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1518 Magellan, in the service of Spain, first discovers the straits of that name in.

South America. 1520 Henry VIII. for his writings in favour of popery, receives the title of Defender of the Faith from his Holiness.

1519 The name of Protestant takes its rife from the Reformed protesting against

the church of Rome, at the diet of Spires in Germany. 1534 The Reformation takes place in England, under Henry VIII. 1537 Religious houses dissolved by Ditto. 1539 The first English edition of the Bible authorized; the present translation

finished 1611. About this time cannon began to be used in (hips. 1543 Silk stockings first worn by the French king; first worn in England byqu*en

Elizabeth, 1561; the steel frame for weaving invented by the Rev. Mr.

Lee, of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1589. Pins first used in England, before which time the ladies used skewers. 1544. Good lands let in England at one shilling per acre.

1545 The famous council of Trent begins, and continues 18 years.

1546 First law in England, establishing the interest of money at ten f er cent. 1549 Lords lieutenants of counties instituted in England.

j 5 50 Horse guards instituted in England.

1555 The Ruffian company established in England.

1558 Queen Elizabeth begins her reign.

1560 The Reformation in Scotland completed by John Know

1563 Knives first made in England.

1569 Royal Exchange first built.

1572 I he great massacre of Protestants at Paris.

1579 The Dutch shake off the Spanish yoke, and the republic of Holland begins. English East India company incorporated—established 1600.

■ Turkey company incorporated.

1580 Sir Francis Drake returns from his voyage round the world, being the first

English circumnavigator.
Parochial register first appointed in England.

1582 Pope Gregory introduces the New Style in Italy; the 5th of October being

counted ic.

1583 Tobacco first brought from Virginia into England.

1587 Mary queen of Scots is beheaded by order of Elizabeth, after 18 years imprisonment.' 1583 The Spanish Armada destroyed by Drake and other English admirals. Henry IV. passes the edict of Nantes, tolerating the Protestants.

1589 Coaches first introduced into England; hackney act 1693; increased to -coo,

in 1770.

1590 Band of pensioners instituted in England. ] 591 Trinity College, Dublin, founded.

1597 Watches first brought into England from Germany.

1602 Decimal arithmetic invented at Bruges.

1603 Queen Elizabeth (the last of the Tudors) dies, and nominates James VI. of

Scotland (and first of the Stuarts) as her successor; which unites both kingdoms under the name of Great Britain.

1605 The gunpowder-plot discovered at Westminster; being a project of the Ro

man catholics to blow up the king and both houses of parliament.

1606 Oaths of allegiance first administered in England.

1608 Galileo, of Florence, first discovers the satellites about the planet Saturn,

by the telescope, then just invented in Holland. 1610 Henry IV. is murdered at Paris, by Ravaillac, a priest. i6u Baronets first created in England, by James I. 1614 Napier, of Marcheston, in Scotland, invents the logarithms.

3 N 3 1614 Sir

1614 Sir Hugh Middleton brings the New River to London from Ware. 1616 The first permanent settlement in Virginia.

1619 Dr. W. Harvey, an Englishman, discovers the doctrine of the circulation

of the blood.

1620 The broad silk manufactory from raw silk introduced into England.

1621 New England planted by the Puritans.

1625 King James dies, and is succeeded by his son, Charles I.

The island of Barbadoes, the first English settlement in the West Indies, is planted. 1632 The battle of Lutzen, in which Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, and

head of the Protestants in Germany, is killed. 1635 Province of Maryland planted by lord Baltimore.

Regular polls established from London to Scotland, Ireland, &c. 1640 King Charles disobliges his Scottish subjects, on which their army, under general Lesley, enters England, and takes Newcastle, being encouraged by the malcontents in England. The massacre in Ireland, when 40,000 English Protestants were killed.

1642 King Charles impeaches five members, who had opposed his arbitrary mea

sures, which begins the civil war in England.

1643 Excise on beer, ale, &c. first imposed by parliament. 1649 Charles I. beheaded at Whitehall, January 30, aged 49. 1654 Cromwell assumes the protectorship.

165^ The English, under admiral Penn, take Jamaica from the Spaniards. 1658 Cromwell dies, and is succeeded in the Protectorship by his son Richard. 1660 King Charles II. is restored by Monk, commander of the army, after an exile of twelve years in France and Holland. Episcopacy restored in England and Scotland.

The people of Denmark, being oppressed by the nobles, surrender their privileges to Frederic III. who becomes absolute.

1662 The Royal Society established at London, by Charles II.

1663 Carolina planted; 1728, divided into two separate governments.

1664 The New Netherlands, in North America, conquered from the Swedes and

Dutch, by the English.

1665 The plague rages in London, and carries off 68,000 persons.

1666 The great sire of London began Sept. 2, and continued three days, in which

were destroyed 13,000 houses, and 400 streets. Tea first used in England.

1667 The peace of Breda, which confirms to the English the New Netherlands,

now known by the names of Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey.

1668 ditto, Aix-Ia-Chapelle.

St. James's Park planted, and made a thoroughfare for public use by Charles II. 1670 The English Hudson's Bay company incorporated.

1672 Lewis XIV. over-runs great part of Holland, when the Dutch open their sluices, being determined to drown their country, and retire to their settlements in the East Indies. African company established. 1678 The peace of Nimeguen.

