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if thou meanest to gain leisure; and, since thou art not sure ofa minute, throw not away an hour." Leisure is time for doing something useful; this leisure the diligent man will obtain, but the lazy man never ; for, " A life of leisure and a life of laziness are two things. Many, without labour, would live by their wits only, but they break for want of stock;" whereas industrygives'comfort,and plenty, and respect. "Fly pleasures, and they will follow you. The diligent spinner has a large shift; and now I have a sheep and a cow, every body bids me good-morrow."
II. « But with our industry we mast likewise be steady, settled, and careful, and oversee our own affairs with our own eyes, and not trust too much to others; for, as Poor Richard fays,
» 1 never saw an oft-removed tree,
'And again, "Three removes is asbad as a fire :" and again, "Keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee:" and again, '* If you would have your business done, go; if not, fend," And again,
«' He that by the plough would thrive,
* And again, " The eye of the master will do more work than both hishands:" and again, " Want of care does us more damage than want of knowledge :" and again, " Not to oversee workmen, is to leave them your purse open." Trusting too much to others care is the ruin of many; for, " In the affairs of this world, men are saved, not by faith, but by the want of it:" butaman'sown care is profitable; for, "If you would have a faithful servant, and one that you like,— serve yourself. A little neglect may breed great mischief; for want of a nail the shoe was lost ; for want of a (hoe the horse was lost; and for want of a horse the rider was lost," being overtaken and slain by the enemy; all for wantof a little care about a horse-shoe nail.
III. 'So much for industry, my friends, and attention to one's own business; but to these we mull add frugality, if we would make our industry
more certainly successful. A man may, if he knows not how to save as he gets, "keep his nose all his life to the grindstone, and die not worth a groat at last. A fat kitchen makes a lean will;" and
"Many estates are spent in the getting,
"If you would be wealthy, think os saving, as well as of getting. The Indies have not made Spain rich, because her outgoes are greater than her incomes."
,' Away, then, with your expensive follies, and you will no$ then have so much cause to complain of hard times, heavy taxes, and chargeable families; for
"Women and wine, game and deceit,
Make the wealth small, and the want great."
And farther, "What maintains one vice, would bring up-two children." You may think, perhaps, that a little tea, or a little punch now and then, diet a little more costly, cloaths a little finer,and a little entertainment nowand then, can be no great matter; but remember, "Many a little makes a mickle." Beware of little expences j "A small leak will sink a great ship," as Poor Richard says; and again, "Who dainties love, shall beggars prove;" and moreover, "Fools make feasts, and wife men eat them." Here you are all got together to this sale of fineries and nicknacks. You call them goods; but, if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you, You expect they will be fold cheap, and, perhaps, they may for less than they cost; but, if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you. Remember what Poor Richard says, " Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries." And again, " At a great pennyworth pause a while:" he means, that perhaps the cheapness is apparent only, and not real; or the bargain, by straitening thee" in thy business, may do thee more harm than good. For in another place he says, " Many have been ruined by buying good pennyworths." Again, 3 L 4 » Ii i, "It is foolish to lay out money in a purchase of repentance;" and yet this folly is practised every day at auctions, for want of minding the Almanack. Many a one, for the fake of finery on the back, have gone with a hungry belly, and half starved their families; "Silks and sattins, scarlet and velvets, put out the kitchen-fire," as Poor Richard fays. These arc not the necessaries of life; they can scarcely be called the conveniences: and yet only because they look pretty, how many want to have them .'—By these, and ether extravagancies, the genteel are reduced to poverty, and forced to borrow of those whom they formerly despised, but who, through industry and frugality, have maintained their standing; in which case it appears plainly, that " A ploughman on his legs is higher than a gentleman on his knees," as Poor Richard fays. Perhaps they have had a small estate left them,which they knew not the getting of; they think " It is day, and will never be night:" that a little to be spent out of so much is not worth minding; but "Always taking out of the meal-tub, and never putting in, soon comes to the bottom," as'Poor Richard fays; and then, " When the well is dry, they know the worth of water." But this they might have known before, if they had taken his advice. "If you would know the value of money, go and try to borrow some; for he that goes a borrowing, goes a sorrowing," as Poor Richard fays; and, indeed, so does he that lends to such people, when he goes to get in again. Poor Dick farther advises, and lays,
"Fond pride of dress is sure a very cutse;
Arid again, " Pride is as loud a beggar as Want, and a great deal inor* laucy." When you have bought one Jine thing, you must buy ten more, that your appearance may be all of a piece; but Poor Dick fays, " It is easier to suppress the first deiire, than to satisfy all that follow it:" And it is as truly folly for the poor to ape the rich, ay for the frog to swell, in order to ecjUul the ox,
"Vessels large may venture more,
But little boats Ihould keep rear shore."
