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and, by it, inextricable confusions and civil wars Hence, coward fears; for the first blood so spilt, upon the nation. But here 's at last an end of As a reward be the first city built. him. And where 's now the fruit of all that 'Twas a beginning generous and high, blood and calamity, which his ambition has cost Fit for a grand-child of the Deity. the world? Where is it? Why, his son (you will / So well advanc'd, 'twas pity here he staid ! say) has the whole crop: I doubt, he will find One step of glary more he should have made, it quickly blasted ; I have nothing to say against And to the utmost bounds of greatness gone; the gentleman, or any living of his family; on Had Adain too been kill'd, he might have reiga'd the contrary, I wish him better fortune than to
alone. have a long and unquiet possession of his master's One brother's deatly, what do I mean to name, inheritance. Whatsoerer I have spoken against A small oblation to revenge and fame? his father, is that which I should have thought | The mighty soul'd Abimelec, to shew (though decency, perhaps, might have hindered What for high place a higher spirit can do, me from saying it) even against mine own, if I | A hecatomb almost of brethren slew, had been so unhappy, as that mine, by the same And seventy times in nearest blood he dy'd ways, should have left me three kingdoms.” (To make it hold) his royal purple pride.
Here I stopt; and my pretended protector, Why do I name the lordly creature man? who, I expected, would have been very angry, The weak, the mild, the coward woman, can, fell a laughing; it seems at the simplicity of my When to a crown she cuts her sacred way, discourse, for thus he replied: “You seem to All that oppose with manlike courage slay. pretend extremely to the old obsolete rules of So Athaliah, when she saw her son, sirtue and conscience, which makes me doubt And with his life her tlearer greatness, gone, very much whether from this vast prospect of With a majestic fury slaughter'd all three kingdoms you can show me any acres of whom high-birth might to high pretences call; your own.
But these are so far from making you Since he was dead who all her power sustain'd, a prince, that I am afraid your friends will never Resolv'd to reign alone; resolv'd, and reign'de have the contentment to see you so much as a In vain her sex, in vain the laws, withstood, justice of peace in your own country. For this, In vain the sacred plea of David's blood; I perceive, which you call virtue, is nothing else A noble and a bold contention, she but either the frowardness of a Cynic, or the (One woman) undertook with Destiny, laziness of an Epicurean. I am glad you allow She topluck down, Destiny to uphold me at least artful dissimulation and unwearied (Oblig'd by holy oracles of old) diligence in my hero; and I assure you, that he, The great Jessæan race on Judah’s throne; whose life is constantly drawn by those two, shall Till 'twas at last an equal wager grown, never be misled out of the way of greatness. But Scarce Fate, with much ado, the better got by one, I see you are a pedant and Platonical statesinan, Tell me not, she herself at last was slain; a theoretical commonwealth’s-man, an Utopian Did she not, first seven years (a life-time,) reigndreamer. Was ever riches gotten by your golden Seven royal years t' a public spirit will seem mediocrities? or the supreme place attained to More than the private life of a Methusalem. by virtues that must not stir out of the middle? | 'Tis godlike to be great; and, as they say, Do you study Aristotle's politics, and write, if A thousand years to God are but a day, you please, comments upon them; and let ano- So a man, when once a crown he wears, ther but practise Machiavel: and let us see then the coronation-day's more than a thousand which of you two will come to the greatest prefer
years.” ment. If the desire of rule and superiority be a virtue (as sure I am it is nore imprinted in He would have gone on, I perceived, in his human nature than any of your lethargical morals; blasphemies, but that by God's grace I became and what is the virtue of any creature, but the so bold, as thus to interrupt him : “ I understand exercise of those powers and inclinations which now perfectly (which I guessed at long before) God has infused into it !) if that (I say) be virtue, what kind of angel and protector you are, and, se ought not to esteem any thing vice, which is though your style in verse be very much mended the most proper, if not the only, means of attain- since you were wont to deliver oracles, yet your. ing of it:
doctrine is much worse than ever you had former
ly (that I heard of) the face to publish ; whether It is a truth so certain, and so clear,
your long practice with mankind has increased That to the first-burn man it did appear ;
and improved your malice, or whether you think Did not the mighty heir, the noble Cain,
us in this age to be grown so impudently wicked, By the fresh laws of Nature taught, disdain' that there needs no more art or disguises to draw That (though a brother) any one should be us to your party." A greater favourite to God than he ?
