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the attempt ?—Rome taken, whilst I was consul !—Qf honours I had sufficient—of life enough—more than enough—I should have died in my third consulate.
But who are they that our dastardly enemies thus despise?—the consuls, or you, Romans? If we are in fault, depose us, or punilh us yet more severely. If you are to blame—may neither gods nor men punilh your faults 1 only, may you repent! No, Romans, the confidence of our enemies is not owing to their courage, or to their belief of your cowardice: they have been too often vanquished, not to know both themselves and you. Discord, discord, is the ruin of this city! The eternal disputes between the senate and the people are the sole cause of our misfortunes. While we will set no bounds to our domination, nor you to your liberty; while you impatiently endure Patrician magistrates, and we Plebeian; our enemies take heart, grow elated, and presumptuous. In the name of the immortal gods, what is it, Romans, you would have? You desired Tribunes; for the fake of peace, we granted them. You were eager to have Decemvirs; we consented to their creation. You grew weary of these Decemvir*; we obliged them lo abdicate. Your hatred pursued them when reduced to private men; and we suffered you to put to death, or banish, Patricians of the first rank in the republic. You insisted upon the restoration of the Tribuneship ; we yielded: we quietly saw Consuls of your own faction elected. You have have the protection of your Tribunes, and the privilege of appeal: the Patricians are subjected to the decrees of the Commons. Untler pretence of equal and impartial laws, you have invaded our rights; and we have suffered it, and we still suffer it. When shall we see an end of discord? When shall we have one interest, and one common country? Victorious and triumphant, you shew less temper than we under defeat. When you are to contend with us, you can seize the Aventine hill, you can possess yourselves of the Mons Sacer.
The enemy is at our gates, the Æsquiline is near being taken, and nobody stirs to hinder it. But against u* you are valiant, against us you can arm with diligence. Come on then, besiege the senate-house, make a camp of the forum, fill the jails with our chief nobles; and, when you have atchieved these glorious exploits, then, at last, sally out at the Æsquiline gate, with the same fierce spirits, against the enemy. Does your resolution fail you for this? Go then, and behold from our walls your lands ravaged, your houses plundered and in flames, the whole country laid waste with fire and sword. Have you any thing here to repair these damages? Will the Tribunes make up your losses to you? They'll give you words as many as you please; bring impeachments in abundance against the prime men in the state ; heap laws upon laws: assemblies you shall have without end: but will any of you return the richer from those assemblies? Extinguish, O Romans, these fatal divisions; generously break this cursed inchantment, which keeps you buried in a scandalous inaction. Open your eyes, and consider the management of those ambitious men, who, to make themselves powerful in their party, study nothing but how they may foment divisions in the commonwealth.—If you can but summon up your former courage, if you will now march out of Rome with your consuls, there is no punishment you can inflict which I will not submit to, if I do not in a few days drive those pillagers out of our territory. This terror of war, with which you seem so grievously struck, shall quickly be removed from Rome to their own cities. Hooke.
§ l£. Micipsa to Jugurtha. You know, Jugurtha, that I receiv. ed you under my protection in your early youth, when left a helpless and hopeless orphan. I advanced you to high houours in my kingdom, in the full assurance that you^ would prove grateful for my kindness to you; and that, if I came to have children of my own, you would study to repay to L 1 3 them them what you owed to me. Hitherto I have had no reason to repent of my favours to you. For, to omit all former instances of your extraordinary merit, your late behaviour in the Numantian war has reflected upon me, and my kingdom, a new and distinguished glory. Vou have, by your valour, rendered the Roman commonwealth, which before was well affected to our interest, much more friendly. In Spain, you have raised the honour of my name and crown. And you have surmounted what is justly reckoned one of the greatest difficulties; having, by your merit, silenced envy. My dissolution seems now to be fast approaching. I therefore beseech and conjure you, my dear Jugurtha! by this right hand; by the remembrance of my past kindness to you; by the honour of my kingdom ; and by the majesty of the gods; be kind to my two sons, whom my favour to you has made your brothers; and do not think of forming a connection with any stran
fer, to the prejudice of your relations, t is notrby arms, nor by treasures, that a kingdom is secured, but by well affected subjects and allies. And it is by faithful and important services, that friendship (which neither gold will purchase, nor arms extort) is secured. But what friendship is more perfect, than that which ought to obtain between brothers? What fidelity can be expected among strangers, if it is wanting among relations f The kingdom I leave you is in good condition, if you govern it properly; if otherwise.it is weak. For by agreement a small state increases: by division a great one falls into ruin! It will lie upon you, Jugurtha, who are come to riper years than your brothers, to provide that no misconduct produce any bad effect. And, if any difference mould arise between you and your brothers (which may the gods avert!) the public will charge you, however innocent you may be, as the aggressor, because your years and abilities give you the superiority. But I firmly persuade myself, that you will treat them with kindness, and that they will honour and esteem you, as your distinguished virtue deserves. Ballast.
