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well-cultivated region from a barren and desolate wilderness."-J. Ray.

"GOD SEES ME."

PERSONS inclined to the sin of stealing are satisfied if they can only be certain they shall not be discovered. I once heard it related, that a man who was in the habit of going to a neighbour's corn-field to steal the ears, one day took with him his son, a boy of eight years of age. The father told him to hold the bag, and then began his guilty work. "Father," said the boy, you forgot to look somewhere else." The man dropt the bag in a fright, and said, "Which way, child?" supposing he had seen some one. "You forgot to look up to the sky, to see if God was noticing you." The father felt this reproof of the child so much, that he left the corn, returned home, and never again ventured to steal; remembering the truth his child had taught him, that the eye of God always beholds us. "God sees me!" is a thought that would keep us from many evil acts, if we tried constantly to feel its truth.

66

AN ACCOMMODATING TRADESMAN. IN the spring of 1762, a month or two before I took deacon's orders, I was purchasing some books of Mr. Osborne, (the bookseller with whom Dr. Johnson is said to have had so strange an encounter). After that business was over, he took me to the farthest end of his shop, and, in a low voice, said thus: "Sir, you will soon be ordained. I suppose you have not laid in a very great stock of sermons. I can supply you with as many sets as you please-all originals; very excellent ones-and they will come for a trifle." My answer was: "I certainly shall never be a customer to you in that way; for I am of opinion, that the man who cannot, or will not, make his own sermons, is quite unfit to wear the gown." His answer shocked me: "Nay, young gentleman, do not be surprised at my offering you ready-made sermons; for, I assure you, I have sold ready-made sermons to many a bishop in my time." My reply was: "Good Mr. Osborne, if you have any concern for the credit of the Church of England, never tell that news to anybody else, from henceforward for ever."— Toplady's Life.

A WORD TO MINISTERS. DELIGHT not in vain applause; let not this satisfy thee, but that others may feel the power of truth. Let it not satisfy thee, when thy hearers go away and say, O how learnedly, how elo

quently, with what subtilty and sublimity of reason doth he preach! What excellent gifts of memory, wit, elocution! This did not satisfy Christ. When he had made an excellent sermon, a woman of the company cried out, "Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the paps that thou hast sucked!" But he said, "Yea, rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it," Luke xi. 27, 28. It is far better, when they go away from hearing, to be more mindful of themselves than of us; of what is spoken to their consciences rather than of what are our gifts; condemning themselves rather than commending us; bewailing their own hearts and lives, rather than applauding and admiring our sermons; smiting their own breasts, and saying not so much, How well he has preached! but, How ill have I lived! how carnal am I, subject to sin!-Dr. Manton.

ON the 14th of February, 1847, Dr. James Morgan, Moderator of the Irish Presbyterian General Assembly, wrote Mr. Labouchere, Chief Secretary of Ireland, a letter full of lamentation, apprising the Government that it was "impossible for the congregations to comply this year with the rule which requires the

TEARS OF JOY.

WHEN Dr. Doddridge was on his way to Lisbon, which place he was recommended to visit for the benefit of his health (being in a decline), he stayed for a season at the residence of Lady Huntingdon at Bath. "On the morning of the day on which he was to set out from Bath for Falmouth," the Countess "came into the room, and found him weeping over that passage in Daniel, ix. 11, 12: Daniel, a man greatly beloved,' &c. You are in tears, sir,' said Lady Huntingdon. I am weeping, madam,' answered the Doctor; but they are tears of comfort and joy; I can give up my country, my relations, my friends, into the hands of God; and as to myself, I can as well go to heaven from Lisbon as from my own study at Northampton.'"-Life and Times.

6

LIGHT IN THE HEART.

"ONE day a person called on Lady Anne Erskine, (daughter of the Earl of Buchan,) labouring under great distress of mind, and said, 'I was once happy in God; I enjoyed his ordinances, and thought I walked in the light of his countenance: but now all my joys are fled; I see myself a vile sinner, and feel no comfort in anything, so that I think I never yet knew God, and shall at last be lost.' Lady Anne, smiling, said, 'Oh, my friend, it is the same light; but God has taken it from your head to your heart, and has made you acquainted with your own abominations, for it must be light which discovers darkness.' This interesting remark, it is said, afforded the man very considerable relief of mind.”—Ibid.