“ My dominion (said he hastily, and with a He strook him down; and so (said he) so fell dreadful furious look) is so great in this world, The shecp, which thou didst sacrifice so well. and I am so powerful a monarch of it, that I need Since all the fullest sheaves, which I could bring, not be ashamed that you should know me; and, Since all were blasted in the offering, Lest God should my next victim too despise, ? This compliment was intended, not so much The acceptable priest I'll sacrifice.
to the foregoing, as to the following verses; of
which the author had reason to be proud, but, 6 A remarkable testimony to the blameless as being delivered in his own person, could not so sharacter of Richard Cromwell,
properly make the paneygric. HURD.
that you may see I know you too, I know you to Across his breast an azure ruban went, be an obstinate and inveterate malignant ; and for At which a medal hung, that did present, that reason I shall take you along with me to the In wondrous living figures, to the sight, next garrison of ours; from whence you shall go to The mystic champion's, and old dragon's fight; the Tower, and from thence to the court of justice, and from his mantle's side there shone afar, and from thence you know whither.” I was almost A fix'd and, I believe, a real star. in the very pounces of the great bird of prey : In his fair hand (what need was there of more?)
No arms, but th' English bloody cross he bore, When, lo, ere the last words were fully spoke, Which when he tow'rds th' affrighted tyrant bent, From a fair cloud which rather op'd than broke, And some few words pronounc'd (but what they A flash of light, rather than lightning, came,
meant, So swift, and yet so gentle, was the flame. Or were, could not, alas ! by me be known, Upon it rode (and, in his full career,
Only, I well perceiv'd, Jesus was one) Seem'd to my eyes no sooner there than here) He trembled, and he roard, and fled away The comeliest youth of all th' angelic race; Mad to quit thus his more than hop'd-for prey. Lovely his shape, ineffable his face.
Such rage inflames the wolf's wild heart and The frowns, with which he strook the trembling eyes fiend,
(Robb’d, as he thinks unjustly, of his prize) All smiles of human beauty did transcend ; Whom unawares the shepherd spies, and draws His beams of locks fell part dishevelld down, The bleating lamb from out his ravenous jaws: Part upwards curld, and form’d a natural crown, The shepherd fain himself would be assail, Shich as the British monarchs us'd to wear; But fear above his hunger does prevail, If gold might be compar'd with angels' hair. He knows his foe too strong, and must be gone; His coat and Aowing mantle were so bright, He grins, as he looks back, and howls as he goes They seem'd both made of woven silver light :
SEVERAL DISCOURSES, ,
BY WAY OF ESSAYS,
VERSE AND PROSE.
too after a forfeiture made by the rebellion of
Adam. He takes so much care for the entire OF LIBERTY.