§ 20. Speed e/PvBLivs Scipio to the Roman Army, before the Battle of tie
Were you, soldiers, the fame army which I had with me in Gaul, I might well forbear saying any thing to you at this time: for, what occasion could there be to use exhortation to a cavalry that had so signally vanquished the squadrons of the enemy upon the Rhone; or to legions, by whom that fame enemy, flying before them to avoid a battle, did in effect confess themselves conquered? But, as these troops, having been iurolled for Spain, are there with my brother Cneius, making war under my auspices (as was the will of the senate and people of Rome) I, that you might have a consul for your captain, against Hannibal and the Carthaginians, have freely offered myself for this war. You, then, have a new general; and I a new army. On this account, a few words from me to you will be neither improper nor unseasonable.
That you may not be unapprised of what sort of enemies you are going to encounter, or of what is to be feared from them, they are the very fame whom, in a former war, you vanquished both by land and sea; the seme, from whom you took Sicily and Sardinia ; and who have been these twenty years your tributaries. You will not, I presume, march against these men, with only that courage with which you are wont to face other enemies; but with a certain anger and indignation, such as you would seei ifyou saw your slaves on
sudden rise up in arms against vou. Conquered and enflaved, itit not boldness but necessity, that urges them to battle, unless you can believe that those who avoided fighting when their army was entire have acquired better hope by the loss of two-thirds of their horse and foot in the passage of the Alps.
But you have heard, perhaps, that, though they are few in number, they are men of stout hearts and robust bodies; heroes, of such strength and vigour, as nothing is able toresist.-Mere e.figies! nay, shadows of men ! wretches emaciated with hunger, and benumb! ed with cold! bruised and battered to pieces among the rocks and craggy cliffs! their weapons broken, and their horses weak and foundered! Such are the cavalry, and such the infantry, with which you are going to contend; not enemies, but the fragments of enemies. There is nothing which I more apprehend, than that it will be thought Hannibal was vanquished by the Alps, before we had any conflict with him. But, perhaps, it was fitting it should be so; and that, with a people and a. leader who had violated leagues and covenants, the gods themselves, without man's help, should begin the war, and bring it to a near conclusion: and that we, whp, next to the gods, have been injured and offended, should happily finish what they have begun.
