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most noted for trade in France, famous for Roman antiquities and ruins; Tholoufe; Narbonne; Montpelier, inhabited by physicians; Nifmes, once a Roman colony, and therefore abounding with Roman antiquities and ruins; Marseilles, a city famous for trade, where the royal gallies are stationed j Toulon, the harbour for the king's fleet in the Mediterranean; Gratianopolis or Grenoble, so called from the emperor Gratian; Lyons, a large and fine city; Orleans, and many mere.
The most celebrated universities are at Paris, the real feat of the Muses; Orleans; Montpeiier, famous for the study of physic; Bourdeaux, Tholoufe; &c.
The most noted rivers in France are, the Rhone, Garonne, Mease, Seine, Loire, Saone, Marne, Schcld, or Efcaut.
§ 9. Italy.
It is said to resemble a boot; it advances into the Mediterranean sea, and has France on the west, and Germany to the north.
It is at this day divided into kingdoms, principalities, republics, and several islands.
There is but one kingdom, that ot Naples, on the continent of Italy, which formerly was in subjection to Spain, but is now governed by a king of its own, Ferdinand [V. son of Charles III. king of Spain. The metropolis of this kingdom is Naples, the seat of its kings, and for magnificence of buildings, and number of inhabitants, inferior to few of the most famous cities.
Tuscany, Savoy, and Milan, are the principal dukedoms.
Tuscany, distinguished by the name of the Grand Duchy, has Florence for its capital, the seat of the great dukes, and is reckoned one of the,molt beautiful cities in Europe. All the great duchy is subject to Peter-Leopold, brother os the present emperor of Ger. many.
Savoy, which together with Piedmont is under the dominion of the king of Sardinia as duke of Savoy. The principal cities are Chambery and Turin, the capitals of Savoy and Piedmont.
The duchy of Milan, whose metropolis is Milan, a city which, for its extent, strength, and number of inhabitants, is very respectable. Formerly it was governed by its own dukes, afterwards it was subject to the Spaniards, and now it is under the dominion of the emperor of Germany.
The molt ' considerable republic* in Italy are, Venice, Genoa, and Lucca. _ •
The Venetian republic, whose chief citv is Venice, built on certain islands in the Adriatic sea, has a duke of its own, called the Doge, who is elected by the senate. The power of this city was once so great as to be envied by all Italy; and at this time it may in some sort be reckoned amongst the wonders of the world, for the beauty of its buildings, the opulence of its inhabitants, and well-contrived form of government.
The capital of the Genoese republic is Genoa, a city inferior to few others in the world for the magnificence of its edifices: it is therefore called by th« Italians, who are wont to give epithets to cities, Genoa the proud, as. Venice is by them called rich, Florence fair, and Rome holy, &c.
Lucca, is also a free city, but within the territories of the emperor. Not far from this place is hewn cut in great plenty the most valuable marble in all Italy.
The islands of greatest consequence near Italy are, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta.
Sicily is situate in the Mediterranean: sea, and once was joined to Italy, but afterwards separated by the influx of the Sicilian sea. If we credit what authors have written, this was formerly called Sicania and Trinacria. The capital of old was Syracuse, at present Palermo. Sicily is famous for the burning mount Ætna, and three promontories, Pachyr.Js,Lilybxum,and Pdorus, whence the island was called Triquetra. It is separated from Italy by a narrow strait, which dire and uncertain passage is well known by the tremendous names of Scylla and Charybdis.
Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean, formerly, on account of its fertility, distinguished as a
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The greatest river is the Thames, which flows through London, and empties itself into the German ocean.
Scotland is divided into North and South, and the islands. 1'he principal city is Edinburgh. The universities are four, at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and St. Andrews.
Ireland is divided into four provinces, Ulster, Leinster, Connaught, and Munster. The chief city in this island is Dublin.
§ II. Denmark,formerly called
It is bounded on the west by the German ocean, on the east by the Baltic sea, on the north by the Sound, and on the south by part of Germany: it is distributed into several portions. The whole kingdom is divided into continent and islands.
