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spacious Protestant sanctuary in the city, is now a Congregational church.

After a considerable stay in New York I went on to Philadelphia, the cleanest, neatest, and most elegant city in the Union-the scene of the signing of the ever-memorable declaration of independence-the real asylum of civil and religious liberty-the imperishable monument of the sagacity, taste, and philanthropy of one of the greatest of the human race, William Penn. The views and principles of this extraordinary man contained the embryo of all that is great and good in that noble country, and are an earnest, I believe, of the good things that are yet in store, not for that land alone, but for the entire world. When sectarianism shall have given way to Christianity, and when the councils of peace and universal brotherhood shall prevail, it will then be everywhere acknowledged that the Quaker Proprietory of Pensylvania was the fairest type of the world's regeneration. No Congregational church exists in Philadelphia. Presbyterians, Episcopalians, and Methodists are very numerous.

Anxious to see slavery in the life, I journeyed to Baltimore, Washington, and Alexandria. For the first time I sat down to dinner with a slave at my back. I felt more disposed to weep than to eat. Slavery in its most revolting forms did not come before me within the latitude to which I was compelled to limit my journey, but I saw enough to convince me that this awful violation of the law of justice, is attended with the frown of Providence. Baltimore is a flourishing town, but will not admit of any comparison with Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. And after you pass that city, which is on the outskirts of the Slave States, and proceed to Washington, you feel at every step that you are receding farther and farther from the region of health, and vigour, and enterprise. Washington is a poor, straggling village, with one or two fine-looking public buildings. Alexandria, in Virginia, a fair specimen of all the towns still southward, one of the dullest, most dilapidated and wretched looking towns I have seen. How I longed to leave it, immediately I entered, and hasten back to the regions of liberty. What madmen are the slaveholders of America! How blind to their own interest! How fond of struggling through the mire with millstones fastened to their necks! Infatuated admirers of the ancient penalty of bearing about on their own living backs, the heavy and gory limbs of the victims of their own cupidity! Poor, pitiable, contemptible men, who have not the sagacity to trace their misfortunes to their origin; or the manliness to listen to remonstrance, and to avow their mistake. Determined to hug their "domestic institution" to the last, perhaps, it is the Divine purpose to let them have their fill of it, and to accomplish the deliverance of the slave, admit the awful destruction of the possessions and the lives of their taskmasters-not to say the convulsion of the entire Union. But slavery must cease, or that it will shake the constitution of the United States to its centre, no observing person can doubt. The matter is getting, at length, fully before the public. It introduces itself on all occasions-is becoming universally discussed, and is compelling a patient hearing within the walls of the capital. It can no longer be cushioned. The abolitionists as a party are far ahead of the general community;

so much so that many friends of emancipation honestly dread the tendency of the bold operations, and daring projects of the leaders of that party. Garrison and his companions go, at once, for the entire breaking up of the constitution of the States; and with that catastrophe the absolute annihilation of every existing form of ecclesiastical organization, and the neglect of every public religious ordinance. My impression is that he and his associates are opposed to all government, civil and religious. Lewis Tappan and his companions, the other section into which the abolitionists are divided, wage no war with the civil constitution of the United States, make no attack upon ecclesiastical organizations as such, and direct the attention to the one object of forming a separate political party, who, like the Whigs and Democrats, shall carry their distinctive principles into every political action, which they are called as American citizens to perform, and who, by means of placing in every office from the lowest to the highest a man holding anti-slavery principles, shall ultimately succeed in carrying the great matter of emancipation. There are thousands and tens of thousands of persons in the States who are opposed to slavery, and desire its extinction, who connect themselves with neither of these parties. I confess that my sympathies do not go at all with the movement of Garrison and his friendsthough their extravagance is not without its advantages. I believe that Garrisonism will become a reality, if the moral and religious power of the States, be not put forth in due time, and in due strength to utter the mandate, "The slaves shall be free." If the church will not do the work, I believe God will employ the devil. I have no hesitation in saying that the church of America is very criminal on this question, and too fairly exposes itself to the bitter and withering taunts of the infidel. If ministers and churches will not support the political movement of Lewis Tappan, a truly noble-hearted man, let them clear themselves of all reasonable suspicion of secretly conniving at the wrongs of the enslaved race, by fearing a movement of their own-a religious anti-slavery movement. Let the movement spring from the Cross, let it be baptized by incessant prayer, let it believe in the light of the judgment day, and let all salaries, all smiles, all ecclesiastical position, all sectarian interests, all intercourse with the south, all standing of worldly respectability be sacrificed to the stern dictates of conscience and the rights of the slave, and the honour of Christianity.

