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§ ij. Switzerland.

Itii situate between Germany.France, and Italy; and is surrounded by the Alps as with a girdle. It was once under subjection to the house of Austria, but growing weary of that yoke, the Switzers shook it off; and the chief provinces forming a league, asserted their freedom vigorously against their old masters, and other neighbouring powers, till at length Switzerland was, by the treaty of Westphalia, declared a free republic.

The whole body is at this time to be considered under three denominations. 1. The republic of Switzerland. 2. Its subjects. 3. Its allies.

The republic of Switzerland, commonly called Eydgenossenfchaft, is divided into thirteen free communities, which are called Cantons. The chief cities are, Bern, the most powerful; Zuric j and Basil, the most famous university in Switzerland.

The subjects of Switzerland are variously divided, and too numerous to be inserted here *.

The allies are, the Rhæti or Grisons, the Vallesii or the people of the country of Valais in the Alps, and the republic of Geneva, whose capital, Geneva, is famous for the doctrine of Calvin, which owed its birth and support to that city.

§ 18. Poland, by the Natives called Polslca, from the word Pole, which signifies a Plain.

It is bounded on the east by Moscovy, on the west by Silesia, on the south by Hungary and Wallachia, and on the north by Prussia, Livonia, and Courland. It is at this day divided into the kingdom of Poland, and the duchy of Lithuania.

Poland, properly so called, is again divided into greater and lesser, and Red Russia.

The most remarkable cities in the greater Poland are, Posnania or Posen; and Gnesna, the most ancient of all the cities in Poland, and the first place where its princes resided.

* Set Hubner's Geography.

The chief city of lesser Poland is Cracow, a large city, and the metropolis of the whole kingdom. 2. Lublin, where are held the greatest fairs in all Poland. 3. Warsaw, where the kings now reside.

The chief cities in Red Russia are, 1. Leopolis or Lemberg. 2. Catninieck, a city built on a steep rock, and therefore supposed to be impregnable.

The large city of Vilna is the metropolis of Lithuania, a country not much cultivated.

Prussia and Courland have been added to the crown of Poland. Prussia is divided into two parts; one belonging to Poland, the other to Brandenburg. Dantzig, a colony of Danes, is the principal city in Polish Prussia. Prussia of Brandenburg is the granary of the whole country, lately honoured with the title of a kingdom, the capital of which is Koniglberg.

§.19. Moscow.

White Russia, or Moscovy, comprehends a vast tract of land in Europe and Asia; and is, for the greatestpart, both uninhabited and impassable, from its woods and marshes. The frozen sea bounds it on the north; to the east it extends through the greater Tartary, almost as far as the confines of China; the Baltic sea closes it to the west; as does the Euxine to the south; which shews what a vast space of the globe this country contains.

It takes its name from the river Mosqua, which discharges itself into the Occa and Volga. This wide empire is divided into east and west, Tartary and Moscovy.

Moscow is the metropolis of the whole empire, a city of incredible extent, but not beautiful, the houses for the most part being built of wood. The next to this is the new city of Petersburg, lately built near the Baltic sea by Peter the Great, who made it the place of residence for the Imperial family, and adorned it with a port sit to receive a very large fleet; a famous university; and very costly edifices; so that it may deservedly be accounted one of the most splendid cities in Europe.

The most noted rivers in Moscovy are, the Tanais, or, as it is commonly called, the Don, the Wolga, Oby, and Dwina.

§ zo. Thrace.

This was the ancient name of a country now called Romania, situate on the Thracian Bosphorus. Constantinople is the capital of Romania, and of the whole Turkish empire: this city was formerly called Byzantium, but now the Turks call it Stamboul; it is thought to be the greatest and most populous of all the cities in Europe, and it is the place where the Turkifli emperors reside. Adrianople is the second city in Thrace.

The most remarkable mountains in Thrace are, Hæmus, Pangæus, Rhodope, Ismarus. The rivers are, the Nessus, Hebrus, and Bathynias, which the army of Xerxes is reported to have drank dry.

§ zi. Moesia.

It is situate beyond Macedonia and Thrace. The Romans called it the granary of Ceres. It is divided ifito upper, called Servia; and lower, called Bulgaria.

§ 22. Transylvania.

It is supposed to take its name from the vast forests that surround it; and from the seven cities in it, it is called by the Germans Siebenbiirgen. The chief city is Cibinium or Hermanstadt.

Walachia was anciently divided into great and little: the greater is now called Moldavia; the lesser, Walachia. The whole country was formerly known by the name Dacia, inhabited by Scythians.