Church Affairs.

payment of £35, annual stipend, to qualify them for the Royal Bounty being paid to their ministers,' on the ground that the potato crop had failed in the North as well as in the South. Dr. Morgan seems to have plied the Government with an earnestness and an assiduity which has not often been exceeded even

by State paupers and pensionaries; and although he failed, he is well entitled to the thanks of the " suffering people." The Doctor's pathos was altogether thrown away on the unimpressible and upright Chief Secretary, who, thinking it time to put an end to false hopes, on July 14 addressed to him the following letter:

Sir, With reference to several communications, both personal and by letter, which I have received from you upon the subject of the suspension for this year of the rule requiring each Presbyterian minister in Ireland to be paid £35 by his congregation, in order that he may be qualified to receive the Royal Bounty, I have to say, that after making the fullest inquiry into the subject, I am not of opinion that I ought to recommend a measure which could only be justified by the most urgent and undeniable necessity.

I am aware that this decision has been already notified to you some time ago by Mr. Mathews; but it seems to me desirable that it should by this official letter be put upon record. I am, Sir,

Your most obedient servant, (Signed) H. LABOUCHERE.

The Chief Secretary, who, it will be observed, in this epistle mingles somewhat of indignation with its decision, knew his ground; he had made "the fullest inquiry into the subject." This letter was written on the 14th of July, and on the 28th of June was presented the following Official Report, which is certainly one of the most complete and demolishing exposures of a bad subject that, for many years, has seen the light:

Report on the Application of the Rev. Dr. Morgan.

In reference to Dr. Morgan's application of 12th February last, transmitted to me by the Chief Secretary for report, I beg to state, that some weeks thereafter I forwarded to the several Presbyteries printed forms, to be filled up with the customary statistical accounts of their various congregations for the year ending 31st March, 1847. Such forms are annually issued in March; and to follow the same course again appeared the best way of collecting the facts necessary for a decision on the matter. Very shortly afterwards, many Presbyterian ministers in Ulster intimated to me that their congregations had not paid them the requisite £35 of stipend, relying on some newspaper announcement to the effect, that, from the distress in Ireland, Her Majesty's Government were this year to authorize the issue of the Royal Bounty without regard to any particular payments by the people to their ministers. I lost no time in undeceiving them on this point, stating also, that unless the stipulated amount was paid up as usual, Bounty would not be issued to the ministers of the defaulting congregations. This, of course, led to much explanatory inquiry and correspondence, eventually ending, however, in the stipend being paid by all the congregations bound to do so, except in two cases, which are still under consideration. And the aggregate

amount of stipend for the year ending 31st March last is not now less than for former years, when no failure of crops could be complained of. Under these circumstances it is submitted that the request should not be complied with.

But as the extract from Dr. Morgan's letter of 28th April, indicates the possibility of this application being submitted to Government, with reference to the year ending 31st March, 1848, (notwithstanding every appearance of an abundant harvest,) it becomes my duty to go more into detail, in so far merely as the subject involves a grant of public money.

A Return is annexed, (the first of the kind,) showing the population and payments of every congregation belonging to the General Assembly, being the body on whose behalf Dr. Morgan applied. In this there are 451 congregations accounted for, paying altogether £18,441 of stipend, or about £40 a year each. The number of families is stated to be 86,450; and multiplying them by five, (which is about the truth,) the total number of persons will be 432,250. And if the aggregate stipend be divided by them, the average payment by each individual to his minister, is forty-one farthings a year. The population connected with the General Assembly has been frequently affirmed by parties representing it, to be five, six, and even eight hundred thousand. The materials for the present census have, however, been furnished to me by the several Presbyteries; and should they have inadvertently made an under-statement, any increase of numbers must proportionably dimi nish even the very low average rate of payment given above. No doubt there are many poor in so large a denomination; but, as is known to every one acquainted with Ulster, there are also great numbers of prosperous, wealthy families. It is, however, unquestionable, that for about the last forty years no class of Christians have been in the habit of paying so little to their ministers as the laity of the several Presbyterian Sy nods, endowed by Parliamentary grant; and did the same parties reside in Scotland, England, or anywhere except in Ireland, they would have to contribute a far larger amount. The cause of this is easily shown.