From Alexandria I returned to New York, where I attended several of the anniversary meetings of the various religious societies of America. These meetings much resemble the May meetings in London; with the exception that, while on your side the Atlantic the audience is accustomed to speeches, the Americans are generally favoured on such occasions with sermons. The addresses are long, argumentative, and evidently delivered memoriter. Let it not be supposed that the Americans cannot enjoy good speaking. A good orator with them is a perfect idol. But the good old Puritan leaven still shows itself in mannerism as well as in matter. Ministers draw their models of elocution more from the past than the present; and seem to imagine that the goodly tomes of President Edwards will furnish a safer guide in addressing

the men of the present day, than the study of man himself. There would be speaking in that country if all its ministers would take lessons from Gough, the famous temperance lecturer, or young Beecher, who has lately been undergoing a famous schooling in the art of elocution among the emigrants of the far west.

After leaving New York, I spent a few days with Dr. Sprague, of Albany, one of the kindest men it was ever my lot to meet. Never shall I forget the open-hearted friendship of that man. America has in Dr. Sprague a fine specimen of genuine hospitality,-a virtue which modern Christendom seems to number among the very inferior graces of religious character. Thus far on my way, I could not resist the temptation to journey as far as Buffalo, and thence to the Falls of Niagara. Do not ask me for a description; the best account that you have ever read of that sublime spectacle cannot exceed its merits. If the man that is not impressed, enraptured, and awe-struck by that scene, he is one whom nature has formed without any moral susceptibility. After surveying it by daylight, I went, alone, near midnight, and stood on the stone tower which is built on the edge of the Horseshoe Fall. The moon was up, but the night was cloudy. I felt awfully desolate. The emotions that I had on going behind the sheet of water, the next morning, baffle all description. After spending a day at Niagara, I crossed Lake Ontario, to Toronto. There I met our mutual friends, brother Roaf and his family. There, too, I met with no less than twenty-five individuals whom I knew in England, some of them members of the church at West Bromwich, and some of them relations. The delight of meeting old friends in a strange land must be experienced to be appreciated. I was much gratified to find one of these friends pursuing a course of study, under the superintendence of Mr. Lilly, with a view to the Congregational ministry. Brother Roaf has a noble sphere of usefulness at Toronto. Many helpers are needed. An infusion of English tastes and habits is well, but the success of our cause in Canada must mainly depend on an efficient native ministry. The Colonial Society does well to send out to certain stations English parties, presuming that they are men of prudence and energy; men who will study to conform themselves to circumstances, rather than expect the habits of a free people to yield to them; men who can labour with untiring vigour, and yet shun dictation and love of power as the mariner avoids the rocks. There are, however, other ways in which your Society may benefit the Colonies. Give all the support you can to collegiate institutions, and as far as possible in securing the support of the student during his college career. Obtain the very best tutorial qualification. Grant sums to the different Congregational Unions which have been, or may be formed, rather than to one or two ministers on behalf of their brethren. Let these general sums be added to provincial subscriptions from the different churches, and leave the appropriation of the different grants to feeble churches, and itinerant labourers to the discretion of each Union. The less of individual responsibility in the disposal of grants the better. The more this matter is managed by an assembly consisting of ministers and delegates from the churches, within the range of whose observation the monies are expended, the better. Though

I have been placed in a centrical situation, and may be called on frequently to respond to applications from various settlements in these Lower Provinces, I should decline the responsibility of handing over their salaries to any of my ministerial brethren, or in any way fixing its amount. We have formed, as you know, the Congregational Union of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. So far as we, in these Provinces, are to share in the funds of the Colonial Society, I, and I believe my brethren in this field, would prefer that the amount granted should be appropriated to the different cases in accordance with the general vote of the Union. Besides helping the Colonies in these ways, you may greatly encourage and edify us by sending over occasionally, more especially to the British Colonies in North America, some of your best men, to spend four or five months in the apostolic practice of visiting the churches, and seeing how they do. This will not merely help us; it will enlighten you, and stimulate the churches at home.

From Toronto I went to Kingston, which is soon to be supplied by one of the students under the care of Mr. Lilly. In twenty-four hours afterwards I visited Montreal, the finest city in our colonial possessions. There I spent a happy sabbath with my dear old friend, brother Wilkes. He has a noble chapel, and an interesting congregation, but has to contend against an immense amount of Romish influence, French and Irish. The second Congregational church is languishing for want of a pastor. From Montreal I was obliged to make my best way homewards.

We reached St. John in time for the services of the first sabbath in June. We there found our precious remaining little one quite well. The services had been regularly sustained, chiefly by ministers of other denominations, at Unionstreet church, during my lengthened but necessary absence. The people gave us a cordial welcome. I found all things in a pleasing state. Our health and spirits were greatly improved by the journey. We have much reason to bless God for the many mercies vouchsafed during our lengthened absence,-in the course of which I travelled between two and three thousand miles, and saw many things new and wonderful, painful and pleasing; but was disappointed in my efforts to obtain assistance for our cause in St. John or New Brunswick.

