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assistance. In the first Developments, hints are given to guide the pupil. This aid should be given with succeeding Developments only where the pupil may not fully understand the poem, or where he might be discouraged without such assistance.
Although it may be said that the finer principles of literary taste, fancy, and allusion, and the subtle music of rhythm, are obtained only through a special sense developed by long and minute discipline, and belong to the delicate and difficult science of criticism, there are included in this treatise extracts from masters of style, to which attention is directed; for it must be conceded that, since a true appreciation of what is best in our literature requires years of careful criticism, the student's attention should be given to such criticism as soon as his mind has attained sufficient maturity for the consideration of the subject.
The Exercises" with which the book abounds are given, that the pupil may learn discourse by applying it. Some learners may, perhaps, need less of such practice than others; the teacher can, therefore, omit what is deemed superfluous.
This work is in every respect the outgrowth of the classroom; much of the subject-matter and many of the exercises have been given as oral instruction in the author's classes, and it is hoped that in other hands it will stand the only true test of a school-book,-the test of trial.
Most grateful acknowledgment is due to Prof. W. F. Fox, Principal of the Richmond High School, for assistance and encouragement during the progress of the work.
Thanks are also due to several publishers for kindness in allowing selections to be made from their publications,—to Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., to the Century Company, to Messrs. J. B. Lippincott Co., to Messrs. Chas. Scribner's Sons, to Messrs. Roberts Bros., to Mr. Parke Godwin, and to others whose names are mentioned in connection with the selections copied.
RICHMOND, VA., January, 1890.
XI. THE SPECIAL PROPERTIES OF STYLE.