From 1690, when the Royal Bounty commenced, down to the year 1803, the grant was annually divided, share and share alike, among all the ministers of each Synod; and as it was only at intervals of many years that the Irish Parliament made any additions to it, each newlyformed congregation brought a new minister on the grant, and thereby reduced the share previously received by the other ministers. These ministers assembled in Presbytery, are the parties who ecclesiastically organise a new congregation; and previous to 1803, they would form none, unless there was a sufficient body of people undertaking to pay the new minister an amount of stipend considerably more than £35. But in 1803, the grant was largely increased, and divided into three classes-certain congregations being placed in the first class, entitling their ministers to £100 a year of Bounty; others, in the second class, entitling them to £75; and the ministers of the third class receiving £50 a year Newly-formed congregations were to be further provided for by additions to the grant, without diminishing the shares of the existing ministers. Under the operation of the system up to 1803, the congregations had been trained to pay their

ministers liberally; and a change to the worse in this respect never being apprehended, no stipulation was in the arrangements of 1803 made by Government, requiring the payment of stipend as a condition of obtaining Bounty. But that arrangement began in a few years to operate most prejudicially; congregations were from time to time formed without regard to their payment of stipend, for Bounty could be got without it, or without lessening the share of the other ministers. What used formerly to be the smaller part of the minister's income, became in this way its chief part; and an opinion gradually gained ground throughout the congregations, that it was not to them but to the Government, that the ministers were to look for support. That this opinion has been extensively acted on is too obvious, from the accompanying Return; and it is to be borne in mind, that Presbyterians pay their ministers no dues on the occasions of baptisms, marriages, deaths, or for the administration of any religious rites. The stipend constitutes the sole payment; and it is given as rent, for accommodation in the meeting-house.

minister, otherwise no Bounty could be issued. Great reluctance was manifested to this regulation, or to the payment of any prescribed amount of stipend being made an absolute condition of participating in the Parliamentary grant; but as the congregations gave no undertaking or legal deed, securing, as in Scotland and elsewhere, the payment of a specific income to their ministers; and as past experience demonstrated, that unless the Government interfered, the existing system would continue, the regulation in question would not be departed from. Every minister, therefore, now receives (exclusive of the Royal Bounty) a minimum congregational income of £35, of which £20 must be paid by his congregation, while the balance may be made up by a free manse, or a permanent bequest, or a donation.

The three-fold classification of 1803, was very unsatisfactory to the great bulk of the ministers, of whom the second and third classes were composed. Deputations from year to year waited upon Government, praying for an equalization of the grant, and the abolition of a class-division, which was represented as destructive of the ecclesiastical parity of ministers recognised by the Presbyterian Church. When this subject came at length to be looked into, it appeared that the equalization sought for was, that the ministers should all receive £100 a year of Bounty. The Government declined that proposition, but offered to raise at once the £50 class to £75, on condition that the £100 class should come down to £75 as vacancies took place among themthereby giving in time £75 to all; and this was agreed to in 1838. It was at the same time announced, that regulations respecting the payment of stipend were under consideration; and a circular was issued to the several Synods on the 20th October in that year, intimating, that the future issue of new endowments would be dependent on the payment of a certain stipend by each congregation, the amount of which would be specified in a subsequent communication. Such a measure had become absolutely necessary on the part of Government, viewed even on financial grounds; for although no Presbytery in Scotland or England would ordain a minister in any congregation without adequate stipend being secured to him, yet some Presbyteries in Ulster felt under no such restraint, as the Bounty had become the mainstay; and, in not a few cases, ordinations took place, while the whole yearly stipend to the minister would not equal the wages of a day-labourer. So injurious was this system upon the people themselves, that during the three-fold classification of Bounty it sometimes occurred, that a congregation, on finding that its minister had got himself advanced from the third to the second class, or from the latter to the first, thereupon diminished their previous payment of stipend; and by keeping down his income to the former amount, saved their own contributions, at the expense of the Treasury. To check this and similar tendencies, the Government promulgated in 1840 certain regulations regarding Royal Bounty; one of which was, that, at the very least, £35 of stipend must be yearly paid to the

