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774 Silk first brought from India: the manufactory of it introduced into Europe by some monks, cci; first worn by the clergy in England, 1534

291 Two emperors, and two Cæsars, march (o defend the four quarters of the empire.

306 Constantine the Great begins his reign.

308 Cardinals first began.

313 The tenth persecution ends by an edict of Constantine, who favours the

Christians, and gives full liberty to their religion.

314 Three bishops, or fathers, are sent from Britain to assist at the council of

Aries. (

325 The first general council at Nice, when 318 fathers attended, against Arius,

where was composed the famous Nicene Creed, which we attribute to

them. 328 Constantine removes the feat of empire from Rome to Byzantium, which is

thenceforwards called Constantinople. 331 ————— orders all the heathen temples to be destroyed.

363 The Roman emperor Julian, surnamed the Apostate, endeavours in vain to

rebuild the temple of Jerusalem.

364 The Roman empire is divided into the eastern (Constantinople the capital)

and western (of which Rome continued to be the capital) each being now under the government of different emperors.

400 Bells invented by bishop Paulinu*, of Campagnia.

404 The kingdom of Caledonia, or Scotland, revives under Fergus.

406. The Vandals, Alans, and Suevi, spread into France and Spain, by a concession of Honorius, emperor of the West.

410 Rome taken and plundered by Alaric, king of the Visi-Goths.

412 The Vandals begin their kingdom in Spain.

420 The kingdom of France begins upon the Lower Rhine, under Pharamond.

426 The Romans, reduced to extremities at home, withdraw their troops from . Britain, and never return; advising the Eritons to arm in their own defence, and trust to their own valour.

446 The Britons, now left to themselves, are greatly harrassed by the Scots and

Picts, upon which they once mere make their complaint to the Romans, but receive no assistance from that quarter.

447 Attila (surnamed the Scourge of God) with his Huns, ravages the Roman


449 Vortigern, king of the Britons, invites the Saxons into Britain, against the Scots and Picts.

455 The Saxons having repulsed the Scots and Picts,, invite over more of their countermen, and begin to establish themselves in Kent, under Hengist.

476 The western empire is finished, 523 years after the battle of Pharsalia; upon the ruins of which several new states arise in Italy and other parts, consisting of Goths, Vandals, Huns, and other Barbarians, under whom literature is extinguished, and the works of the learned are destroyed.

496 Clovis, king of France, baptized, and Christianity begins in that kingdom.

508 Prince Arthur begins his reign over the Britons.

513 Constantinople besieged by Vitalianus, whose fleet is burned by a fpeculBrnr of brass.

516 The computing of time by the Christian æra is introduced by Dionysius the monk.

529 The code of Justinian, the eastern emperor, is published.

557 A terrible plague all over Europe, Asia, and Africa, which continues near jo years. ■

581 Latin ceased to be spoken about this time inTtaly.

596 Augustine the monk comes into England with forty monks.

10" 606 Here

606 Here begins the power of the popes, by the concessions of Phocas, emperor of the east.

622 Mahomet, the false prophet, flies from Mecca to Medina, in Arabia, in the 44th year of his age and 10th of his ministry, when he laid the foundation of the Saracen empire, and from whom the Mahometan princes to this day claim their descent. His followers compute their time from this æra, which in Arabic is called Hegira, i. e. the Flight.

637 Jerusalem is taken by the Saracens, or followers of Mahomet.

640 Alexandria in Egypt is taken by Ditto, and the grand library there burnt by order of Omar, their caliph or prince.

653 The Saracens now extend their conquests on every fide, and retaliate the barbarities of the Goths and Vandals upon their posterity.

664 Glass invented in England by Benalt, a monk,.

685 The Britons, after a brave struggle of near 150 years, are totally expelled by the Saxons, and driven into Wales and Cornwall.

713 The Saracens conquer Spain.

726 The controversy about images begins, and occasions many insurrections in the eastern empire.

748 The computing of years from the birth of Christ began to be used in history.

749 The race of Abbas became caliphs of the Saracens, and encourage learning. 762 The city of Bagdad upon the Tigris is made the capital for the caliphs of

the house of Abbas.

800 Charlemagne, king of France, begins the empire of Germany, afterwnrds called the western empire; gives the present names to the winds and months; endeavours to restore learning in Europe; but mankind are not yet disposed for it, being solely engrossed in military enterprizes.

826 Harold, king of Denmark, dethroned by his subjects, for being a Christian.

828 Egbert, king of Wessex, unites the Heptarchy, by the name of England.

836 The Flemings trade to Scotland for filh. »

83$ The Scots and Picts have a decisive battle, in which the former prevail, and both kingdoms are united by Kenneth, which begins the second period , of the Scottish history.

867 The Danes begin their ravages in England.

896 Alfred the Great, after subduing the Danish invaders (against whom he sought 56 battles by sea and land), composes his body of laws; divide* England into counties, hundreds, and tythings; erects county courts, and founds the university of Oxford, about this time.

91; The university of Cambridge founded.