The continent is called the Cimbrian Chersonesus: it is a peninsula, joined by the southern parts to Germany. The continent of Cimbria is divided into north and south.
South Cimbria, or the duchy of Slefwic, for a long time was subject both to the kings of Denmark and the dukes of Sleswic of the royal house of Denmark, but it is now under the sole dominion of the Danisti king. Sleswic, with the castle of Gottorp, once the residence of the dukes, is the principal city in this duchy ; the other cities are, Hensburg, Hadersleb, Sec.
North Cimbria, or Jutland, is divided into four districts or commanderies; namely, of Ripen, Wiburg, Arhuscn, and Alburg, so called from the several cities under those names.
In Denmark are several islands.
The larger islands arc those of Zeland and Funen.
Copenhagen is the principal city in Zcland, the capital of Denmark, where the king resides. The rest of the cities in this island are, Helsingore, famous for the resort of (hips that pass through the Baltic, which are here to pay a tax for their passage. Near to this place stands the most magnificent and wellfortified tower of Cronenburg, erected by Frederick against any invasions from the Baltic. In the heart of the island
is is Roschild, once the metropolis of the whole'kingdom; now remarkable for the sepulchres of the kings. The tower of Fredericksburg, situate in a most delightful country, is the summer residence of the kings of Denmark.
Funen, which on account of its fertility may be called the nurse of Denmark. In the centre of the ifland is Odensee the principal city, Newberg, &c.
The lesser islands are, Laland, of which the principal town is Naxkow; Falller, with the city of Nykoping; Langland; Mona; Arroa; Boringia or Bornholm, situate in the midst of the Baltic, with avery commodious harbour and station for ships.
Denmark is not divided by rivers: the provinces are separated by three seas; the lesser Belt flows between Jutland and Finland f the greater Belt divides Funen from Zeland; besides the famous strait called the Sound, through which is a passage for ships from the German ocean into the Baltic.
There is but one universicy belonging to Denmark and Norway, and that is at Copenhagen.
§ 12. Norway, usually called Norrighe and Norghe by the Natives.
It is bounded on the east by Sweden, from which it is separated by a continued chain of mountains.; to the south it has the chops of the Baltic, codani sinus sauces; the western side is bounded by the ocean ; and the northern by Finmarck. It is a waste dreary land, but abounds with ports and markets. The whole kingdom is divided into four governments.of Aggerhus, Bergen, Christiansand, and Nidrose. The chief cities are, Christiana, where the viceroy* reside; Bergen, the most famous and the greatest emporium of the kingdom, formerly the staple of the Hanse towns; Nidrose, the ancient capital and place of residence to the kings of Norway; Chrisliansand, anew city, built by Christian IV.
To Denmark and Norway belong; 1. Finmarck, which extends as far as rhe North Cape. 2. Iceland, so called from the ice that is perpetual there; it
is also noted for mount Hecla, which discharges fire. 3. The Zerroen islands. 4. Greenland, which, whether it is an island, or joins the continent of America, is uncertain. The coast of this waste region is noted for the whale-fishery.
Amongst other wonders in this kingdom is reckoned that dreadful vorago marts or gulph, not far distant from the shore of northern Norway, called Malstrom, which rises and falls at certain times as if the sea drew breath there.
§ 13. Sweden.
It is bounded on the south by the gulph of Finland, and by the Baltic; on the east by Muscovy; on the north, by Norwegian Lapland; and on the west by the mountains of Norway.
The land is rough and horrid, covered with barren rocks or vast forests, but rich in ore of silver, copper, and iron; and in a prodigious quantity of fish, with which it abounds, is exceeded only by Norway.
It is at this day divided into four regions ; namely, into Sweden properly so called, Gothland, Nordland, and Finland.
The chief city in Sweden properly so called, and the capital of the whole kingdom, is Stockholm, the place of residence sot the king, fortified both by art and nature: it is situate in the marshes, after the manner of Venice, and derives its name from its situation, having its foundation raised upon piles driven into the sea-marshes. The next city to this is Upsal, where there is a famous academy, and where the kings of Sweden are crowned.