1 need not be in any fear that you should suspect me of saying these things merely to encourage you, while inwardly I have different sentiments. What hindered me froni going into Spain? That was my province, where I ihould have had the less dreaded Asdrubal, not Hannibal, to deal with. But hearing, as I passed along the coast of Gaul, of this enemy's march, I landed my troops, sent the horse forward, and pitched my camp upon the Rhone. A part of my cavalry encountered, and defeated that of the enemy. My infantry not being able to overtake theirs, which fled before us, I returned to my fleet; and, with all the expedition I could use in so long a voyage by sea and land, am come to meet them at the foot of the Alps. Was it, then, my inclination to avcid a contest with this tremendous Hannibal? and have I met with him only by accident and unawares? or am I come on purpose to challenge him to the combats I would gladly try whether the earth, within these twenty years, has brought forth a new kind of Carthaginians; or whether they be the fame fort of men, who fought at the Ægates, and whom, at Eryx, you suffered to redeem themselves at eighteen denarii per head: whether this Hannibal, for labours and journies, be, as he would be thought, the rival of Hercules; or whether he be, what his father left him, a tributary, a vassal, a slave of the Roman people. Did not
the consciousness of hh wicked deed at Saguntum torment him and make him desperate, he would have some regard, if not to his conquered country, yet surely to his own family, to his father's memory, to the treaty written with Hamilcar's own hand. We might have starved him in Eryx; we might have passed into Africa with our victorious fleet; and, in few days, have destroyed Carthage. At their humble supplication, we pardoned them; we released them, when they were closely shut up, without a possibility of escaping; we made peace with them, when they were conquered. When they were distressed by the African war, we considered them, we treated them, as a people under our protection. And what is the return they make us for all these favours f Under the conduct of a hare-brained young man, they come hither to overturn our state, and lay waste our country.—I could wisti, indeed, that it were not so; and that the war we are now engaged in concerned only our own glory, and not our preservation. But the contest at present is not for the possession of Sicily and Sardinia, but of Italy itself: nor is there behind us another army, which, if we Ihould not prove the conquerors, may make head against our victorious enemies. There are no more Alps for them to pass, which might give us leisure lo raise new forces. No, soldiers; here you must make your stand, as if you were just now before the walls of Rome. Let every one reflect, that he is now to defend, not his own person only, but his wife, his children, his helpless infants. Yet, let not private considerations alone possess our minds: let us remember that the eyes of the senate and people of Rome are upon us; and that, as our force and courage shall now prove, such will be the fortune of that city, and of the Roman empire. Hooke.
\ 21. Speech «/hannib Al to tie CarThaginian Army, on the same Occasion.
I know not, soldiers, whether you or your prisoners be encompassed by fortune with the stricter bonds and necesL 1 4 sitie*. sides. Two seas inclose yon on the right and left: not a (hip to fly to for escaping. Before you is the Po, a river broader and more rapid than the Rhone: behind you are the Alps; over which, even when your numbers were undimixiifhed, you were hardly able to force a passage. Here then, soldiers, you must either conquer or die, the very first hour you meet the enemy.
But the fame fortune which has thus laid you under the necessity of fighting, has set before your eyes those rewards of victory, than which no men are ever wont to wish for greater from the immortal gods. Should we, by our valour, recover only Sicily and Sardinia, which were ravished from our fathers, thole would be no inconsiderable prizes. Yet, what are those? The wealth of Rome; whatever riches she has heaped together in the spoils of na'tions; all these, with the masters of them, will be yours. You have been long enough employed in driving the cattle upon the vast mountains of Lusitania and Celtiberia; you have hitherto met with no reward worthy of the labours and dangers you have undergone. The time is now come, to teap the full recompense of your toilsome marches over so many mountains and rivers, and through so many nations, all of them in arms. This is the place which fortune has appointed to be the limits of your labour; it is here that you will finish your glorious warfare, and receive an ample recompence of your compleated service. For I would not have you imagine, that victory will be as difficult as the name of a Roman war is great and sounding. It has often happened, that 4'despised enemy has given a bloody battle; and the most renowned kings ahd nations have by a small force been overthrown. And, if you but take away the glitter of the Roman name, what is there wherein they may stand in competition with you.-? For (to fay nothing of your service in war, for twenty years together,A«vith so much valour and success) from-the very pillars of Hercules, from the ocean, from the utmost bounds of the earth, through so many warlike nations of Spain and Gaul, are you not come hither victorious r And with
whom are you now to fight? With raw soldiers, an undisciplined army, beaten, vanquished, besieged by the Gauls the very last summer; an army, unknown to their leader, and unacquainted with him.
Or shall I, who was born, I might almost fay, but certainly brought up, in the tent of my father, that most excellent general; shall I, the conqueror of Spain and Gaul, and not only of the Alpine nations, but which is greater still, of the Alps themselves; shall I compare myself with this half-year captain? a captain, before whom should one place the two armies, without their ensigns, I am persuaded he would not know to which of them he is consul. I esteem it no small advantage, soldiers, that there is not one among you, who has not often been an eye-witness of my exploits in war; not one of whose valour I myself have not been a spectator, so as to be able to name the times and places of his noble achievements; that with soldiers, whom I have a thousand times praised and rewarded, and whose pupil I was before I became their general, I shall march against an army of men strangers to one another.