936 The Saracen empire is divided by usurpation into seven kingdoms.

975 Pope Boniface VII. is deposed and banished for his crimes.

979 Coronation oaths said to be sirst used in England.

991 The figures in arithmetic are brought into Europe by the Saracens from Arabia. Letters of the alphabet were hitherto used.

996 Otho 111. makes the empire of Germany elective.

999 Boleflaus, the first king of Poland.

IOOO Paper made of cotton rags was in use; thatoflinen rags in 1170: the manufactory introduced into England at Dartford, 1^88. 1005 All the old churches are rebuilt abjut this time in a new manner of architecture. I015 .Children forbidden by law to be sold by their parents in England. 1017 Canute, king of Denmark, geis possession of England.

1040 1 he Danes, after several engagement., with various success, are about this

time driven out of Scotland, and never again return in a hoitile manner.

1041 The Saxon line restored under Edward the Confessor.

1043 The Tuiks (a nation of adventurers fronvTartary, serving hitherto in the armies of contending princes) become formidable, and take possession vof Fedia.

3 N 1054 Leo mj4 Leo IX. the first pope that kept up an army.

1057 Malcolm I Is. king of Scotland, kills the tyrant Macbeth at Dunsinane, and . marries the princess Margaret, sister to Edgar Atheling.

1065 The Turks take Jerusalem from the Saracens.

1066 The battle of Hastings fought, between Harold and William (surnamed the

bastard) duke of Normandy, in which Harold is conquered and slain, after which William becomes king of England, 1070 William introduces the feudal law. Musical notes invented.

1075 Henry IV. emperor of Germany, and the pope, quarrel about the nomina". ■ •■ jtion of the German bi/hops. Henry, in penance, walks barefooted to the

pope, towards the end of January.

1076 Justices of the peace first appointed in England.

1080 Doomsday-book began to be compiled by order of William, from a survey of all the estates in England, and finished in 1086. The Tower of London built by Ditto, to curb his English subjects; numbers of whom fly to Scotland, where they introduce the Saxon or English language, are protected by Malcolm, and have lands given them.

1091 The Saracens in Spain, being hard pressed by the Spaniards, call to their assistance Joseph, king of Morocco; by which the Moors get possession of all the Saracen dominions in Spain.

IC96 The first crusade to the Holy Land is begun under several Christian princes, to drive the. infidels from Jerusalem. ,

1110 Edgar Atheling, the last of the Saxon princes; dies in England, where he » *' . had been permitted to reside as a subject.

1118 The order of the Knights Templars instituted, to defend the Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and to prbtect Christian strangers.

11 51 The canon law collected by Gratian, a monk of Bologna.

1163 London bridge, consisting of 19 small arches, first built of stone.

I'i64 The Teutonic order of religious knights begins in Germany.

t'172 Henry If. king of England (and first of the Plantagenets) takes possession of Ireland; which, from that period, has been governed by an English viceroy, or lord lieutenant.

1.176 England is divided, by Henry, into six circuitSj and justice is dispensed by

»t,v itinerant judges. 1

1180 Glass windows began to be used in private houses in England.

1181 The laws of Englend are digested about this time by Glanville.

1182 Pope Alexander III. compelled the kings of England and France to hold the

stirrups of his saddle when he mounted his horse.

1186 The great conjunction of the sun and moon and all the planets in Libia, happened in September.

1.192 The battle of Asealon, in Judæa, in which Richard, king of England, defeats Saladine's army, consisting of 300,000 combatants.

1194 Dieu et man Dioit first used as a motto by Richard, on a victory over the French.

1200 Chimneys were not known in England.

Surnames now began to be used; first among the nobility.

1208 London incorporated, and obtained their first charter, for electing their Lord Mayor and other magistrates, from king John.

1215 Magna Charta, is signed by king John and the barons of England. Court o: Common Pleas eltablimed.

1227 The Tartars, a new race of heroes, under Gingis-Kan, emerge from the northern parts of Asia, over-run all the Saracen empire, and, in imitation of former conquerors, carry death and desolation wherever they march.

r233 The Inquisition, begun in 1204, is now trusted to the Dominicans.

1233 The

1233 The houses of London, and other cities in England, France, and Germany,

still thatched with straw. 1253 The famous astronomical tables are composed by Alonzo, king of Castile. 1258 The Tartars take Bagdad, which finishes the empire of the Saracens* 1263 Acho, king of Norway, invades Scotland with 160 fail, and lands 20,000

men at the mouth of the Clyde, who are cut to pieces by Alexander IIJ.

who recovers the western isles. J 264' According to some writers, the commons of England were not summoned to

parliament till this period. 1269 The Hamburgh company incorporated in England. 1273 The empire of the present Austrian family begins in Germany. 1282 Llewellyn, prince of Wales, defeated and killed by Edward I. who unites

that principality to England. 1 284. Edward II. born at Caernarvon, is the first prince of Wales. 1*85 Alexander III. king of Scotland, dies, and that kingdom is disputed by

twelve candidates, who submit their claims to the arbitration of Edward,

king of England; which lays the foundation of a long and desolating

war between both nations. 1293 There is a regular succession of English parliaments from this year, being

the 22d of Edward I. 1298 The present Turkish empire begins in Bithynia under Ottoman. * Silver-hasted knives, spoons, and cups, a great luxury. Tallow candles so great a luxury, that splinters of wood were used for

lights. Wine sold by apothecaries as a cordial. 1302 The mariner's compass invented, or improved, by Givia, of Napleii