preservation of it, to us, that he suffers neither
his providence nor eternal decree to break or inThe liberty of a people consists in being govern- fringe it. Now for our time, the same God, to ed by laws which they have made themselves, whoin we are but tenants at will for the whole, under whatsvever form it be of government: the requires but the seventh part to be paid to him, as liberty of a private man, in being master of his a small quit-rent, in acknowledgment of his own time and actions, as far as may consist with title. It is man only that has the impudence to the laws of Gori and of his country. Of this latter demand our wbole time, though he never gave it, only we are here to discourse, and to enquire nor can restore it, nor is able to pay any consiwhat estate of life does best seat us in the posses- derable value for the least part of it. This birthsion of it. This liberty of our own actions, is such right of mankind above all other creatures, some a fundamental privilege of human nature, that are forced by hunger to sell, like Esau, for bread God himself, notwithstanding all his infinite power and broth: but the greatest part of men make and right over us, permits us to enjoy it, and that such a bargain for the delivery-up of themselves
as Thamar did with Judah ; instead of a kid, the scribe the character which Cicero 4 gives of this necessary provisions for human life, they are con- noble slave, because it is a general description of tented to do it for rings and bracelets. The great all ambitious men, and which Machiavel perhaps dealers in this world may be divided into the am- would say ought to be the rule of their life and acbitious, the covetous, and the voluptuous ; and tions : that all these men sell themselves to be slaves “ This man (says he, as most of you may well though to the vulgar it may seem a stoical para- remember) had many artificial touches and dox, will appear to the wise so plain and obvious, strokes, that looked like the beauty of great virthat they will scarce think it deserves the labour tues; his intimate conversation was with the of argumentation.
worst of men, and yet he seemed to be an adLet us first consider the ambitious; and those, mirer and lover of the best; he was furnished with both in their progress to greatness, and after the all the nets of lust and luxury, and yet wanted not attaining of it. There is nothing truer than what the arms of labour and industry : neither do I beSallust' says, Dominationis in alios servitium lieve that there was ever any monster of nature, suum mercedem dant ; they are content to pay composed out of so many different and disagreeing so great a price, as their own servitude, to pur- parts. Who more acceptable, sometimes, to the chase the domination over others. The first most honourable persons: who more a favourite thing they must resolve to sacrifice, is their whole to the most infamous ? who, sometimes,appeared time; they must never stop, nor ever turn aside a braver champion ; who; at other times, a bolder whilst they are in the race of glory, no not like enemy to his countrey ? who more dissolute in Atalanta for golden apples. Neither indeed can his pleasures? who more patient in his toils? who a man stop himself if he would when he is in this more rapacious in robbing ? who more profuse in
giving? Above all things, this was remarkable and
admirable in him, the arts he had to acquire the Fertur equis auriga, neque audit currus habe- good opinion and kindness of all sorts of men, to
retain it with great complaisance, to communicate
all things to them, to watch and serve all the ocPray, let us but consider a little, what means casions of their fortune, both with his money, and Servile things men do for this imaginary food. his interest, and his industry; and, if need were, We cannot fetch a greater example of it, than not by sticking at any wickedness whatsoever that from the chief men of that nation which boasted might be useful to them, to bend and turn about most of liberty. To what pitiful baseness did his own nature and laveer with every wind : to the noblest Romans submit themselves, for the live severely with the melancholy,merrily with the obtaining of a pretorship, or the consular digni- pleasant, gravely with the aged, wantonly with ty! They put on the habit of suppliants, and ran the young, desperately with the bold, and de. about on foot, and in dirt, through all the tribes, bauchedly with the luxurious: with this variety to beg voices; they flattered the poorest arti- and multiplicity of his nature as he had made sans; and carried a nomenclator with them, to a collection of friendships with all the most wickwhisper in their ear every man's name, lest they ed and restless of all nations ; so, by the artificial should mistake it in their salutations; they simulation of some virtues, he made a shift to enshook the hand and kissed the cheek of every share some honest and eminent persons into his popular tradesman ; they stood all day at every familiarity. Neither could so vast a design as market in the public places, to show and ingrati- the destruction of this empire have been underate themselves to the rout; they employed all taken by him, if the immanity of so many vices their friends to