of roe or news of the murder had not yet arrived. Juan de la denied all participation in the murder of Ciriaco.
ova from the female, which he mixed with milt from Rosa was accustomed to lodge at the same inn in
Regarding the bales of goods, he returned to his first the male, he deposited the ova, thus prepared, in one Madrid with Ciriaco Martinez, and knew him inti- assertion that they were his own property. The of the ponds. Fifty days after, namely, on the 238 of mately. Great, therefore, was the amazement of Juan judges confronted him with the merchant from whom February, he “found the embryo fish distinctly visible to see in the village of Caracuel the mules of his Ciriaco had received them in charge, yet Don Manuel, to the naked eye, and even exhibiting some signs of friend under the charge and in the possession of a
as he called himself, persisted in his daring denial. vitality by feebly moving in the egg." On the 28th stranger. He was sure about the mules, and in par
“ Then what do these bales contain ?" said the of April, they were excluded from the ogg, when they ticular one of them, for he him.self had long possessed judge, pointing to them ; “it is visible that they have measured about five-eighths or nearly half an inch in the animal, and had only sold it to Ciriaco about two
never been opened since first packed up, but you can length, and had a small red transparent bag, like a months previously. Of the identity of this mule he inform us what they contain ?"
currant, depending from the anterior part of their was perfectly certain. Taking an opportunity to ask
“ That is not difficult to tell, indeed,” replied the bodies. The temperature of the stream, at first 39°, the new owner how long he had possessed the mulos, prisoner boldly, “ Any one who can read may tell was latterly 44o. To ascertain if a higher temperaJuan received for reply that the other had owned their contents from the superscription which I put ture was favourable to the developement of the young them more than a year. This answer rendered Juan upon them,' Vasos de plata y pala cra, sacadenarios de fry, Mr Shaw, on the 20th of April, placed some of the assured that something was amiss, and he informed a
hierro y otros.'' (Vessels of silver and virgin gold, ova in a tumbler in his bedroom, allowing a stream of magistrate of his suspicions. This functionary went fancy articles of iron, and others.)
fresh water to fall into and out of it; and the result to the inn to examine the stranger, and look at his
The merchant who claimed the property, when he
was, that in thirty-six hours the fish in this situation bales. On being asked to whom the bales belonged, heard Don Manuel make this interpretation of the
were disengaged from the ova, while the others, as the stranger first said that they belonged
to himself, superscription, was seized with a fit of laughter, so already mentioned, did not appear till seven days later. and then, on its being hinted as very unlikely that he violent that neither the seriousness of the case, nor the An accidental irruption of mud destroyed the fish should be possessed of what seemed to be valuable gravity of the court, could check him. treasure, he stated that the bales had only been en- he, when he had partly recovered his composure, te I produced in the pond about a month after their birth.
Some ova, prepared in exactly the same manner on trusted to him to be conveyed from Jaer to Bedajaz.
should kill myself with
laughing at this, had that poor the 27th of January, and placed in pond No. 1, became These contradictions, and the suspicions of Juan de Ciriaco Martinez but been alive.”. Then turning to
fish on the 7th of May. Of this family, Mr Shaw la Rosa, would perhaps have been insufficient to jus- the prisoner, he exclaimed, “ Vessels of silver, indeed! had drawings made at ten days, forty-eight days, two tify the detention of the man, but circumstances say rather vessels of white iron : vasos de lata, white months, four months, and six months old, which are occurred which soon removed this difficulty. A crowd iron.”
to be found in Jameson's Edinburgh New Philosophihad assembled about the inn of Caracuel, where the
The accused stared. “ But the P.; the words are cal Journal for January 1838. They show the creature magistrate had gone to examine the stranger, and some
vasos de P.lata ?
in its growth from a shape in which the fish lineaments persons had noticed “Vasos de P.lata," &c. on the
The merchant could not help laughing again at the
are scarcely to be discerned, up to the condition of the bales. One individual, more sharp-sighted than his neighbours, immediately suggested that the owner of kingdom of Valentia, and had its origin in the following tradio and parr of the same size taken from
the Nith, no * The “ demon's (or devil's) money" is a phrase common in the part of our rivers. Between the family in the pond, the mules might be an emissary of Gomez, the lieute- tionary story: -Two Moors, of the tribe of the Almoravides, difference could be discerned, excepting in depth of nant of Don Carlos, and that he was doubtless convey- were renowned in the eleventh century for their intimacy, and colour, the pond family being lighter, probably from ing treasure to some place or other, to serve the for their joint pursuit of the occult sciences. They were avarilieutenant's treasonable purposes. As, in the hurried
cious, and finally acquired so much power over the Evil Spirit,
the comparative purity of the water in which they
were produced and reared. This difference, it may
that he gave them as much gold as they desired, but only on conshiftings of the Spanish civil war, treasure had often been buried for a time, and afterwards lifted, the opi- one killed the other, and fled towards Africa with the chests of observe in trout of various streams, the depth of colour
dition that they retained their mutual friendship. However, the be remarked, is one which anglers are accustomed to nion of the individual mentioned at once found be- gold which he had so won. fiend made holes in the being in every case determined by the comparative lieving auditors. “ He is an emissary of Gomez,”
chests, and the money dropt out. The coins grew into stones of clearness of the waters. On this point Mr Shaw made cried the mob, and the magistrate was compelled by They are common on the Valentian roads, and are yet called the
a curious observation, which we shall give in his own their clamours to take the stranger into custody. Demon's Money.
various sizes, which retained something of their circular shape.
words : In the course of my visits to the experie