It is, however, a folly soon punished; for, as Poor Richard fays, " Pride that dines on vanity, sups on contempt ;— Pride breakfasted with Plenty, dined with Poverty,and supped with Infamy." And, after all, of what use is this pride of appearance, for which so much is risked, so much is suffered? It cannot promote health, nor ease pain; it makes no increase of merit in the person, it creates envy, it hastens misfortune.
'But what madness it must be to run in debt for these superfluities? We are offered, by the terms of this sale, six months credit; and that, perhaps, has induced/some of us to attend it, because we cannot spare the ready money, and hope now to be fine without it. But, ah! think what you do when you run in debt; you give to another power over your liberty. If you cannot pay at the time, you will be ashamed to see your creditor; you will be in fear when you speak to him; you will make poor pitiful sneaking excuses, and, by degrees, come to lose your veracity, and sink into base, downright lying; for, •* Trie second vice is lying, the first is running in debt," as Poor Richard fays; and again, to the fame purpose, " Lying rides upon Debt's back:" whereas a free-born Englishman ought not to be ashamed nor afraid to see or speak to any man living. But poverty often deprives a man of all spirit and virtue. "It is hard for an empty bag to stand upright."—What would you think of that prince, or of that government, who should issue an edict forbidding you to dress like a gentleman or gentlewoman, on pain of imprisonment or servitude? Would you not say that you were free, have a right to diess as you pleale, and that such an edict would be a breach of your privileges, and such a government tyrannical? and yet you are about to put yourself under that tyranny, when you run in debt for such dress! Your creditor has authority, at his pleasure, to deprive you of your liberty, by con. fining you in gaol for life, or by selling you for a servant, if you should not be able to pay him. When you have got your bargain, you way, perhaps, think little of payment; but, as Poor Richard fays, " Creditors have better memories than debtors; creditors are a superstitious sect, great observers of set days and times." The day comes round before you are aware, and the demand is made before you are prepared to satisfy it; or, if you bear your debt in mind, the term, which at first seemed so long, will, as it lessens, appear extremely short: Time will seem to have added wings to his heels as well as his shoulders. "Those have a short Lent, who owe money to be paid at Easter." At present, perhaps, you may think yourselves in thriving circumstances, and that you can bear a little extravagance without injury; but
"For age and want save while you may,
• Gain may be temporary and uncertain, but ever, while you live, expence is constant and certain; and, " It is easier to build two chimneys, than to keep one in fuel," as Poor Richard say%: So, " Rather go to bed supperless, than rife in debt.
Get what you can, and what you get hold, 'Tis the stone that will turn all your lead into gold."
And when you have got the philosopher's stone, sure you will no longer compKSin of bad times, or the difficulty of paying taxes.
IV. ' This doctrine, my friends, is reason and wisdom: but, after all, do not depend too much upon your own industry, and frugality, and prudence, though excellent things; for they may all be blasted without the blessing of Heaven; and therefore, ask that blessing humbly, and be not uncharitable to those that at present seem to want it, but comfort and help then:. Remember, Job suffered, and was afterwards prosperous.
'And now to conclude, " Experience keeps a dear school, but fools will learn in no other," as Poor Richard fays, and scarce in that; for it is true, " We may give advice, but we cannot stive conduct." However, remember this, "They that will not be counselled, cannot be helped j" and farther, that
"If you will not hear Reason, she will surely rap your knuckles," as Poor Richard fays.'