Tartary in Europe, or the Lesser with respect to Great Tartary, which is in Asia, is divided into Precopensis and Crim-Tartary: the first lies in the Chersonefus Taurica; the latter contains the rest beyond it.

§ 23. Greece. This country, once so renowned for

sciences and war, i,s usually distributed into five principal parts ; Epirus, Pelo. ponnesus, Hellas or Greece properly so called, Thessaly, and Macedonia. The most famous cities of old in all Greece were, Athens, Corinth, and Lacedæmon.

The most celebrated rivers are, Acheron, Achelous, E urotas, Inachu.% Aliacmon, Axius, Strymon, Celidnus. The most conspicuous mountains are, the A croceraunii, Pindus, Stymphalus, Taygetus, Callidromus, Othrys, Oeta, Helicon, Parnassus, Cythæron, Hymettus, Olympus, ,Pelius, Ossa, and Athos, which was dug through by Xerxes.

The chief of all those isiands, which lie, almost without number, opposite to the Grecian shore, is Crete, as it waa called by the ancients, now Candia, the name of the metropolis as well as of the island. In the midst of the Ægean sea are the Cyclades, and round them the Sporades.

§ 24. ASIA.

This quarter of the world, where the first of human kind appeared, and where God himself was made manifest in the flesh, is bounded on the north by the Scythian sea, on the east by the Eastern ocean, on the south by the Indian sea, and on the west by the Arabian gulph, and by an isthmus between that and the Mediterranean; hence it is bounded by the Phœnician and Ægean seas, the Propontis, Pontus, the lake Ma:otis, the rivers Tanais and Oby.

Anciently it was divided into greater and lesser: by the moderns, into five principal parts, namely, into Tartary, . China, India, with the adjacent islands, the kingdom of the Sophi or Persians, and the Turkish empire.

Tartary in Asia is divided into five principal parts: the first of which is called Tartary in the Desert, of which Astracan, situate on the Wolga, is the chief city ; the second is Zagataia, the metropolises which is Samarcand, made famous by Tamerlane, the most emperor of the Tartars; the third is the kingdom of Turkestan, the count!y of the ancient Sacæ; the fourth is the empire of the Great Cham; the fifth, 3 M 4 . Old Old Tartaria, of which the chief places are Ung and Mogul. It is called Tartaria from the river Tartar, which, flowing through the country of Mongul, discharges i:lcf into the North sea.

§ 25. Chi:.-A.

China, for fertility of soil and temperature of climate, wealth, or importance, scarce inferior to any other country, is distributed into various provinces or governments. It has two remarkable rivers, of Crcceum, and Kiang or the son of the sea. To the north is the mountain Ottbrocora, and the \vr.!l of four hundred German miles bull: on

jts bore er.

The chief of the adjacent islands are, Corea, Japan, and Formosa.

§ 26, India.

Tn^ia, so fertile in precious stones, spices, gold, and silver, is separated by the Ganges; on this fide is Indostan, on the other Mangi or India bevond the Ganges,

triana, Margiana, Hyrcania, Aria, Parthia, Perils, S^fiana, Assyria, Media. It boasts of having Ispahan for a metropolis; and the Persians call'it the half of the world. The most famous cities of old in Persia were, 'Persepolis, formerly the capital of the Persian empire; and Nineveh in Assyria, of which city we read in the holy scriptures.

In Alia the following regions belong to the Turkish empire, Albania, Iberia, Colchis, Aimenia. Capp:;docia, G.ilatia, Pontus and Eithynia, Aaa Minor or Natolia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Cilicra, Syria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Arabia.

Among the islands are, Cyprus, Rhodes, Lefbus, and Cos.

Albania was once famous fbr the molossus or mastiff; Iberia fur poisons; Colchis, the golden fleece, and the mount Caucasus; Armenia for mount Antitaurus, and the Tigris and Euphrates, the most celebrated rivers in the east; C^ppadccia for the city Iconium, and the rivers Iris andThermodon; Galatia for the city -of Sinope,

The principal parts into which India ennobled by the birth of Mithridates,

is divided are, Cambaja, Narfinga, Malabar,Orixa, Bengal, Pegu, Siam,Camboia. The Great Mogul, once the most powerful of the kings of India, was in possession of the northern part of India, which is therefore called the empire of the Mogul; but his power is reduced to nothing, since the acquisitions of the English in that country.