The ministers endowed since 20th October, 1838, are those only whose congregations are subject to this regulation; for the ministers endowed previously, and who comprise a great part of the Return, were secured in the continuance of their Bounty irrespective of stipend. As vacancies, however, occur among them, their congregations fall under the rule. Since the regulations have been in force, all congregations bound to make up the £35, are certified by their Presbyteries to do so; but it is apparent, from a glance at the Return, that they seldom exceed the prescribed amount. On the other hand, congregations formerly paying old ministers beyond £35, now pay the new ministers exactly £35; and it is feared, only pay even that sum, just because the Government regulations make it necessary. Wherever the Bounty cannot be got without payment of a particular stipend, the requisite sum is paid, but no more; such, with occasional exceptions, is becoming the practice. Three old rural congregations, which, from change of ministers, fell under the regulations during the past year, and who paid the former ministers not more stipend than from £10 to £15, at once made up the £35 to secure the Bounty, notwithstanding the prevalent distress; and it is notorious, that many congregations could well pay far more stipend than they do at present. The Consul Act, which empowers the Treasury to give yearly allowances to Episcopalian or Presbyterian ministers of British congregations on the Continent, requires the congregation to pay a sum equal to the allowance. But in Ireland the congregation has only to pay half its amount; and no annual vote of Parliament is granted upon so small a contribution by the parties locally benefited by the issue.

There are three small Presbyterian Bodies in Ulster who accept no Royal Bounty; and their congregations, which are suffering under the same difficulties as their neighbours, pay more than DOUBLE the average stipend of the endowed congregations. One of these Bodies, called the Eastern Reformed Synod, has indeed largely increased its stipend this year. Other Protestant Dissenters (not of the Presbyterian denomination), in despite of all local pressure, likewise pay towards their own religious interests a much greater average sum than the Presbyterians of the Synods receiving Parliamentary support.

Allusions are made in Dr. Morgan's letter to an increase of the Bounty, from the inadequacy of £75 to maintain the ministers during the present high price of provisions. To many similar communications from other quarters I have

pointed out, as an answer, the payments of the congregations to their ministers, when contrasted with all around them; for while, in the commonest hedge or infant-school, the children give each a penny a week, the Presbyterian ministers, for affording religious instruction, do not receive from their people at the rate of even one farthing a week. Other denominations are taxed for a Parliamentary grant, to enable the Presbyterian laity to support their ministers; and by additional taxation, still further to relieve that laity who contribute so little to this object themselves, would be unjust to those other denominations who have entirely to pay their own ministers, and do it liberally and cheerfully. All which I now report, GEORGE MATHEWS. Dublin Castle, 28th June, 1847.

The Report is followed by Tables of the Income, Name, Date of Ordination, &c., of the Ministers of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, with the number of families belonging to each congregation, arranged in thirty-seven Presbyteries, forming the most instructive record respecting the merits of the Regium Donum that has yet seen the light. We have selected the largest congregation from each Presbytery, allowing, on the sound principle of the Report, five to each family; and the following are the Names, Numbers, and Sums raised for Pastoral Support:

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Number of Persons.

Sum raised.

1,500 £50 0 0
3,500 72 0 0
2,000 37 10 3
180 35 0 0
1,200
4
24 18
350 15 7 6
1,250 36 13 1
5,000 40 0 0
1,700 61 0 0
3,500 150 0 0