Gothland is divided into east, west, and south.
South Gothland, or Scania, is the most fertile of all the provinces in Swe.' den, and is divided into Scania, Hal. land, and Bleking. The most noted towns are, Malmoge, Lunden, Christian stadt, and Christianopolis. This whole region was, for a long while, matter of contention between the Danes and the Swedes.
Nordland is a waste region, situate to the north, but not to be confounded with Lapland, which is divided into
3 M 2 three three parts, belonging to as many different kingdoms; viz. Denmark, Sweden, and Russia.
Finland lies between the gulph of Finland and theBothnic ; the principal town is Abo.
Ingria and Livonia till of late belonged to Sweden, but now they are !epara:ed from it, and annexed to the empire of Russia.
The universities in Sweden are, at Upsal, Lunden in Scania, and Abo.
§ 14. fht Low Countries.
For their splendour they may be considered as the eye of Europe, and an abstract of the civilized world. Part of Germany bounds this country on the east, the German ocean on the north, France on the south snd west. It is divided into Spanish, now Austrian, French, and Dutch Netherlands, and contains seventeen provinces, greatly enriched with various merchandize and the most extended commerce.
The namesof theprovinecs are, Flanders, Artois, Haynault, Namur, I.uxembuig, Limburg, Brabant, Mechlin, Antwerp, Holland, Zeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Zntphen, Overyssel, WestFriestand, and Groningcn,
All theseprovincesformerly b.'lorged to the dukes of Durgundv, afterwards to the Icings of Spain, as their heirs; but the natives finding themselves injuriously treated, and grown wrarv of Spanish tyranny, took up arms against Philip II. This occasioned a long war, that did not cease for forty yeais. Port submitted to the Spaniard, part recovered their liberty. Thus the Low Countries were divided: ten provinces yielded to Spain; the other seven established themselves, and constantly and bravely asserted their freedom under the form of a republic. But since that time the French have seized upon several cities and provinces that belonged to their Spaniih neighbour; and then the provinces were divided into three parts, and the Netherlands are called Spanish, flow Austrian, French, and United or Dutch.
It would be endless to mention all the fin; towns and strong fortresses,
which some have reckoned to be mors in number than in half the retaining part of Europe. They are all beautiful and rich, particularly Anistcrdjm, r. city of such importance that i: may be put in competition with a kingdom. The Hague, once the seat of the earls of Holland, is now the feat for the council of the United States: as Brussels, formerly the residence of the Spanish viceroys, is now that of the Imperial governors; for, by the treaty of Utrecht, the greatest part of the Spanish towns and provinces which h-d been seized by the French were give^ up to the emperor.
§ ij. Germany.
This very great part of Europe is ter* ruinated to the east by Poland and Hungary; by France, Flanders, and Holland to the west; to the south, by Switzerland, and the Venetian territories; and to the north, by the Baltic and German oceans. It is usually divided into Upper and Lower Germany ; and, according to the present constitution of the empire, into nine circles ; namely, Austrian, Bavarian, Franconian, Suabian, of the Upper Rhine, of the Lower Rhine. Westphalian, of Upper Saxony, and Lower Saxony.
The A ustrian circle com prebends Austria, Stiria, Carinthia, Carniola, and the county of Tj rol ; the Bavarian, Bavaria, with the Upper Palatinate; the Francoeian, Franconia; the Suabian, Suabia, with the Duchy of Wirtemberg; that of the Upper Rhine contains Alsace, Hesse, and Lorrain ; that of the Lower Rhine, the archbishoprics of Mentz, Triers, Cologne, and the Lower Palatinate; the Westphalian, Westphalia, Liege, Cltves, the duchy of Juliers, East Friefland; the circle of Upper Saxany contains Lusatia, Misnia, Thuringia.marquisateof Brandenburg, Pomerania ; that of Lower Saxony, the duchy of Biunswick and Lunenburg, Magdeburgh, Bremen, and Holstein.