The greatest cities in India are, Cambria or Cairo of India, Goa; Calecut, Calcutta in the province of Bengal, Pegu, Camboia, Delhi, and Agra. The most celebrated rivers, Indusand Ganges, which is said to abound with diamonds and gold dust: this river gives its name to the gulph into which it flows, which however is most commonly known by the name of the gulph or bay cf Bengal : the rivers Hydaspesand Hy. pasis fail into its channel, and it divides India into two parts.

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and mount Didymus; Pontus and Bi. thynia for Chalcedon the metropolis.

Na:olia,or Asia minor, isdivided into Phrygia, Mysia, Lydia, Caiia, Æolia, Ionia, and Doris.

The mest noted cities of old in Natolia were, those os Troy or Ilium in Phrygia, famed for its liege and destruction by the Greeks; Per^amus in Mysia, famous for the birth of Galen; in Lydia, Sardis and Philadelphia; in Caria, Laodicea, and Prienc the coun, try of Bias; in Ionia, Ephesus, famous for the tempie of Diana; in Doris, Halicarnassus, the native foil both of Herodotus and Dionysius, called Halicarnassensis frnn the name of his country.

The most remarkable rivers in Natolia are, the Mæander, with infinite windings and turnings, in Phrygia j Hermus, and Pactolus with its golden sands, in Lydia. Of mountains the most conspicuous are, Cadmus in Phrygia, which separates it from Lycia; mount Ida in Mysia; Latmus in Ca'ia.

Lycia is famous for the burning mount Chimæra, which gave rife to the story o{ the monster with three bodies. The

chief city is Patara, whence one of the names of Apollo was Pataræus.

In Pamphylia is mount Taurus, of prodigious extent, and which divides all Asia into two parts; thaTto the north called Asia on this side of Taurus, that to the south, Asia beyond Taurus.

Cilicia, now called Carmania. The city of Tarsus, which was honoured by the birth and studies of St. Paul, and the river Cvdnus, belong to this country.

Syria si divided into Palestine, Phœnicia, Antiochia, Coipagcne, and CceleSyria.

Palestine, in the Scriptures called Canaan, or the Holy Land, and Land of Promise, was anciently divided into Jdumæa, Judæa, Samaria, and Galilee. On account of" its fertility and great abundance, this country is called in Scripture, a land flowing with milk and honey.

Gaza is one of the first cities in Idumæa; it was inhabited by the sons of Anak; whose gates, being pulled down by Samson, were carried by his miraculous strength to a neighbouring mountain near Hebron. Here also was Thcmnas, in which country Samson flew the lion: also the desert of Bersaba, whither Agar, Sarah's servant, with her sbnlsmael, fled, being turned out of doors; as did lilias, to avoid the menaces of Jefabel.

Judæa boasts Jerusalem its metropolis, the molt famous of all cities in the east, burnt and destroyed by Titus Vespasian. Among other principal cities belonging to the Jews, and situate near the coast, Ascalon was very considerable for its strength and riches; Azotus or Asdod ; Jarnnia; Joppa: but in the inland country stood Bethlehem, so renowned over all the world for the birth of Christ our Saviour; also Jericho, or the city of palms, which Joihua besieged. Among the towns and villages was Emmaus, in the way to which Christ ihewed himself to two es his disciples, the fame day on which he rose from the dead; also Bethphage, Bethany, and Gethsemane.

Jordan was the principal river in Judæa, famous for the baptism of Christ Our Saviour, and other miraculous eVtnu recorded in Scripture. Afyhal

tites, called also the Dead or Salt Sea, is a lake in Judæa.

Of mountains, there were some within and others without the walls of Jerusalem. Moria, on which was built the temple of Solomon, was within; the mount of Olives, with the neighbouring valley of Jehosapha*, and the brook Kedron, were without the walls: on the western side was mount Calvary, called also Golgotha, near to which wa« the garden, with the sepulchre in which. Christ was laid.

Samaria was the name of a city and country lying between Judæa and Galilee, which had been bclieged and taken by king of Assyria. Among other cities were, Neapolis, Gamala, and on the coast, Apollonia; Bethel and Dan lay between mountains: the tower of Strato or Cæsarea of Palestine (hewed itself among the principal towns of Galilee, on the coast, remarkable for the magnificence of its structure, which was enlarged by Herod, and for the bondage of St. Paul.

On the lake of Genesareth stood Capernaum, a rich and noble city, which Christ, leaving Nazarethjhonoured with his presence, dwelling and performing; many miracles there; also Corazin and Bethsaida, the ruin of which cities was foretold by Christ; and Julias, Tibe. rias, Magdalum, and. Tarachasa: between the lake of Genesareth and the Phœnician sea stood NaZareth, where Christ was brought up; also Cana of Galilee, where our Saviour performed the miracle of turning water into wine.

