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416 | Seals and Seal-hunters,
359 Sebastian Cabot,
279 | Narrative of the Avon,
219 Section, Glasgow Geological 338
249 Shaw on Salmon Fry,
244 Newspapers in France,
319 | Sheffield Medical Charitios, - 60
353 | Shoemakers, the
294 | Obscure Man of Genius,
Sights of a Foreign Fair,
287 Sketches in Natural History,
237 Sketches of Superstitions, 30, 43, 55, 103,
122, 206, 261, 307, 326, 386
120 One Fault, Novel so called, 370 Skimmings from Old Receipt-book, 180
18 Opie, Recollections of
280 Smith, Writings of
54 Snail, the
80 Society of Glenkens,
127 | Soirée of Messrs Chambers,
292, 299 Palestine, Geramb on
68 Solitaries of Port-Royal,
391 Parliament Houses, Lighting
6 Squinting, Cure of
155 Spectral Illusions, 307, 326, 386
189 Paris, Contraband Museum of 199 Speculations on Words, 3d article, 62
12 Paris Sketch-Book,
257 Spitalfields and its Weavers, 123
392 Stair, Lord, to his Tenants 368
412 Steam-Carriages of M. Dietz, 280
262 Stevens, George Alexander 119
391 St John, Cascades of the
284 Physical Deformities,
341 Stuart, Story of Prince Charles
5 Sugar-house, Visit to
6 Suspected Spy, the
46 Politics of Burns,
238 | Tait's Magazine, Extracts from 117
81 Polytechnic School of Paris, 74 Teachers, Remuneration to 245
Living on the Continent,
242, 282, 318, 194, 330 Telegraph, Electric
134 Poor, Condition of
78 Poor of Ireland, Report on
6 Topham, and Strong Men,
20 Town-lots of Little Frenchman, 110
7 Preparation of Coffee,
238 Townshend's Excursion, 69, 77
318 Priest, the French
250 Printing-Office, Visit to a
215 Tytler on Ilistory of Queen Mary, 287
201 Ugolino of Pisa,
374 | Raised Beaches,
287 Recollections of Ceylon Sport, 335 Ventilation of Parliament Houses, 229
342 Verse, Uninvited
367 Vesicatory, New
39 | Visit to a Sugar-house,
28 Visit to Canterbury,
245 Visit to Parkhurst,
316 Voyage of the Avon, Perilous
344 Retrospect of a Military Life, 315 | Wages of Weavers,
213 Walking Excursions of Young Men, 245
36 Wandering Jew,
272 | Rosslyn, Countess of
2 Washington, Guizot on
91 Weather: Wisdom,
138 Weavers, German and British 48
412 Sailors, Self-improvement of 244 Wedderburne, Recollections of 20
324 | Wellington and David,
99 | Well-known Couplet,
164 West Indies, Gurney's
357 Sanatory Wants,
311 | Western, Letter-Bag of Great 46
43 Whale Chase in Australia,
74 Whaling Voyage, Bennett's 196
56 Wight, Isle of
20 Wilde's Narrative,
52 Willis's Loiterings of Travel, 35
206 Witchcraft in England,
96 | Witchcraft in Scotland,
256 Dinner-giving, Hints on
316 Dobbs and bis Nag Nobbs,
62 Dog, Anecdote of a
168 Double-bedded Room, Story of a
276 Drama, the
367 Duelling in America,
319 English Affectation,
Equality of Bliss,
208 Force, Moral and Physical
232 Foreign English,
64 French, King of the
160 Gas, Natural
192 Gas, New
208 Good and Bad,
160 Goodwin Sands, Beacon on
72 Great Drink, the
192 Highland Deer,
48 Horses on a Journey,
160 Ideas, Treatment of New
16 Ignorance, Danger of
200 Indian Manners, Native
360 Information for the People, New
96 | Ink-stand of Perry,
296 Irish Debt,
360 Irish Election, Old
280 Languages, the Learned
32 | Leeches,
56 Literature under the Stuarts,
40 Musical Miss,
56 Neighbour, my
8 Nitric Acid in Rain Water,
72 Pictures, Manufactured
88 Pleasures, Barbarous
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “CHAMBERS’S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
“CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.