Next week I have to leave home again, to attend the first annual meeting of our Congregational Union at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. Oh, that I had a brother labouring with me in this city!

Brother Heathcote, of Coleraine, Ireland, has written to me, expressing a wish to come and labour in the colonies. He is a worthy man. By all means encourage him to come. I will take in all that come, and then strive to find them a sphere of labour. If Mr. Tomkins do not come to Yarmouth, you might at once apply to Mr. Heathcote, if you cannot apply to Mr. Jackson. Yarmouth must not be trifled with. It was a grievous thing Mr. T.'s returning to England. If he cannot come soon, another ought to come.

You may publish this letter in the CHRISTIAN WITNESS. I think it might do some good if it could thus travel back to America. Yours affectionately,


Theology and Biblical Illustration.



"To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth."

I. THE Testimony of Christ for the truth was distinguished by ardent zeal. II. The Testimony of Christ was marked by uniform consistency. III. The Testimony of Christ was characterized by adaptation to the age and country in which he lived.

IV. The Testimony of Christ was eminently distinguished by faithfulness and constancy.

V. The Testimony of Christ was distinguished by meekness and benevolence. These are some of the principal points in which Christ is our example as a witness for the truth. From the subject as thus presented, a few reflections suggest themselves.

1. We may learn the importance of deep, correct, and extensive knowledge of the truth.


This is essential to make us good witnesses. Only this will give consistency and calmness, dignity and power, to our testimony. One great source of these qualities in the testimony of our Lord was his perfect knowledge. There was in his mind no room for doubt. He could say, “We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen." My Father gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. And I know that his commandment is life everlasting. Whatsoever I speak, therefore, even as the Father said unto me, so I speak.' He received not the Spirit by measure. He had the everlasting Word dwelling in him. His declarations respecting unseen things were those of personal knowledge and experience. He " came down from heaven." Hence the dignified familiarity with which he discoursed of the spiritual and eternal world; the calm majesty which he displayed under contradiction and opposition; the utter ineffectiveness of all the weapons of logic or temptation employed against him by the great adversary and his agents, in order to confound him, or turn him aside from his course.

Now, although we cannot attain to either the extent or the infallibility of his knowledge, yet, from the confidence and steadfastness which it gave him, we may learn the importance of possessing an enlarged acquaintance with, and deep convictions of, the truth, in order to our being good and faithful witnesses on its behalf. Our conduct will be unmeaning, or fitful and contradictory, if it be not animated by settled convictions. If we are not satisfied, and that upon inquiry, that we are right, difficulties will soon discourage us, or temptations draw us aside. We must have faith in the truth, in order to be faithful to it; for faith is the shield which quenches the fiery darts of the wicked one-the temptations (in this case) to cease witnessing, or to witness in a wrong spirit. We must also have intelligent faith in order to be strong. If our grasp of the truth be feeble, our testimony for it will be feeble too. If we are governed by impulses, we shall testify by impulses, and our testimony will be of little worth: for while intelligence grows the more by exertion, impulse is weakened by its own action, and soon wears itself out. The strength of a united body consists more in the intelligent convictions of its members than in their numbers. A hundred men knowing their principles will be more powerful than a thousand who are ignorant. It is truth which has power in

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the world; and we must have the truth dwelling in us, if we wish to be powerful on its behalf.

Seek then, brethren, increased knowledge of your principles, as Christians, and as Nonconformists. Seek to understand what you believe, and why you believe; that you may be able both to make known your convictions, and to give reasons for them which may commend themselves to the minds of others. Only thus can you really promote the triumphs of the truth. It is not by dogmatic assertions, however reiterated; it is not by self-complacency and bigotry; it is not by angry recrimination; it is not by petty cavilling, or illnatured sarcasm, or sweeping denunciation, that the cause of Christ can be advanced. These are the resort of the ignorant and feeble, betraying the weakness of either the cause or the advocate, and equally damaging both. Nor is it by imitating the subtle policy and unscrupulous measures adopted by some religious zealots; but which are fitting weapons only in a cause that is "of the world." By such means you might increase in numbers and external strength, but you would decline in religious power. You might make warm and violent partizans, but you would not make better men or more consistent Christians, the only result for which a good man should care. This is to be attained only by clear and earnest statements of the truth, and cogent arguments in its support-arguments cogent from their intrinsic worth. But it is plain that we are qualified thus to witness for the truth only as we ourselves gain a deep and comprehensive knowledge of it.

