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Duties of 'School Boys,fnm indjudicious Rolein.
n says, that he has included oe duty of scholars in this advice which he gives them, _^ ise who teach them, as they
love tne .ciences which they learn of them; and to look upon them as fathers, from whom they derive not the life of. the body, but that instruction which is in a manner the life of the foul. Indeed this sentiment of affection and respect suffices to make them apt to learn during the time of their studies, and full of gratitude all the rest of their liver. It seems to me to include a great part of what is to be expected from them.
Docility, which consids in submitting to directions, in readily receiving the instructions of their maliers, and reducing them to practice, is properlv the virtue of scholars, as that of masters is to teach well. The cne can do nothing ■without the other ; and as it is not sufficient for a labourer to sow the seed, unless the earth,,after having opened its bosom to receive it, in a manner hatches, warm?, and moistens it; so likewise the whole fruit of instruction depends upon a good correspondence between the masters and the scholars.
Gratitude for those who have laboured in our education, is the character of an honest man, and the mark of:, good heart. Who is there among us, fays Cicero, that has been instructed with any care, that i.- not highly delighted with the sight, or even the bare remembrance of his preceptors, masters, and the place where he was taught and brought up? Seneca exhorts young men to preserve always a great respect for their mailers, to whole care they are indebted for the amendment of their faults, and for having imbibed sentiments of honour and probity. Their exactness and severity displease sometimes, at an age when we are not in a condition to judge of the obligations we owe to the:ii; but when years have ripened our understanding and judgment, we then discern that what made us dislike them, I mean admonitions, reprimands, and a severe exactness jq
restraining the passions of an imprudent and inconsiderate age, is expressly the very thing which should make us esteem and love them. Thus we fee that Marcus Aurelius, one of the wisest and most illustrious emperors that Rome ever had, thanked the gods for tw« things especially—for his having had excellent tutors himself, and that he had found the like for his children.
Quinctilian, after having noted the different characters of the mind in children, draws, in a few words, the image of what he judged to be a perfect scholar; and certainly it is a very amiable one: " For my part," fays he, " I like a child who is encouraged by commendation, is animated by a fense of glory, and weeps when he is outdone. A noble emulation will always keep him in exercise, a reprimand will touch him to the quick, and honour will serve instead of a spur. We need not fear that such a scholar will ever give himself up to sullenness." Mihi ilie detur puer, quern laus exciter, quem gloria juvet, qui virtus fleat. Hie erit alendus ambitu: hunc mordebit objurgatio: hunc honor excitabit: in hoc desidiam nunquam verebor.
How great a value soever Quinctilian sets upon the talents of the mind, he esteems those of the heart far beyond them, and looks upon the others as of no value without them. In the fame chapter from whence I took the preceding words, he declares, he should never have a good opinion of a child, who placed his study in occasioning laughter, by mimicking the behaviour, mien, and faults of others; and he presently gives an admirable reason for it: "A child," says he, " cannot be truly ingenious, in my opinion, unless he be good and virtuous; otherwise, I should rather choose to have him dull and heavy than cf a bad disposition." Non dabit spem borne inJolis, qui hoc imitandi studio petit, ut ridcatur. Nam probus quoque imprimis erit iile vere ingeniosus: alioqui non pejus duxerira tardi esse ingenii, quim mali.
He displays to us all these talents in
the eldest of his two children, whose
character he draws, and whose death he
laments in so eloquent and pathetic a
I strain4 strain, in the beautiful preface to his sixth book. I shall beg leave to insert here a small extract of it, which will not be useless to the boys, as they will find it a model which suits well with their age and condition.
After having mentioned his younger son, who died at five years old, and described the graces and beauties of his countenance, the prettiness of his expressions, the vivacity of his understanding, which began to shine through the veil of childhood; "I had still left me," fays he, " my son Quinctilian, in whom I placed all my pleasure and all my hopes, and comfort enough I might have found in him: for, having now entered into his tenth year, he did not produce only blossoms like his younger brother, but fruits already formed, and beyond the power of disappointment.—I have much experience; but I never saw in any child, I do not say only so many excellent dispositions for the sciences, nor so much taste, as his masters know, but so much probity, sweetness, good-nature, gentleness, and inclination to please and oblige, as I discerned in him.
"Besides this, he had all the advantages of nature, a charming voice, a pleasing countenance, and a surprising facility in pronouncing well the two languages, as if he had been equally born for both of them.
"But all this was no more than hopes. I set a greater value upon his admirable virtues, his equality of tem
per, his resolution, the courage with which he bore up against fear and pain; for, how were his physicians astonished at his patience under a distemper of eight months continuance, when at the point of death he comforted me himself, and bade me not to weep for him! and delirious as he sometimes was at his last moments, his tongue ran of nothing else but learning and the sciencess O vain and deceitful hopes!" ice.