Thus the old gentleman ended his harangue. The people heard it, and approved the doctrine, and immediatelypractised the contrary, just as if it had been a common sermon; for the auction opened, and they began to buy extravagantly.—I found the good man, had thoroughly studied my Almanacks, and digested all I had dropt on those topics during the course of twentv-five years. The frequent mention he made of me must have tired any one else; but my vanity was wonderfully delighted with it, though I was conscious, that not a tenth part of the wisdom was my own, which he ascribed to me; but rather the gleanings that I had made of the fense of all ages and nations. However, I resolved to be the better for the echo of it; and though I had at first determined to buy stuff for a new coat, I went away, resolved to wear my old one a little longer. Reader, if thou wilt do the same, thy profit will be as great as mine.—I am, as ever, thine to serve thee,
§ 158. On Cruelty to inferior Animals.
Man is that link of the chain of universal existence, by which spiritual and corporeal beings are united: as the numbers and variety of the latter his inferiors are almost infinite, so probably are those of the former his superiors 3 and as we fee that the lives and happiness of those below us are dependant on our wills, we may reasonably conclude, that our lives and happiness are equally dependant on the wills of those above us; accountable, like ourselves, for the use of this power, to the Supreme Creator and Governor of all things. Should this analogy be well founded, how criminal will our account appear, when laid before that just and impartial Judge! How will man, that sanguinary tyrant, be able to excuse himself from the charge of those innumerable cruelties inflicted on his unoffending subjects committed to his care, formed for his benefit, and placed under his authority by their common Father? whose
mercy mercy is over all his works, and who experts that his authority should be exercised not only with tenderness and mercy, but in conformity to the laws of justice and gratitude.
Hot to what horrid deviations from these benevolent intentions are we daily witnesses! no small part of mankind derive their chief amusements from the deaths and suhVrings of inferior animals; a much greater, consider them only as engine of wood, or iron, useful in their severil occupations. The carman drives his horse, and the carpenter his nail, by repeated blows; and so long as these produce the desired effect, and they both go, they neither reflect or care whether either of them have any sense of seeling. The butcher knocks down the (lately ox, with no more compassion than the blacksmith hammers a horseshoe; and plunges his knife into the throat of the innocent lamb, with as little reluctance as the taylor sticks his needle into the collar of a coat.
If thrre are some few, who, formed in a softer mould, view with pity the sufferings of these defenceless creatures, tircre is scarce one who entertains the least idea, that justice or gratitude can be due to their merits, or their services. The social and friendly dog is hanged without remorse, if, by barking in defence of his mailer's person and property, he happens unknowingly to disturb his rest: the generous horse, who has carried his ungrateful master for many years with ease and safety, worn out with age and infirmities, contracted in his service, is by him condemned to end his miserable days in a dustcart, where the more he exerts his little remains of spirit, the more he is whip, ped to save his stupid driver the trouble of whipping some other less obedient to the Inih. Sometimes, having been taught the practice of many unnatural and useless feats in a riding-house, he is at last turned out, and consigned to the dominion of a hackney-coachman, by whom he is every day corrected for performing those tricks, which he has iaarned under so long and severe a discipline. The iluggtlh bear, in contradiction to his nature, is taught to
dance, for the diversion of a malignant mob, by placing red-hot irons under his feet: and the majestic bull is tortured by every mode which malice can invent, for no offence, but that he is gentle, and unwilling to assail his diabolical tormentors. These, with innumerable other acts of cruelty, injustice, and ingratitude, are every day committed, not only with impunity, but without censure, and even without observation; but we may be assured, that they cannot finally pass away unnoticed and unretaliated.
The laws of self-defence undoubtedly justify us in destroying those animals who would destroy us, who injure our properties, or annoy our persons; but not even these, whenever their situation incapacitates them from hurting os. I know of no right which we have to shoot a bear on an inaccessible island of ice, or an eagle on the mountain's top; whose lives cannot injure us, nor deaths procure us any benefit. We are unable to give life, and therefore ought not wantonly to take it aw.iy from the meanest insect, without sufficient reason; they all receive it from the same benevolent hand as ourselves, and have therefore an equal right to enjoy it.