solicit for them; they kept open had not been covered and disguised by the aptables in every street ; they distributed wine,and pearances of some excellent qualities.” bread, and money, even to the vilest of the peu- I see, methinks, the character of an Antiple. En Romanos rerum dominos 3 ! Behold | Paul, “ who became all things to all men,” that the masters of the world begging from door to he might destroy all; who only wanted the asdoor! This particular humble way of greatness sistance of fortune, to have been as great as his is now out of fashion ; but yet every ambitious friend Cæsar was a little after him. And the person is still in some sort a•Roman candidate. ways of Cæsar to compass the same ends (I mean He must feast and bribe, and attend and flatter, till the civil war, which was but another manner and adore many beasts, though not the beast of setting his country on fire) were not unlike with many heads. Catiline,who was so proud that these, though he used afterwards nis unjust do. he could not content himself with a less power minion with more moderation than I think the than Sylla's, was yet so humble, for the attaining other would have done. Sallust therefore, who of it, as to make himself the most contemptible of was well acquainted with them both, and with all servants; to be a public bawd, to provide many such like gentlemen of his time, sayss, whores,and something worse for all the young gen- “that it is the nature of ambition, to make men tlemen of Rome, whose hot lusts and courages, lyars and cheaters; to hide the truth in their and heads, he ihought he might make use of. breasts, and show, like jugglers, another thing in And since I happen here to propose Catiline for their mouths: to cut all friendships and enmimy instance (though there be thousand of exam- ties to the measure of their own interest ; and to ples for the same thing) give me leave to tran- make a good countenance without the help of a
good will." And can there be freedom with this "Fragm. ed. Mattaire, p. 116.
perpetual constraint? what is it but a kind of * Virg. Georg. i. 514. Virg. Æn. i. 282.
4 Orat. pro, M. Cælio. 3 De Bell. Catil. c. X
rack, that forces men to say what they have no tion.” This was spoken as became the bravesť mind to !
man who was ever born in the bravest commonI have wondered at the extravagant and bar- wealth. But with us generally, no condition barous stratagem of Zopirus, and more at the passes for servitude, that is accompanied with praises which I find of so deformed an action; great riches, with honours, and with the service who, though he was one of the seven grandees of of many inferiors. This is but a deception of Persia, and the sea of Megabises, who had freed the sight through a false medium; for if a groom before his country from an ignoble servitude, slit serve a gentleman in his chamber, that gentlehis own nose and lips, cut off his own ears, scourg- man a lord, and that lord a prince; the groom, ed and wounded his whole body, that he might, the gentleman, and the lurd, are as much serunder pretence of having been mangled so inhu- vants one as the other; the circumstantial difmanly by Darius, be received into Babylon (then ference of the one's getting only his bread and besieged by the Persians) and get irto the com
wages, the second a plentiful, and the third a sumand of it by the recommendation of so cruel a perfluous estate, is no more intrinsical to this sufferance, and their hopes of his endeavouring inatter, than the difference between a plain, a to revenge it. It is great pity the Babylonians rich, and gaudy livery. I do not say, that he suspected not his falsehood, that they might who sells his whole time and his own will for have cut off his hands too, and whipt him back one hundred thousand is not a wiser mer again. But the design succeeded; he betrayed chant than he who does it for one hundred the city, and was made governor of it. What pounds ; but I will swear they are both merbrutish master ever punished his offending slave chants, and that he is happier than both, who with so little mercy,as ambition did this Zopirus ? can live contentedly without selling that estate and yet how many are there in all nations, who to which he was born. But this dependence imitate him, in some degree, for a less reward ; upon superiors is but one chain of the lovers of who, though they endure not so much corporal
power: pain for a small preferment or some honour (as
Amatorem trecentæ they call it), yet stick not to commit actions, by
Pirithoum cohibent catena), which they are more shamefully and more lastingly stigmatised! But you may say, though Let us begin with him by break of day: for by these be the most ordinary and open ways to that time he is besieged by two or three hundred greatness, yet there are narrow, thorny, and suitors; and the ball and antichamb.rs (all the little-trodden paths too, through which some out-works) possessed by the enemy: as soon as men find a passage by virtuous industry. This chamber opens, they are ready to break into grant, sometimes they may; but then that in- that, or to corrupt the guards, for entrance. dustry must be such,as cannot consist with liber- This is so essential a part of greatness, that ty, though it may with honesty.