2. We may learn, further, the importance of a supreme and disinterested love of the truth.

There are various causes which may induce men to rank themselves amongst the friends of truth, as the influence of connections, party zeal, the desire of gain, the thirst for distinction ;-but there is no spirit which can be depended upon in the hour of trial except the love of the truth for its own sake. We need such an attachment to it as shall make it as welcome when in rags as when in purple, when in trouble as when in prosperity ;—such a love of the truth as shall overpower self-love; producing a willingness to sacrifice for its sake our own feelings and interests; restraining from the indulgence of such dispositions, the use of such language, the adoption of such expedients, as, while they might seem needful or justifiable in self-defence, would evidently be injurious to the cause of truth ;—such a love of the truth as shall overcome the love of party; causing us gladly to discern, and readily acknowledge, in those whom we oppose, whatever of truth they hold; and counteracting every tendency to exaggeration of their errors ;-such a love of the truth as shall overcome both the love and the fear of the world; producing a settled conviction that it is better to be on the side of truth, though alone, than on the side of all the world against it—that it is more honourable to suffer loss or reproach for the truth's sake, than to enjoy the utmost wealth and honours obtained by deserting it ;-such a love of the truth as shall overcome even the love of life, making the death seem desirable which comes on its account.

By this supreme attachment to the truth Christ was pre-eminently distinguished. He knew its value, and willingly, therefore, did he live, and labour, and die, on its behalf. And it is this love for the truth which will give power to the advocacy of its friends. Nay, without it, no one is really its friend at all. It will not own him who does not give it supreme and disinterested regard. If this possesses the mind, no considerations of worldly expediency, no disposition to unworthy compromise, no desire to escape inconvenience, reproach, or danger, will be allowed a moment's place; no devices inconsistent with the truth itself will be adopted, even for the sake of promoting its seeming advancement. This principle will give earnestness to our testimony for it. This will sustain the mind under repulse and discouragement. The winds


may rise, and the waves swell and foam, and the bark seem in danger; but confidence and cheerfulness will be felt on board, so long as truth is there. There may seem little prospect of influencing men's minds; yet will it be felt that acquaintance with the truth is its own reward, and to testify for it its own sufficient recompense. Thus, love for the truth for its own sake will make us consistent and faithful witnesses.


3. We may gather encouragement from the results of our Lord's testimony. He spoke to an age which understood him not. His words seemed to fall unheeded to the earth. It seemed vain to expect that they would produce any permanent effect on the world. The fortresses of error and sin seemed to bid defiance; no breaches appeared to be made in them. A few men, poor and insignificant, gathered round him, it is true; but even they understood little of his instructions: and, at length, his death seemed to extinguish all hope of triumph.

Look back, however, upon the history of the world: look around upon its present condition. The words of Jesus, taken up and repeated through the earth, have become the most important element in the history of nations; changing the face of the world, and promising yet completely to transform it. Well might he declare to Pilate that he was rightly called a king, inasmuch as he came "to bear witness unto the truth." He has thus established for himself a kingdom wider and more powerful than any which was ever acquired by force of arms, and to continue when all earthly kingdoms have come to an end.

In like manner, his saints also are to overcome and reign with Him, "by the word of their testimony." His success promises and insures success to them. Yes, brethren, it is not in vain that we speak what we know of the truth. Men may seem utterly deaf; or we may excite active opposition on every hand. Our labour and expense may appear to be lost. But they are not. No word spoken for truth is uttered in vain. No action done under the influence of the truth, and for its sake, is done in vain. Men will feel the force of our testimony even when most they seem to disregard it. The very storm of opposition to it proves its power.

Fear not, then, for the truth. Speak it; act it out; witness for it in every practicable form and you may confidently leave the results to God. He is its friend; his almighty Spirit is engaged to give it power: and this should be sufficient to assure you that it must prevail. The adherents of systems founded on error may well tremble; for all such systems must be broken up: but the friends of truth need never fear, whatever changes and convulsions may occur. "The word of the Lord endureth for ever." It is indestructible and immortal.


It may, and doubtless will, be opposed in the future as it has been in the past; but, as heretofore, the collision of nations with it will only shatter themselves. Old systems of error may rise again, and become powerful as in their youth; spiritual delusions again spread everywhere; sacerdotal tyranny triumph well nigh universally. Still look to the end, and fear not. Superstition and unbelieving political expediency may again combine against God and his gospel. Still be of good courage. There was the same combination against Christ. "The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers took counsel together." Herod and Pontius Pilate joined hands with the priests. But their opposition was vain. The very measures they took to suppress the rising cause were the means of its universal spread. The cross on which the Redeemer hung as a criminal soon became the standard of universal war against the errors and sins of the earth, and the sure pledge of universal victory. The religion of the Galilean became the religion of the world.

And similar will be the result of every measure adopted for repressing or

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