3,000 80 0 0
700 10 2 6
1,610 36 10 0
3,500 30 18
3,000 75 0
400

0

0

35 10 6

3 500 33 6 8

C 3,000 55 0

0

935 48 14

0

: 3,000 50 0 0 2,000 35 0 0 925 270 0 0 1,075 45 0 0

2,000 70 0 0

2,000 60 0 0

1,775 80 7 10

: 1,800 38 5 4

2,500 60 0 0 2,500 70 0 0 1,750 38 10 8 1,750 50 0 2,750 60 0 0

0

2,625 60 14 6 1,750 44 13 0 850 43 1 3

0 0

0

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3,000

1,700

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80

60

Men of sense! behold the facts and the figures!-and let it be kept in mind that they are the facts and figures not of the adverse Voluntaries, but of the Irish Government. Here are the doings for a year of the chief congregations of all Presbyteries throughout the nation for the support of the Gospel ministry; and let it be remembered, too, that the North of Ireland is not the Catholic, but the Protestant portion of it, and that it has been long its boast and glory, for industry, intelligence, respectability, and wealth. It has been, in all these points, justly, and by Irishmen proudly, compared to the best districts of Scotland. Behold, then, the fruits of the Voluntary Principle in this Goshen of the Emerald Isle! The experiment is by far the most remarkable upon record. Much eloquence and much logic have been expended on the subject by the English Dissenters; but, from want of data, never till now was the subject fully mastered. The Chief Secretary has succeeded to bottom the muddy waters, and to get at the real merits of the case; and for this his just, enlightened, and patriotic course, he is entitled to the thanks of these three kingdoms. The evidence on the subject is now complete, and it is such as at once to put an end for ever to all further argument. Among all intelligent men the question is finally settled; to utter another word in defence of the subject were to insult the common sense of mankind! No man, combining mental soundness with moral integrity, can deny that the Royal Bounty is both needless and mischievous, to England a robbery, and to Ireland a curse! The Official Report of Mr. Mathews shows that it has corrupted and debased the minds of the Irish congregations, not less than did our Old Poor-Law the lower classes of England. It is scarcely possible to conceive of anything more degrading than the picture presented by the Report. It represents the people as utterly debased, and the How ministers as deeply wretched! such men can brook their humiliation is to us wholly incomprehensible. Surely, after this merited exposure, they will now arise from the dust, and at length be men! Let them look to Scotland, and be corrected and instructed. Let them gaze on the magnificent moral spectacle of the FREE CHURCH, and, while ashamed, be encouraged! There is more vitality in some fifty Free Church congregations, and more moral power-not to mention pecuniary contributions-put

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forth by them than by the whole Irish
Assembly united, with its half-million of
adherents! We call upon the pastors
composing that Assembly to doff their
rags, and to cast away their fetters! To
this we invoke them in the name of true
Christianity! Under such circumstances
it is absolutely impossible that the real
work of God can be prospering, or can
ever prosper among them. The Official
Report demonstrates that, at present, the
Irish Presbyterian Body constitutes one
huge Charnel-house! The ministers
themselves are dead; the congregations
are twice dead! The light, the life, the

Temperance.

We regret our inability, at an earlier period, to lay before our readers the following Address from the United States, which appears to us both well-timed and exceedingly pertinent. It is not often that the attention of a nation is called to a document of so much sterling value; and the presentation of such a document from one nation to another is an event of sufficient importance to entitle it to a permanent record in our pages. We scarcely know which most to admire-its spirit, its facts, its argument, or its eloquence. We ask for it the candid perusal of our fellow-countrymen. The portions we have placed in italic are of mighty moment. It may be proper to state that the names appended to the Address are those of a portion of the most distinguished men of the New World. That of the energetic Secretary, Mr. Marsh, is already known to many of our readers, who made the acquaintance of that admirable man during his visit to England in the summer of last year. We know enough of our countrymen to predict with confidence, that those who have and those who have not joined the Temperance Movement, will alike take the Address in good part, and accord to it the consideration which is due to such a document from such a quarter:

ADDRESS TO THE FRIENDS AND PRO-
MOTERS OF THE TEMPERANCE RE-
FORMATION THROUGHOUT GREAT
BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

power, the glory of the gospel are gone! As a religious community they are bereft of Christian character; they will henceforth be the standing object of scorn to the world, and of pity to the church of God. To respect men so circumstanced were impossible! He who has ceased to respect himself has no right to complain of the contempt of his neighbours. The matter cannot rest here: justice, decency, religion, patriotism, everything unites to demand the extinction of the Royal Bounty. Its effects are not aliment and strength, but paralysis and death!

FRIENDS AND FELLOW-LABOURERS,-The
Executive Committee of the American
Temperance Union, in behalf of the friends
of temperance and humanity throughout
the United States, feel constrained to
address you at the present moment, on a
subject which, in the providence of the
Ruler of nations, is awakening the sym-
pathies, and calling forth the philanthro-
pic energies of the humane, to a degree
almost unparalleled in the history of

man.

From one portion of your country-a country to which we lock, not merely with filial reverence, but as the seat of learning, and arts, and commerce, and law, and

religion, the bulwark of all that is great and good-there comes to us a cry of distress; and, God be praised, we are able to meet it. We have bread enough, and to spare. We are thankful that we can, at least in part, supply the wants of suffering Ireland; and more thankful that there has been a heart in our countrymen to send of their abundance, that her starving poor may live. But while we do what it is our duty to do, and only in feeble measure, we are anxious that a great lesson should be learned from this visitation of Providence; and that our own country and yours should profit by it, in a manner and degree, for the security and happiness of all coming generations.

Without the temperance reformation in America, we might have been unable at

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