SATURDAY, JANUARY 25, 1840.
PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.
too readily the means of lavish expenditure, and for -the impending avalanche that was to overwhelm us, It seems that mankind are for ever destined to live beginning wars oftener, and continuing them longer, was, however, always the debt, concerning which dire under the nightmare of some alarming apprehension. than would have been the case had the authors of infliction, Samuel Hannay, Esq., in 1756, reasons and The ancients were kept on the alert by ominous prog
such afflictions been obliged to find immediately the concludes as under:-“It has been a generally received nostications, derived from the entrails of beasts, from means of defraying the current cost of their follies. notion among political arithmeticians, that we may the flights of birds, or the equivocal responses of the Leaving the consideration of these consequences, it is, increase our national debt to one hundred millions ; but nymph Egeria and the Delphic oracle. A fear of lowever, amusing to revert to some of the mistaken they acknowledge that it must then cease by the debtor ghosts, witches, and apparitions, and a belief in the prophesyings of national ruin by the last generation. becoming bankrupt. But it is very difficult to commagic power of fairies, Pucks, charms, and incanta- They will show that some very eminent writers of the prehend if we do not stop at seventy-five millions, where tions, were the penalties paid for ignorance by our preceding century were as little prescient of the we shall stop.”—A Journal of Eight Days, 4to, p. 218. more immediate ancestors. In the present day, the strength and resources of this empire, as Mr Murphy Mr Hume, who was cautious, and exempt from gloom prevailing bugbear seems a dread of poverty, either and other almanack-makers are about the future state and rashness, observes, that the first instance of a individual or national. At every interval of three, of the weather.
debt contracted upon parliamentary security, occurred four, or five years, the community is plunged in the Here is an extract from the celebrated Dr Dave
in the reign of Henry VI. The commencement, he greatest tribulation from the number of bankruptcies nant :—“ Unloss this can be compassed (reducing the continues, “ of this pernicious practice deserves to be and general mercantile stagnation ; pecuniary ruin public retenue to L.2,300,000 per annum), it will be noted ; a practice the more likely to become pernicious, stares every one in the face; innumerable pamphlets found that in no long course of time we shall languish the more a nation advances in opulence and credit. and periodical essays are shot forth, explaining the and decay every year, by steps easy enough to be per
The ruinous effects of it are now become apparent, causes and remedies of existing disasters; and then, ceived by such as consider of these matters. Our gold and threaten
the very existence of the nation.”—History after the gloom and controversy have continued for a
and silver will be carried off by degrees, rents will fall, of England, 8vo. edit. 1778, iii, 215. while, the nation, from some imperceptible causes, the purchase of land will decrease, wool will sink in His illustrious contemporary appears to have caught emerges from its difficulties, the banks resume pay price, our stock of shipping will be diminished, farm a gleam of hope from past experience, but evidently ments in specie, all the mills and factories are working houses will go to ruin, industry will decay, and we labours under fearful misgivings for the future :full time, the wharfs and docks are crowded with shall have upon us all the visible marks of a declining “ Great Britain,” says Dr Smith,“ seems to support merchandise, exports and imports increase enormously, people." -An Essay on the Balance of Trade, printed with ease a burden which half a century ago nobody and, in short, every thing is joyous, hearty, and pro- in 1699.
believed her capable of supporting. Let us not, howgressive“ Richard is himself again !"
Another writer opens eleven years later with the ever, upon this account, conclude that she is capable These alternations of commercial prosperity and almost to the cery brink of destruction ? Our treasures following alarming interrogatory :-“ Are we not driten of supporting any burden ; nor even be too confident
that she could support without great distress a burden depression form a remarkable feature of modern times.
are riotously wasted, our constitution in danger of a little greater than that which has been laid upon her.” Revulsions in trade are nearly as punctual, though being subverted, and the nation almost in general
-Wealth of Nations, ii. 363. not quite so frequent in their advent, as spring and corrupted.”—Printed in 1710.