1307 The beginning of the Swiss cantons.

1308 The popes remove to Avignon, in France, for 70 years. 1310 Lincoln's Inn society established.

1314 The battle of Bannockburn, between Edward II. and Robert Bruce, which

establishes the latter on the throne of Scotland. The cardinals set lire to the conclave, and separate. A vacancy in the papal

chair for two years. 1320 Gold first coined in Christendom; 1344, ditto in England. ,

1336 Two Brabant weavers settle at York, which, says Edward III. may prove of

great benefit to us and our subjects.

1337 The first comet whose course is described with an astronomical exactness. 1340 Gunpowder and guns first invented by Swartz, a monk of Cologn; 1346,

Edward III. had four pieces of cannon, which contributed to gain him
the battle of Cressy; 1346, bombs and mortars were invented.
Oil-painting first made use of by John Vaneck.
Heralds college instituted in England.

1344 The first creation to titles by patents used by Edward III.

1346 The battle of Durham, in which David, king of Scots, is taken prisoner.

1349 The order of the Garter instituted in England by Edward III. altered in 1557, and consists of 26 knights. .

1352 The lurks first enter Europe.

13^4- The money in Scotland till now the fame as in England.

1356 The battle of Poictiers, in which king John of France, and his son, are

taken prisoners by Edward the Black Prince.

1357 Coals first brought to London.

135S Arms of England and France first quartered by Edward III. 1362 1 he law pleadings in England changed from French to English, as a savour of Edward III. to his people. John Wickliffe, an Englishman, begins about this time to oppose theerrori

3 N 2 of

os the church of Rome with great acuteness and spirit. His followers - • are called Lollards.

1386 A company of linen-weavers, from the Netherlands, established in London.

Windsor-castle built by Edward III. 1388 The battle os Otterburn, between Hotspur and the earl of Douglas. 1391 Cards invented in France for the king's amusement. 1399 Westminster abbey built and enlarged—Westminster hall ditto.

'Order of the Bath instituted at the coronation of Henry IV,; renewed in 172c, consisting os 38 knights.

1410 Guildhall, London, built.

1411 The university of St. Andrew's in Scotland founded.

1415 The battle of Agincourt gained over the French by Henry V. of England.

1428 The siege of Orleans, the first blow to the English power in France.

1430 About this time Laurentius of Harleim invented the art of printing, which he practised with separate wooden types. Guttemburgh afterwards invented cut metal types: but the aft was carried to perfection by Peter Schoeffer, who invented the mode of casting the types in matrices. Frederick Corfellis began to print at Oxford, in 1468, with wooden types; but it was William Caxton who introduced into England the art of printing with fusile types, in 1474.

I446 The Vatican library founded at Rome.

The sea breaks in at Dort, in Holland, and drowns ico.coo people.

1453 Constantinople taken by the Turks, which ends the Eastern empire, 1123

years from its dedication by Constantine the Great, and 2206 years from the foundation of Rome.

1454 The university of Glasgow, in Scotland, founded. 1460 Engraving and etching in copper invented.

1477 The university of Aberdeen, in Scotland, founded.

I483 Richard III. king of England, and last of the Plantagenets, Is defeated and killed at the battle of Bosworth, by Henry (Tudor) VII. which puts an end to the civil wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, after a contest of 30 years, and the loss of 100,000 men.

14S6 Henry establishes fifty yeomen of the guards, the first standing army.

1489 Maps and sea-charts first brought to England by Barth. Columbus.

1491 William Grocyn publicly teaches the Greek language at Oxford.

The Moors, hitherto a formidable enemy to the native Spaniards, are entirely subdued by Ferdinand, and become subjects to that prince on certain conditions, which are ill observed by the Spaniards, whose clergy

. employ the powers of the Inquisition, with all its tortures; and in 1609, near one million of the Moors are driven from Spain to the opposite coast of Africa, from whence they originally came.'

1492 America first discovered by Columbus, a Genoese, in the service of Spain. 1494 Algebra first known in Europe.

1497 The Fbrtuguese first sail to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope. '.'South America discovered by Americus Vespusius, from whom it has its name. 1499 North America ditto, for Hejry VII. by Cabot. i $oo Maximilian divides the empire of Germany into six circles, and adds four

more in 1 5 1:. 1505 Shillings first coined in England. l^tl^Gardening introduced into England from the Netherlands, from whence

vegetables were imported hitherto. 1513 The battle of Flowdcn. in which James IV. of Scotland is killed, with the

flower of his nobility. 1517 Martin Luther began, the Uesurmation, - Sgyp' li conquered by the Turks. /

1518 Mjgcllan,

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