On what side soever I turn my eyes, I behold all full of courage and strength. A veteran infantry; a most gallant cavalry: you, my allies, most faithful and valiant; you, Carthaginians, whom not only your country's cause, but the justest anger, impels to battle. The hope, the courageof assailants, is always great. er than of those who act upon the defensive. With hostile banners displayed, you are come down upon Italy: you bring the war. Grief, injuries, indignities, fire your minds, and spur you fnrward to revenge.—First, they demanded me; that I, your general, should be delivered up to them; next, all of you who had fought at the siege of Snguntum: and we were to be put to death by the extremest tortures. Proud and cruel nation! every thing must be yours, and at your disposal! you are to prescribe to us with whom we shall make war, with whom we shall make peace. You are to set us bounds; to shut us up within hills and rivers; but you, you are not to observe the li
mits which yourselves have "Pass not the Iberus." What next? *' Touch not the Saguntines. Sagun** turn is upon the Iberus, move not '* a step towards that city." Is it a small matter then that you have deprived us os our ancient possessions, Sicily and Sardinia? you would have Spain too. Well, we shall yield Spain, and then —you will pass into Africa. Will pass, Hid I fay ?—this very year they* rdered one of their consuls into Africa, the other into Spain. No, soldiers; there is nothing left for us, but what we can vindicate with our swords. Come on, then. Be men. The Rorrans may, with more safety, be cowards: they have their own country behind them, have places of refuge to fly to, and are secure from danger in the roads thither; but for you, there is no middle fortune between death and victory. Let this be but well fixed in your minds; and once again, 1 fay, you are conquerors. Hooke,
$ 2%. To Art.
O Art! thou distinguishing attribute and honour of human kind ! who art not only able to imitate Nature in her graces, but even to adorn her with graces of thine own! Possessed of thee, the meanest genius grows deserving, and has a just demand for a portion of our esteem: devoid of thee, the brightest of our kind lie lost and useless, and are but poorly distinguished from the most despicable and base. When we inhabited forests in common with brutes, nor otherwise known from them, than by the figure of our species, thou taughtest us to assert the sovereignty of our nature, and to assume that empire, for which Providence intended us. Thousands of utilities owe their birth to thee; thousands of elegancies, pleasures, and joys, without which life itself would be but an insipid possession.
Wide and extensive is the reach of thy dominion. No element is there, either so violent or so subtile, so yielding or so fluggist), as, by the powers of its nature, to be superior to thy direction. Thou dreadest not the fierce impetuosity of fire, but compellest its violence to be both obedient and useful:
fixed! by it thou soften eft the stubborn tribe of
minerals, so as to be formed and moulded into shapes innumerable. Hence weapons, armour, coin; and, previous to these and other thy works and energies, hence all those various tools and instruments,which impower thee to proceed to farther ends more excellent. Nor is the subtile air less obedient to thy power; whether thou wiliest it to be a minister to our pleasure or utility. At thy command, it giveth birth to sounds, which charm the foul with all the powers of harmony: under thy instruction, it moves the ships over the seas; while that yielding element,where Otherwise we sink, even water itself, is by thee taught to bear us; the vast ocean, to promote that intercourse of nations, which ignorance would imagine it was destined to intercept. To fay how thy influence is seen on earth, would be to teach the meanest what he knows already. Suffice it but to mention fields of arable and pasture; lawns, and groves, and gardens, and plantations; cottages, villages, castles, towns; palaces, temples, and spacious cities.
Nor does thy empire end in subjects thus inanimate : its power also extends through the various race of animals; who either patiently submit to become thy slaves, or are sure to find thee an irresistible foe. The faithful dog, the patient ox, the generous horse, and the mighty elephant, are content all to receive their instructions from thee, and readily to lend their natural instincts of strength to perform those offices which thy occasions call for. If there be found any species which are serviceable when dead, thou suggestest the means to investigate and take them: if any be so savage as to refuse being tamed, or of natures fierce enough to venture an attack, thou teachest us to scorn their brutal rage, to meet, repel, pursue, and conquer.
Such, O Art! is thy amazing influence, when thou art employedonly on these inferior subjects, on natures inanimate, or at best irrational: but whenever thou chusest a subject more noble, and employest thyself in cultivating the mind itself, then it is thou becomest, truly amiable and divine; the everflowing