whosoever is without it, looks like a fallen faThou art careful, frugal, painful ; we commend vourite, like a person disgraced, and condemned a servant so, but not a friend.
to do what he pleases all the morning. There Well then, we must acknowledge the toil and are some who, rather than want this, are condrudgery which we are forced to endure in this tented to have their rooms filled up erery day ascent; but we are epicures and lords when once with murmuring and cursing creditors, and to we are gotten up into the high places. This is charge bravely through a body of them to çet to but a short apprenticeship, after which we are their coach. Now I would fain know which is the male free of a royal company. If we fall in love worst duty, that of any one particular person with any beauteous woman, we must be content who waits to speak with the great man, or the that they should be our mistresses whilst we woo great man's, who waits every day to speak with them : as soon as we are wedded and enjoy, it is all company. we shall be the masters. I am willing to stick to this similitude in the
Aliena negotia centum case of greatness: weenter into the bonds of it, like Per caput, & circa saliunt latus_ those of matrimony: we are bewitched with the
a hundred businesses of other men (many unjust, outward and painted beauty, and take it for bet- and most impertinent) fly continually about his ter or worse, before we know its true nature and head and cars, and strike him in the face like interior inconveniences. A great fortune (says Dorres. Let us contemplate bim a little at Seneca) is a great servitude; but many are of another special scene of glory, and that is his that opinion which Brutus imputes (I hope un- table. llere he seems to be the lord of all nature : trulyo, even to that patron of liberty, his friend the earth affords him her best metals for his Cicero: “We fear (says he to Atticus) death, dishes, her best vegetables and animals for his and banishment, and poverty, a great dea too food; the air and sea supply bim with their much. Cicero, I am afraid, thinks these to be the choicest birds and fishes; and a great many men, worst of evils; and, if he have but some persons, who look like masters, attend upon him; and from whom he can obtain what he has a mind to, yet, when all this is done, even all this is but and others who will Aatter and worship him, seems iable d'hoste; it is crowded with people for whom to be well cnough contented with an honourable he cares not, with many parasites and some servitude, if any thing indeed ought to be called spies, with the most burthensome sort of guests, honouralle in so base and contumelious a condi- the endeavourers to be witty, . This parenthesis does honour to the writer's
7 Hor. 3 Od. iv. 79. sense, as well as candour, HURD.
& Hor. % Sat. vi. 34.
But every body pays him great respect ; every jealousy, fear, envy, grief, and all the et cætera boiy commends his meat, that is, his money; of their passions, which are the secret, but conevery boly admires the exquisite dressing and stant, tyrants and torturers of their life, I omit ordering of it, that is, his clerk of the kitchen, here, because, though they be symptoms most or his cook; every body loves his hospitality, frequent and violent in this disease, yet they are that is, his vanity. But I desire to know why common tuo in some degree to the epidemical the honest inn-keeper, who provides a public disease of life itself. table for his profit, should be but of a mean pro
But the ambitious man, though he be so many and he, who does it for his honour, a ways a slave (o toties servus !) yet he bears it munificent prince. You will say, because one bravely and heroically; he struts and tooks big sells, and the other gives: nay, both sell, upon the stage; he thinks himself a real prince though for different things; the one for plain in his masking-habit, and deceives too all the money, the other for I know not what jewels, foolish part of his spectators : he is a slave in wbose value is in custom and in fancy. If then saturnalibus. The covetous man is a downright his table be made “a snare” (as the Scripture 9 servant, a draught-horse without bells or feaspeaks) “ to his liberty," where can he hope for thers : ad metalla damnatus, a man condemned freedom? There is always, and every where, to work in mines, which is the lowest and hardest some restraint upon him. He is guarded with condition of servitude; and, to increase his microwds, and shackled with formalities. The half sery, a worker there for he knows not whom : hat, the whole hat, the half smile, the whole “ He heapeth up riches, and knows not who shall smile, the nod, the embrace, the positive part- enjoy them 3;" it is only sure, that he himself ing with a little bow, the comparative at the mid- neither shall nor can enjoy them. He is an india dle of the room, the superlative at the door; and, gent, needy slave; he will hardly allow himself if the person be pan nuper sebastus, there is a hy- clothes and board-wages : persuperlative ceremony then of conducting him to the bottom of the stairs, or to the very gate:
Unciatim vix de demenso suo, as if there were such rules set to these Leviat hans, Suum defraudans genium, comparsit miser ; as are to the sea, “ Hitherto shalt thou go, and no further!!”