Another trump or two only remain to be sounded autuinn; and there is little doubt that their periodi
Next follows a chapter of lamentations from the on this painful subject. Pending hostilities with cal return is governed by fixed laws, as well as the Craftsman (No. 502, February 14, 1736) :– The vast America, the ingenious Dr Price observes,“ We aro movements of the heavenly bodies. Like the plague, load of debt under which the nation still groans, is now involved in another war, and the public debts aro the sweating sickness, and cholera morbus, formerly, the true source of all those calamities and gloomy increasing again fast; the present year (1777) must they occur at regular intervals, sweeping off their prospects of which we have so much reason to com make another great addition to them, and what they millions, not of human beings, but of sovereigns, and plain. To this has been owing that multiplicity of will be at the end of these troubles no one can tell
. learing woful blanks in our ledgers, that require years burdensome taxes, which have more than doubled the The union of a foreign wa to the present civil war of anxiety and patient toil to fill up. They are the price of the common necessaries of life within a few might perhaps raise them to two hundred millions, but fevers of commerce, mostly brought on by the intem
years past ; and thereby distressed the poor labourer more probably it would sink them to nothing."-Addiperance of enterprise and speculatron; and as the researchea of medical science have lessened both the rent, and put even gentlemen of plentiful estates and manufacturer, disabled the farmer to pay his tional Observations, &c., third edition, p. 148.
The following is the funeral knell of this unhappy frequency and intensity of epidemic maladies, there is
under the greatest difficulties to make a tolerable kingdom, and all that remains is to call in the underno reason why our sages in political economy may not provision for their families. From this have proceeded taker :-“ If the premises are just, or nearly just, and render a similar servico to traffic, by explaining the those infinite swarms of locusts and caterpillars in office, nothing effectual is done to prevent their consequencauses which influence the fluctuations of the mercantile cycle.
who not only prey on the vitals of industry, but renderces, the infallible, the inevitable conclusion that follows The vicissitudes of trade form only one of the many
even our liberties precarious and dependent on the is, that the nation is a BANKRUPT, and that those who
will of those who have the sole nomination and direc- have trusted their all to the public faith are in very sources of those fits of despondency that have been tion of them."
imminent danger of becoming (I die pronouncing it) wont to overshadow the realm. No lady or gentleman A brilliant paraphrase of the above passage ap BEGGARS."—An Argument to consider the State of has been so frequently ruined and undone as poor Old peared some years since in the Edinburgh Review; the Nation. By John Earl of Stair. 1783, England. How many inquests have been held over it ran through the newspapers, was printed on cards This is sixty years since, and how awfully solemn her remains by political soothsayers during the last for effective circulation, lithographed, and surmounted the noble earl’s valedictory ejaculation ! In death, century! Yet somehow or other she has always with the head of Mr Brougham, to whom common truth and a veracious second sight are usually expected, risen again in her might, to tower majestically onward fame imputed the honour of its invention :-“For my and John Earl of Stair dies exclaiming more than half ir her prosperous course, like the Great Western part, I do not know of one necessary of life upon which a century ago, that if his premises be just, we are in across the Atlantic ; or rather she has been like the
we have not some tax or another, except water ; and very imminent danger of becoming beggars. patient supposed to be in the last stage of existence,
we can put no ingredient I know of into water, in These excerpts are enough to inculcate caution in and who, while the physicians were gravely debating order to make it palatable and cheerful, without paying political prophesyings. It savours of presumption in about the symptoms of her malady, rose up and deli a tax. We pay a tax for air, and for the light and the wiscst attempting to predicate the fate of a nation. berately walked out of the apartment.
heat of the sun in the day-time, by means of our tax The most perspicuous are often baffled in their antiAlmost ever since the Revolution of 1688, the in on windows ; and for the light and heat in the night-cipations on the fortune of individuals, but how much crease of the national debt has formed a constant time by means of our duties on coals and candles ; we more are they likely to be at fault in endeavouring to theme of lugubrious forebodings. One now laughs at pay a tax upon bread, meat, roots, and herbs, of all trammel up the issues of a community! It is a vast the ominous predictions and calculations of Davenant, kinds, by means of our salt duty; we pay a tax upon and complicated question, into the calculation of which Stewart, Hume, Price, and other writers of the last small beer by means of the malt tax ; and a heavy the ablest arithmeticians can never bring all the elecentury. It is not, however
, intended to underrate additional tax on strong beer by way of excise. Nay, ments essential to infallible conclusions. A nation is the ruinous tendencies of governments anticipating we cannot have any clean thing to put on our backs, a giant of vast proportions, whose limbs and sinews, their resources by laying the burden on posterity. either of woollen or linen, without paying a tax by faculties and resources, can hardly ever be wholly Recklessly incurring debt is a pernicious practice, means of the duty on soap, &c.”—Torbuck's Debates, comprehended. It is centuries in growing to matueither in individuals or nations. In the latter, it is xv. 209.
rity, and often as long in decaying, an among the greatest of public calamities, by affording The most portentous sign in the air—the fiery cross heavy blows are necessary before life is extinct. Take
Vol. IX. No. 1.