God has been pleased to create numberless animals intended for our sustenance; and that they are so intended, the agreeable flavour of their flesh to our palates, and the wholesome nutriment which it administers to our stomachs, are sufficient proofs: these, as they are formed for our use, propagated by our culture, and fed by our care, we have certainly a right to deprive of life, because it is given and preserved to them on that condition; but this should always be performed with all the tenderness and compassion which so disagree* able an office will permit; and no circumstances ought to be omitted, which can render their executions as quick and easy as possible. For this, Providence has wisely and benevolently provided, by forming them in such a manner, that their flesh becomes rancid and unpalatable by a painful and lingering death; and has thus compelled us to be merciful vri.aout compaction, and cautious
of of their suffering, for the sake of ourselves: but, if there are any whose tastes are so vitiated, and whose hearts are so hardened, as to delight in such inhuman sacrifices, and to partake of them without remorse, they should be looked upon as dæmons in human shapes, and expect a retaliation of those tortures which they have inflicted on the innocent, for the gratification of their own depraved and unnatural appetites.
So violent are the passions of anger and revenge in the human breast, that it is not wonderful that men should per. secute their real or imaginary enemies with cruelty and malevolence; but that there should exist in nature a being who can receive pleasure from giving pain, would be totally incredible, if we were not convinced, by melancholy experience, that there are not only many, but that this unaccountable disposition is in some manner inherent in the nature of man; for, as he cannot be taught by example, nor led to it by temptation, or prompted to it by interest, it must be derived from his native constitution; and is a remarkable confirma-' tion of what revelation so frequently inculcates—that he brings into the world with him an original depravity, the effects of a fallen and degenerate state; in proof of which we need only observe, that the nearer he approaches to a state of nature, the more predominant this disposition appears, and the more violently it operates. We fee children laughing at the miseries which they inflict on every unfortunate animal which comes within their power: all savages are ingenious in contriving, and happy in executing, the most exquisite tortures; and the common people of all countries are delighted with .nothingso much as bull-baitings,prizefightings, executions, and all spectacles of cruelty and horror. Though civilization may in some degree abate this native ferocity, it can never quite extirpate it; the most polished are not ashamed to be pleased with scenes of little less barbarity, and, to the disgrace of human nature, to dignify them with the name of sports. They arm cocks with artificial weapons, which
nature had kindly denied to their levolence, and with shouts of appla and triumph, fee them plunge them into each other's hearts: they view with delight the trembling deer and defenceless hare, flying for hours in the utmost agonies of terror and despair, and at last, sinking under fatigue, devoured by their merciless pursuers: they fee with joy the beautiful pheasant and harmless partridge drop from their flight, weltering in their blood, or perhaps perishing with woundt and hunger, under the cover of some friendly thicket to which they have in. vain retreated for safety: they triumph, over the unsuspecting fish, whom they have decoyed by an insiduous pretence of feeding, and drag him from his native element by a hook fixed to and tearing out his entrails: and, to add to all this, They spare neither labour nor expence to preserve and propagate these innocent animals, for no other end, but to multiply the objects of their persecution.
What name should we bestow on a superior being, whose whole endeavours were employed, and whose whole pleasure consisted, in terrifying, ensnaring, tormenting, and destroying mankind t whose superior faculties were exerted in fomenting animosities amongst them, in contriving engines of destruction, and inciting them to use them in maiming and murderingeachother? whosepower over them was employed in assisting the rapacious, deceiving the simple, and oppressing the innocent? who, without provocation or advantage, should continue from day to day, void of all pitjr and remorse, thus to torment mankind for diversion, and at the fame time endeavour with his utmost care to preserve their lives, and to propagate their species, in order to increase the number of victims devoted to his malevolence, and be delighted in proportion to the miseries which he occasioned? I fay, what name detestable enough could we find for such a being? yet, if we impartially consider the case, and our in. termediate situation, we must acknowledge, that, with regard to inferior anii mah,just such a being is a sportsman.