Among the chief cities in Germany are the following.*In the circle of Austria, Vienna, the metropolis of Austria, in which is the emperor's palace. It is a magnificent and splendid city;
and, in those parts, the safest fortress sic, respectable on account of the managain st the incursions of the Turks: it ners of the people, the beauty of the
buildings, and the fairs held there, which, next to those of Franckfort upon the Maine, are the mcst famous in-all Germany. 3. Berlin, a most
is situate on the Danube, and is famous for the many times it has been besieged by the Turks, 2. Gratz, the capital ofStiria. 3. Inspruck, the capital of
the county of Tyrol. 4. Trent, famous agreeablccity, the residence of the kings for the council held there in tlie six- of Prussia.
In the Bavarian circle are the following cities, 1. Munich, the fairest of nil the German cities, and the feat of the electors of Eavaria. 2. Ratiibon, commonly called Regensburg, remarkable on account of the Imperial diet held there, and remains of antiquity.
In the circle of Franconia are, 1. Wurtzburg, the capital of Franconia. 2. Nuremberg, a magnificent city, famed for its trade and opulence. 3. Franckfort upon the Maine, a free city of the empire, and famous for its fairs.
In the Suabian circle, 1. Augsburg, a fair and splendid city, free of the empire, particularly noted for the confession of faith proposed there, and thence named the Augustan confession. 2. Ulm. 3. Stutgard, the principal city in subjection to emperors'of the house
In Lower Saxony, 1. Brunswick. 2; Lunenburg, famous for salt springs; 3. Bremen, a noble place of trade. 4* Lubec, once a place of great strength, and the chief of the Hmse towns. 5. Hamburg, the principal city in Hoiftci^ and most celebrated trading town upon the river Elbe.
The chief rivers in Germany are, the Danube, Rhine. Ems, Maine, Weser, Elbe, Oder, Weixel or Vistula, Moselle, &c. The Danube or Ister is the most renowned, as it passes through, many regions, and, after it has received about sixty ot her streams, discharges itself from six mouths into the Buxine sea.
§ 16. Bohemia and Hungary. Amongotherregions outof Germany
of the duchy of Wirtemberg
In the circle of the Upper Rhine is, Strasburg, in which city the tower of the cathedral deserves notice, as being one of the noblest structures in all Germany.
In the circle of the Lower Rhine is, I. Mentz, the feat of the archbishop and elector os Mentz. 2. Triers, the capital of the archbishopric of Triers. 3. Cologne, i. e. Colonia Agrippina, ib called from a colony conducted thither under the auspices of Agrippina, wife of Claudius. 4. Heidelberg, the feat of the electors palatine.
In the circle of Westphalia, I. Munster, the capital of VVestphaly, famous for the reign of the anabaptists. 2. Aken, or Aix.la-Chapelie, remarkable .Sclavonia for the most celebrated springs of hot water, and for the court and sepulchre of the emperor Charles the Great. In this place it was long the custom to crown the emperors.
In Upper Saxony, 1. Dresden, the seat of the electors of Saxony. 2. Leip
of Austria, are the two kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary.
Bohemia is encompassed with wood* and mountains a* with a wall, and takes its name from the Boij, a Gallic nation *: it comprehends Moravia and Silesia, and boasts the most famous city of Prsgue. The chief town in Silesia is Breflau; and in Moravia, Olmutz.
Hungary or Pannonia is divided Into upper and lower; the one on this side, the other cross the Danube. Presburg is the capital of the first; and Buda, or> as the Germans call it-, Or'cn, of the other. Bosnia and Sclavonia used to be considered as belonging to Hungary; and Croatia and Dalmatia are parts of
* The Boij, under Scgovrfus, are said to have settled in thii country in the sixth century before Christ. They were driven out by the Marcomanni, who were again expelled by the Sclavonians in the sixth centu y alter Chrill. The language of the countiy-peoulc it a dialect of the bclavonian.
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