“ from grave
BY A, OPIE.
ing off the head is not enough. Governments may | wards appeared, he was writing the Lay, and she told his varied converse, and heard him go change often ; commerce, trade, industrial pursuits, the bard that, as her lord was a St Clair, he ought to to gay, frem lively to severe,” I could scarcely forbear
write a ballad or a tale about the St Clairs who were and manners, may alter ; but the nation, or what really buried in the chapel, adding, thut Rosabel was one of called) ; “ you are indeed the man !"
to exclaim, "you are the great anknown (as he was constitutes the nation, its people, morals, religion, the family names. The very next evening (as I think) It was the last time I ever saw him, and the first usages, spirit, and municipal polity, still live under Sir Walter led her into one of thu oriel windows, and also, according to the idea of him who said on the innew dynasties. It is pride unbearable to arrogate the to her delighted surprise read to her the exquisite troduction of a stranger, “ Speak! that I may see gift of foresight, to assume a prescience of the phases, ballad in question, “ for which," said she smiling, the thee !" for as the face of Walter Scott, when speaking progress, and destiny of empires . History is replete world is indebted to me.” When
Lady-Rosslyn bade and animated, and the same face in a quiescent state,
me farewell before she quitted Southhill, she kindly were two different things, I might say, with some with examples of the fatuity of mal-assumptions, as reminded me that she had heard me express a wish to truth, that when we met
at Sir George Ph~'s, I saw the vicissitudes of Europe during the last fifty years visit Edinburgh and Roslin, adding," I sincerely hope him for the first time. abundantly testify. To compare the actual results that, whenever you do come to Roslin, I may be there
I went to Edinburgh in the autumn of that year, of her revolutions with the hopes and anticipations of to show you all its beauties."
and if I had then never seen Sir Walter Scott, I the acutest contemporary intellects, is quite enough Roslin, but she was in her grave ! Ten years after, that is in the year 1816, I did visit slould have
found means to be introduced to him at to put an end to all speculation about a moral, re
In that ever his own house ; but as I never like to force myself on beautiful, though dilapidated chapel
, I stood on the the acquaintance of distinguished persons, as my time ligious, or political futurity.
stone which covered her remains! Yes ; that still The use of the foregoing retrospection is to show young, and fair, and beloved being, was already joined Sir Walter's society so very recently, I was contented
was limited, and I had had the pleasure of onjoying the vanity of political dreaming, and the unreason- in death to “ the lordly line of proud St Clair !", and with seeing the tops of his chimnies and the roof of his ableness of despondency. The future must always I had come too late to see her in her castle ! But I house as 1 passed it on my road to the beautiful city. lie hid below the horizon, and if it rises charged interesting tribute to her merit. I, very stupidly; not even begun. He did not visit Edinburgh during
He then lived near Gala water, and Abbotsford was with public calamities, they will doubtless be accom- asked her if she knew Lady Rosslyn. “ Knew her the nine days of my happy residence there ; but I had panied with their appropriate remedies and allevia- she replied almost contemptuously, “ to be sure I did, the pleasure of sitting opposite his picture by Raeburn tions. Our business is not with it, but with our own and mony others knew her too; and there were as every day at my kind friend Constable’s, whose guest times and our own evils, which we feel and can best mony tears shed at her death as would have washed I was. Eagerly did I tell every one who would listen
out a shirt or a sack." comprehend, leaving posterity to grapple with theirs,
to me of my meeting him in London ; but I was moras they will be better enabled to do than we can, hav- though a simple, a touching and enviable eulogy.