He defrauds not only other men, but his own Perditur hæc inter misero lux ?,
genius; he cheats himself for money. But the
servile and miserable condition of this wretch is Thus wretchedly the precious day is lost. so apparent, that I leave it, as evident to every
How many impertinent letters and visits must he man's sight, as well as judgment. receive, add sometimes answer both too as imperti- It seems a more difficult work to prove that nently! He never sets his foot beyond his threshold, the voluptuous man too is but a servant : what nnless, like a funeral, he have a train to follow him; can be more the life of a freeman, or, as we say as if, like the dead corpse, he could not stir, till the ordinarily, of a gentleman, than to follow nothing bearers were all ready. "My life (says Horace, but his own pleasures? Why, I will tell you who speaking to one of these magnificos) is a great is that true freeman, and that true gentleman, deal more easy and commodious than thine, in not he who blindly follows all his pleasures (the. that I can go into the market, and cheapen what very name of follower is servile); but he who raI please, without being wondered at; and take tionally guides them, and is not hindered by my horse and ride as far as Tarentum, without outward impediments in the conduct and enjovbeing missedl.” It is an unpleasant constraint to ment of them. If I want skill or force to restrain be always under the sight and observation, and the beast that I ride upon, though I bought it, censure, of others; as there may be vanity in and call it my own, yet in the truth of the matter, somethinks there should be vexation, too, of spi- I am at that time rather his man, than he my rit: and I wonder how princes can endure to have horse. The voluptuous men (whom we have faltwo or three hundred men stand gazing upon them len upon) may be divided, I think, into the lustwhilst they are at dinner, and taking notice of ful and luxurious, who are both servants of the every bit they eat. Nothing seems greater and belly ; the other, whom we spoke of before, the more Drdly than the multitude of domestic ser- ambitious and the covetous, were xanè Ingay, vants; but even this too, if weighed seriously, evil wild beasts: these are yacégns ágyai, slo: is a piece of servitude; unless you will be a ser- bellies, as our translation renders it, but the word vant to them (as many men are) the trouble azyad (which is a fantastical word, with two diand care of yours in the government of them all, is rectly opposite significations) will bear as well much more than that of every one of them in their the translation of quick or diligent bellies; and observance of you. I take the profession of a both interpretations may be applied to these men. school-master to be one of the most useful, and Metrodorus said, “that he had learnt aan oor which ought to be of the most honourable in a yassi xal?e5bas, to give his belly just thanks cornmonwealth; yet certainly all his fasces and for all his pleasures.” This, by the calumniators tyrannical authority over so many boys takes of Epicurus's philosophy, was objected as one of away his own liberty more than theirs.
the most scandalous of all their sayings; which, I do but slightly touch upon all these particu- according to my charitable understanrling, may lars of the slavery of greatness: I shake but a admit a very virtuous sense, which is, that he few of their outward chains; their anger, hatred, thanked his own belly for that moderation, in the » Ps. Ixix. 22. ! Job xxxviii. 11.
3 Ps. xxxxix. 6. : Hor. 2 Sat. vi. 5%.
4 Phorin. Act I. Sc. i. ver. 43.