Are there many boys amongst us, of whom we can truly fay so much to their advantage, as Quinctilian fays here of his son? What a shame would it be for them, if, born and brought up in a Christian country, they had not even the virtues of Pagan children! I make no scruple to repeat them here again— docility, obedience, respect for their masters, or rather a degree of affection, and the source of an eternal gratitude; zeal for study, and a wonderful thirst after the sciences, joined to an abhorrence of vice and irregularity; art admirable fund of probity, goodness, gentleness, civility, and liberality; as also patience, courage, and greatness of soul in the course of a long sickness. What then was wanting to all these virtues ?—That which alone could render them truly worthy the name, and) must be in a manner the soul of them, and constitute their whole value, the precious gift of faith and piety; the saving knowledge of a Mediator; a sincere desire of pleasing God, and referring all our actions to him.
Ashore SYSTEM of GEOGRAPHY, from Dr. Gregor* Sharpe's Translation of Baron Holberg's Introduction to Universal History *.
$ I. Definition of Geography.
GEOGRAPHY f is a. description of the whole earth, as far as it is known to us.
Geography differs from Cosmography J as a part from the whole, and from Chorography || as the whole from a part. Cosmography describes the heavens as well as the earth; Geography, only the superficies of the terraqueous globe; Chorography, any particular region; and Topography •*, any particular place, land, territory, town, or village.
The description of the terraqueous globe is usually considered as mathematical, physical, or political.
§ 2. The mathematical Description oj'the Earth,
The artificial globe properly belongs to this division: it is suspended by the two poles; the one on the north point of the orb is called arctic f f, the other, directly opposite to it, antarctic \\, and named poles from the Greek verb œ-oasw, to turn, because upon them the whole frame of the earth turns round.
On the terraqueous globe are described eight principal circles, four great, and four less.
The great circles are, the æquator, horizon, zodiac, and meridian, which divide the globe into two equal parts. The tequator, commonly called the
* A few alterations have been made, to render the System agreeable to the present state and times.
f From yn, earrh, and y(*fx, to describe.
J From xwjuof, the world, and ;j<i$k.
1| From xop*;, a region.
** From Two?, a place.
ft From Ojktoc, a bear, because the real north pole in the heavens is distinguished by a star in the constellation, called the little bear.
JJ From »>ti, contrary to.
aequinoctial line, divides the globe into two parts, north and south, at an equal distance from each pole. The horizon or determinator, separates the visiblefrom the invisible part of the globe, and takes the lower hemisphere away. The zodiac is an oblique circle pasting through the middle of the æquator. It is divided into twelve parts, which are called signs. These signs being for the most part representations of animals, the name of the circle is taken from the Greek word faov, which signifies animal. This circle is divided by another concentric circle, called the ecliptic, making an angle with the æquinoctial of 23 degrees 30 minutes, which is the fun's greatest declination, in the points of Aries and Libra.
The meridian, pasting through the two poles, divides the terraqueous globe into two equal parts, and takes its name from meridies, or medius diet, because when the sun comes to the meridian of a place, it is then mid-day in that place.
The lesser circles are, the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, which touch the ecliptic in the opposite points of Cancer and Capricorn, which are therefore called solstitial points: the arctic and antarctic poles, and these four lesser circles, divide the face or superficies of the whole earth into five spaces or climates, called zones.
The zones are, 1. Torrid, including the space between the two tropics, and is so called because of the great and continual heat of the sun, under whose course it lies. This zone comprehends Guinea, lower Lybia, Æthiopia, part of Arabia and of the East Indies, as also the West Indies. 2. The temperate zone, which is either south or north, and includes those parts of the globe which are greatly improved on
account account of the temperature of the air. 3. The frigid zone, is also north or iouth, and comprehends such lands as are desert and uncultivated on account of excessive cold.
Each circle, as well as the whole globe, is by geometricians divided into three hundred and sixty parts, called degrees; each degree into sixty, called scruples or minutes, answering to so many Italian miles: so that, as four Italian miles make one German mile, fifteen German miles are equal to a degree. This may suffice for the mathematical division of the globe; and he that would know more, must have recourse to the professors of geometry.
§ 3. A physical Description of the Earth.
The next description of the earth is called physical or natural, according to which the globe is divided into land and water.
Waters are either confined within banks, or encompass the earth.
Waters which wasli their banks are springs, streams, rivers, lakes.
Springs rife from the earth, and form streams, several of which meeting together, make rivers.
A lake is a collection of waters surrounded with land: is no stream flows in or out, it is called a pool.
Waters encompassing the earth, are Called the sea or ocean, which is again divided into many different seas and gulphs.
The four seas, or greater parts of the ocean, are, j. The Atlantic, which flows between Africa and America. 2. The Pacific, contained between America and Alia. 3. The Northern, about the north pole. 4. The Southsea, upon the iouth coast, which is known.
These great seas have other names given them, from the several regions and shores they wash. Hence so many lesser seas; the Atlantic, Gallic, British, Baltic, Mediterranean, &c.
Whenever the sea extends itself like an arm, within land, having no passage, it is called a gulph. The principal of which are, the Arabian, Persian, Bothnian, Adriatic, &c.