I turned away with a quivering, lip, for it was, tified, when, on my praising the beauty of his counteing the benefit of our experience for guidance.
nance while under strong excitement, and the fire of his SIR WALTER SCOTT.
blue-grey eye, Dr Brown, the celebrated professor of In the year 1816, I was invited to meet this celebrated do not go on with these fights of fancy; the face is
mornì philosophy, interrupted me with, “ Nay, nay; RECOLLECTIONS OF AN AUTHORESS. but then untitled man, at breakfast, at the house of Sir
George Phin Mount Street. I had met him only a roast-beef and plum-pudding face, say what HARRIET COUNTESS OF ROSSLYN.
several times before, but had never had an opportunity you will! Probably that loved and lamented man " I, too, have recollections of this lovely and fascinat- to this visit with unusual pleasure, taking care to talents, said this merely to bring me down from my ing woman,” said I to myself
, while reading the men- arrive in Mount Street precisely at the time specified. Walter Scott's face was, would I had had the pleation made of Lady Rosslyn in the interesting memoirs Sir Walter, however, was there before me ; and for
sure of seeing it again! of Sir Walter Scott. And here they are :
some time, to my great satisfaction, no other guests
came to interrupt the flow of conversation from the In the summer of 1806, my husband and myself, eloquent man's lips, who seemed to me to talk not accompanied by Wilkie, now Sir David Wilkie, went with any view of display, but merely because his mind MR BRUCE'S REPORT ON ASSAM TEA. on a visit to Southhill, the seat of our highly valued was full
, and he could not help it. I know not what The difficulty of carrying on dealings with China, friends Samuel Whitbread and Lady Elizabeth Whit- led to the subject, but he gave us a most, animated which seems to be always increasing, has of late years broad.
I think the person was a militia officer, but that is led to an anxious discussion of the possibility of obAs I went to the chamber allotted to us, I saw in immaterial ; suffice, that whoever he was, he seemed taining tea from a different source. A kindred plant, the long gallery or corridor leading to it, a nurse-maid to live before us, as the narrator described his terrors used as a tea in Paraguay, has been pointed out to and two children, and concluding that one of the when he found himself going full gallop up and down the attention of British speculators; and of this latter was the youngest child of the family, I addressed crags, steeps, and declivities, of which he had before article, it will be recollected, we lately gave an her by her supposed name. « You are mistaken, madam,” replied the nurse ; “ this is Lady Janet Sinclair, which he gave this narration, but I know that it was
I cannot pretend to do justice to the spirit with account from the writings of a great variety of tra
vellers. It must be generally known that a proand this young gentleman is Lord Loughborough.” At so delightful to listen to him, that I congratulated spect has also arison of obtaining the ordinary tea this last information I was seized with an almost irre- myself on our superiority in punctuality to the other from an Asiatic soil, near to, but independent of, sistible desire to laugh, for, when very young, I had guests. At length, however, the rest of the company China. În 1834, a committee was formed at Calcutta, gone into the assize court at NGWhere Lord Sir Walter Scott, to my great joy, was desired to hand for the purpose of promoting the culture of the teaLoughborough was sitting as judge, and his peculiarly me down stairs ; consequently 1 sat by him at table
. plant in British India, and steps were immediately bright eyes shining from under the judge's wig over a On my other hand was a young clergyman, who had taken for introducing seeds and plants from China. nose like a parrot's beak, bad made an indelible im- lately published a prize poem.*
Before these were procured, it became known that the pression on my memory; and now I beheld before me As the company was so large, there could not be much tea-plant grew naturally in Assam, a large region five Lord Loughborough of three years old, the great general conversation, which was a subject for regret, hundred miles to the north of Calcutta, situated on nephew of the judge, in all the bloom of childish who came late, was one of the guests ; but I own that the great Bramah-pootra river, and, though not
subject beauty. I had no leisure for regrets, as I was enjoying an
to the East India Company, yet under British influThe contrast was indeed ludicrous, but the rencontre opportunity which never might be mine again—that ence. Mr C. A. Bruce (who, it appears, made this was welcome, because, as the children of Lady Rosslyn of being able, owing to the size of the party, to keep discovery fourteen years ago) was immediately ap
to . One were at Southhill, no doubt she was there herself, ject succeeded another from his lips; and as he conde pointed by the committee to survey the district, and and I should at length see and know this much ad-scended to mention one of my productions to me, telling report on its capabilities of producing the plant, under mired woman. When we met, I was at first rather me I had made him shed many tears, I felt emboldened culture. A report from Mr Bruce, dated at Jaipore, disappointed in her beauty, but there was a charm in to refer to his own writings, and I asked him why, with June 10th, 1839, has just reached this country, and, her manner and conversation which soon won my such evident powers to produce dramatic effect, he had having been favoured with an early copy of it, we regard.