Genesareth was the.most famous lake in Galilee, so called from the adjacent country of Gencsar, otherwise the sea of Tiberias, from a city on the banks thereof. It was also called the sea of Galilee, because it was for the greatest part inclosed in it. Hermon was famed for its dew, one of the most remarkable hills; opposite to which are those of Gilboah, on which Saul, king of Israel, was flain by the Philistines j between these hills is the valley of Jefreel. Thabor was the hill on which was the transfiguration of Jesus.

Phœnicia is divided into Upper Galilee, or Galilee of the Gentiles, and Syro-Phœnicia. Tyre and Sidon were

the tlie greatest cities; and Libanon, AntiLibanon, andCarmel, the highest mountains.

Antiochene was called Tetrapolis,on account of the four following towns, Antioch, Apamea, Seleucia, Laodicea. In this country are, mount Casius, and the rivers Belus, Lycus, Adones.

In Comagene, the last district in Syria, Samofata was once the capital, noted for the birth of Lucian.

Ccele-Syria, or Syria in the Bottom, is divided into three remarkable districts, Decapolis, Tetrachias, and Palmyra. Damascus was formerly the capital of this kingdom, and ofall Syria.

Mefopotamia,of which Seleucia Magna was anciently one of the principal citie*, is situate between the Tigris and •Euphrates. Not far from Mesopotamia was Babylon, the metropolis of BabyIonia in Assyria, eminent for the many ancient accounts given of it. The part of Babylonia towards the south is called Chaldæa. ,

Arabia is distinguished by the names of Petræa, the Desert, and Arabia Felix. The first was inhabited by the Nabathœi, the Desert, by the Nomades and Scenitæ; the last, which abounds with spices and frankincense, by the Saracens, the Minæi, and Sabeans, who had a town called Saba. Of all the mountains in Arabia of the Desert, the most famous was that of Sinai, distinguished by the delivery of the Jaw of God.

The most remarkable modern cities in that part of Asia already described arc, Damascus, Aleppo, Alexandretta, Tripoli of Syria, and Mecca in Arabia Felix, eminent for the birth of Mohammed.

Lefbus, Chius, Samus, and Cos, are the principal islands in the Ægean sea; Cyprus and Rhodes in the Asiatic sea; the first of these islands was anciently dedicated to Venus, the other had a colossal statue of the Sun, which was one of the seven wonders of the world.

§ 28. AFRICA.

Africa is the greatest peninsula in the world, being joined to Asia by a narrow isthmus: it has the Red Sea to the east,

the Atlantic to the west, the Mediterranean to the north, and the Æthiopic to the south.

The regions according to which Africa is at present distinguished are, Ægypt, Barbary, Biledulgend, Sarra in the Desert, the country of Nigritia, Upper and Lower Æthiopia.

Ægypt is divided by the Nile into Upper and Lower: it is eminent for the cities of Alexandria, Thebes of Ægypt, Arsinoe, Heliopolis, and Memphis, and near it those stupendous structures of the pyramids. The metropolis of modern Ægypt is Cairo or Alkair.

The most celebrated river of Ægypt is the Nile, which at a certain time of the year overflows, and discharges itself at seven mouths into theÆgyptian sea.

Barbary comprehends the country of Barca, the eastern half of which was by theancientscalledCyreniaca; the kingdom of Tunis, or Africa minor; the country of Tripoli; that of Tremisen, including Numidia; the kingdoms of Fez and Morocco; and Dara. Tunis is the capital of the kingdom of that name; Algiers, infamous for its piracies, is the metropolis of Tremisen.

BileduIgerid.ancientlyGætuliaorthe country of Dates, is bounded on the south by mount Atlas, the highest in all Africa, which old authors have reported to seine with frequent fires in the night, and to resound with the songs of Satyrs and Ægipans, and the noise of drums and cymbals.

Sarra or Zaara of the Desert, anciently Lybia interior, consists of immense deserts, with dens and retreats of wild beasts, and reaches from mount Atlas to the River Niger.

The country of Nigritia is washed by the Niger, the noblest river in Africa; and is divided into several districts, the chief of which is Guinea; the coast of which, from the quantity of gold found there, is called the Golden coast.

Æthiopia is divided into Upper or the kingdom of Abyssinia, and Lower, and the regions of Congo, Monomotapa, Cafreria, Zangibar, Ajan, Nubia, and Troglodytica.

The most noted inhabitants of Africa among the ancients were the Ægyptians, who contended with the Scythians

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