Whenever it flows between two shores at no great distance from each other, it forms a strait or fretum, a servenda. The most noted straits are those of Gibraltar, the Sound near Copenhagen, the straits os'Magellan, and the Hellespont.
The land is divided into continent, islands, and peninsulas.
The continent is a large tract of land not surrounded by the ocean, though ia part washed by it.
An island is separated from the continent, and surrounded by the sea. It is called insula, from /alum, the sea, because surrounded by it.
A peninsula or chtrsonesut, is aJmo$ surrounded by the sea, being by some small part or neck of land joined to the continent, and therefore called a peninsula, from pine in/ula, as being almost an island.
An isthmus is a narrow tract or neck; of lanJ, which joins a peninsula to the continent or any larger island.
The earth, with respect to its uneven surface, is divided into mountains, pro, montories, vallies, and plain?.
A mountain is that part of the earth which is lifted high above the vallies and plains. Some mountains vomit forth fire, as Ætna in Sicily, Vesuvius in Campania within seven miles of Naples, and Hecla in Iceland.
A promontory, mans prominens, is a a high land stretching itself out into the sea. The most remarkable promontory is the Cape of Good Hope, at the most southern point of Africa.
§4. The political Description of tht Earth.
It is called political, because the earth is divided into various empires, kingdoms, and principalities. The most general division of the earth, in this respect, is into known and unknown parts.
The unknown comprehends the regions near the poles, which are sopposed to be uninhabited on account of excessive cold.
The habitable part of the globe is by geographers divided intoEurope, Asia, Africa, and America.
fy. O/EUROPE.W itt fiver al Kingdoms.
Europe, now more famous tha/i any other part of the globe, is bounded on i the east by a river of Tartary in Europe called Tanais or Don, on the south by the Mediterranean sea, on the north by the Northern, and on the west by the Atlantic ocean. The figure it makes is like a woman sitting, whose head is Spain, neck and breast France, arms Italy and Britain, her belly Germany, and the rest of her body other regions.
The chief kingdoms in Europe are Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany, Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, Sclavonia, Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria, Tartary the less, Moscovy, Greece; to which we add such republics as are not inferior to some kingdoms, as Venice, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and the
% 6. SP Al ft, formerly talltd Iberia.
It is bounded on the east by the Pyrenean mountains and part of the Mediterranean sea, on the west by Portugal, on the south by the Mediterranean, and on the north, by the bay os Biscay. The ancient division of Spain was into Bœtica, Lusitania, and Tarracona: the modern is into various states and kingdoms. The metropolis of Spain is Madrid, ennobled by the residence of its kings. The rest of the most famous ci-• ties are Barcelona, Cæsar-Augusta, or Saragossa, Pompejopolis or Pampeluna, Valentia, Murcia, New Carthage or Carthagena, the best harbour in Spain; Granada, which was reckoned one of the largest cities in Europe when under subjection to the Moors; Seville, formerly Hispalis, whence the whole kingdom called Hispania or Spain, the greatest city for commerce in Spain; Corduba, a very large city, and the old seat of the Saracen kings; Toledo, the centre of Spain; Valladolid, esteemed one of the neatest cities in Europe; Compostellaor St. Jafo, to which holy pilgrimages used to be made, on account of St. James's bones, believed to be preserved there; and Burgos, the capital of Old Castile.
The most celebrated universities are those of Salamanca, and Complutum or Alcala de Henares.
The more noble rivers are the Ebro, Bcetis or Guadalquiver, Anas or Guadiana, Tagus, Douro, Minius, Xucar.
The most noted islands near Spain are the two Baleares, Majorca and Minorca, Ebusus or Ivica, and Cadiz.
§ 7. Portugal, anciently Lusitania.
It has Spain on the east, and the Atlantic ocean on the west. It is divided into Portugal, properly so called, and. Algarve.
Lisbon is the capital of the kingdom, a very great and famous emporium. Setubal, or, as it is commonly called, St. Ubes, is one of its best ports, famous for the number of merchants which come there every year from all parts of Europe to buy salt.
The universities of this kingdom are at Lisbon and Coimbra.
§ 8. France.
Gaul was anciently divided into Galiia Ci/alpina and Transalpina; and, from the dress of the inhabitants, into Tognta, or those who wore long garments, and Braccata et Comata, or who wore breeches and their hair. It has for boundaries, to the east, Germany, Switzerland, and Savoy; to the west, the bay of Biscay; to the north, the British channel ; and to the south, the Mediterranean sea, and Pyrenæan mountains.
It is at this time divided into twelve general provinces.
The most famous cities are, Paris, the capital of the kingdom, a city which for greatness and number of inhabitants may well be called an epitome of the world; Rouen, a most opulent trading city near the English channel; Renncs, and Nantes; Rheims, the feat of an archbishop, who anoints the kings of France with the holy oil; Dijon, formerly the residence of the dukes of Burgundy; Poictiers, next to Paris in. size; Rochelle, a well-fortified city, once the bulwark of the Protestants; Bourdcaux, a large city, and one of the