never written a tragedy? He replied that several propose making our readers acquainted with some of
reasons had prevented him from coming forward as a Our dear host drove us out together more than dramatic writer. Amongst others, he was, he said, a
the principal facts which it presents. once in his phaeton, and as we could not conveniently proud man, and his pride would have made him unable The districts of Muttock and Singpho, to which have the pleasure of conversing with him, we were
to dance attendance on managers, or consult the varied Mr Bruce's inquiries have as yet been confined, lie obliged to converse with one another ; consequently, tastes of actors, and others, or words to that effect. between the 26th and 28th degrees of north latitude,
owned that he had once serious we did not long remain on distant terms. We visited writing a tragedy, on the same subject as that which and the 94th and 96th degrees of east longitude, a the new jail at Bedford, in which we found but one had been already so ably treated by his friend Joanna situation corresponding, in one important respect, to inmate, a man, of whom we bought some pincushions, Baillie-namely, " The Family Logend,” founded on the best tea-districts in China, which lie between the the fruits of his industry and his solitude. We drové a true story-that of a lady having been exposed by 27th and 31st parallels. It is a country, with respect also to some gentlemen's seats in the neighbourhood. her husband on a rock in the Sound of Mull, and left to agriculture and social institutions, in a very deploAt one of these, where our host left us while he had ar mock funeral for her. Sir Walter Scott: said rable state ; the people are of migratory habits
, and transacted some business, Lady Rosslyn asked the that if he had written on this legend, he should have dreadfully addicted to opium. It is amidst the widewoman into whose care the house had been left, and had no lore in his drama. His hero should have been spread natural woods or jungles which cover a large who was then basting a leg of mutton, to fetch her a draught of new milk. Accordingly she laid down the only one affection in his heart-love for this phone with portion of the country, and under favour of their shade,
that Mr Bruce has found the tea-plant growing. It basting-spoon, and eagerly ran to get it. like one solitary gleam of sunshine gilding the dark
generally grows in tracts, a few hundred yards in expity it would be," said the considerate Lady Rosslyn, tower of some ruined and lonely dwelling ! “ if the mutton should burn while the good woman is
Never can I forget the fine expression of his lifted tent, with occasional trees forming a sort of connection employed in my service! I will baste the meat till vated in its character, and even the features acquired found a hundred and twenty such tracts. They are
eye as he uttered this! The whole face became ele- between one tract and another. Mr Bruce has now she returns." So said, so done—and the graceful dignity and grace from the power of genius! countess, seizing the ladle, commenced operations. How fortunate did I consider myself in having this idea of his procedure in searching for tea-tracts :
all on plains. The following extract will afford some “ Well,” cried I. admiring her benevolent care, morning been favoured with specimens of his two man“ among the pleasing and curious siglits of this morn- nors, if I may so express myself, as exhibited in his "Last year, in going over one of the hills behind ing I shall number that of seeing Harriet Countess acknowledged and unacknowledged writings !—for 80 Jaipore, about 300 feet high, I came upon a tea-tract, of Rosslyn basting a leg of mutton!"
convinced was I that he wrote the popular prose as which must have been two or three miles in lengthThat evening, while talking over the beauties of well as the admired poems, that, while I listened to in fact I did not see the end of it ; the trees were in the Lay of the Last Minstrel with Lady Elizabeth, Lady Rosslyn told us that the ballad of Rosabel was
most parts as thick as they could grow, and the tea written at her instigation. She said that Sir Wal- ago from his wife and family, in the prime of his life and his seeds (smaller than what I had seen before), fine and ter Scott was staying at Roslin, while, as it after I usefulness, universally loved, honoured, and lamented. fresh, literally covered the ground: this was in the
“ What a