The habeas corpus act passed. 1680 A great comet appeared, and, from its nearness to our earth, alarmed the inhabitants. It continued visible from Npv. 3 to March 9. "i William Penn, a Quaker, receives a charter for planting Pennsylvania. 1683 Ind'a s:ock sold from 360 to 500 per cent. 1685 Chctles II. dies, aged 55, and is succeeded by his brother, James If.

The duke of Monmouth, natural son to Charles II. raises 3 rebellion, but is t-cieated at the battle of Sedgmoor, and beheaded.

js8j The 1685 The edict of Nantes infamously revoked by Lewis XIV. and the Protestant*

cruelly persecuted. 1687 The palace of Versailles, near Paris, finished by Lewis XIV. i6b8 The Revolution in Great Britain begins, Nov. 5. King James abdicates,

and retires to France, December 3. King William and queen Mary, daughter and son-in-law to James, are

proclaimed February 16.' Viscount Dundee stands out for James in Scotland, but is killed by general

Mackey, at the battle of Killycrankie, upon which the Highlanders,

wearied with repeated misfortunes, disperse.

1689 The land-tax pasted in England. The toleration act pasted in Ditto.

Several bistiops are deprived for not taking the oath to king William.

William Fuller, who pretended to prove the prince of Wales spurious, was voted by the commons to be a notorious cheat, impostor, and false accuser.

1690 The battle of the Boyne, gained hy William against James in Ireland.

1691 The war in Ireland finished, by the surrender of Limerick to William.

1692 The English and Dutch fleets, commanded by admiral Russel, defeat the

French fleet off La Hogue.

1693 Bayonets at the end of loaded muskets first used by the French against the

Confederates in the battle of Turin.
The duchy of Hanover made the ninth electorate.
Bank of England established by king William.
The first public lottery was drawn this year.
Massacre of Highlanders at Glencoe, by king William's troops.
1694. Queen Mary dies at the age of 33, and William reigns alone.

Stamp duties instituted in England. 1696 The peace of Ryswick.

1699 The Scots settled a colony at the isthmus of Darien, in America, and called*

it Caledonia. ,

1700 Charles XII. of Sweden begins his reign.

King James II. dies at St. Germains, in the 6Sth year of his age.

1701 Prussia erected into a kingdom.

Society for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts established.

1702 King William dies, aged 50, and is succeeded by queen Anne, daughter to

James II. who, with the emperor and States General, renews the war

against France andSpain. 1704. Gibraltar taken from the Spaniards, by admiral Rooke.

The battle of Blenheim won by the duke ot Marlborough. and alliesi-against

the French.
The court of Exchequer instituted in England.

1706 The treaty of Union betwixt England and Scotland, signed July 22.
The battle of Ramillies won by Maryborough and the allies.

1707 The first British parliament. ._. ■

1708 Minorca taken from the Spaniards by general Stanhope.
The battle of Oudenarde won by Marlborough and the allies.
Sardinia erected into a kingdom, and given to the duke of Savoy.

1709 Peter the Great, czar of Muscovy, defeats Charles XII. at Pultowa, who

flies to Turkey.
The battle of Malplaquet won by Marlborough and the allies.

1710 Queen Anne changes the Whig ministry for others more favourable to the

interest of her brother, the late Pretender. The cathedral church of St. Paul, London, rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren,

in 37 years, at one million expence, by a duty Cil coals. The English South-Sea company began.

3 N + 1712 Duke 1712 Duke of Hamilton and lord Mohun killed in a duel in Hyde-Park.

1713 The peace of Utrecht, whereby Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Britain,

and Hudson's Bay, in North America, were yielded to Great Britain; Gibraltar and Minorca, in Europe, were also confirmed to the said crown by this treaty.

1714 Queen Ann dies, at the age of fifty, and is succeeded by George I. Interest reduced to five pir cent.

1715 Lewis XIV. dies, and is succeeded by his great-grandson, Lewis XV. the

late king of France. The rebellion in Scotland begins in September, under the earl of Mar, in savour of the Pretender. The action of Sheriff-muir, and the surrender of Preston, both in November, when the rebels disperse.

1716 The Pretender married to the princess Sobiefki, grand-daughter of John

Sobiefki, late king of Poland. An act passed for septennial parliaments. 1719 The Miffissipi scheme at its height in France.

Lombe's silk-throwing machine,containing 26,586 whcels.erected at Derby; takes up one-eighth of a mile; one water-wheel moves the rest; and in 24 hours it works 318,504,960 yards of organzine silk thread. The South-Sea scheme in England begun April 7 ; was at its height at the end of June; and quite funk about September 29. 1727 King George I. dies, in the 68th year of his age; and is succeeded by his only son, George II. Inoculation first tried on criminals with success. Russia, formerly a dukedom, is now established as an empire. 1732 Kouli Khan usurps the Persian throne, conquers the Mogul empire, and returns with two hundred and thirty-one millions sterling. Several public-spirited gentlemen begin the settlement of Georgia, in North America. 1736 Capt. Porteus, having ordered his soldiers to fire upon the populace at the execution of a smuggler, is himself hanged by the mob at Edinburgh.

1738 Westminster-Bridge, consisting of fifteen arches, begun; finished in 1750,

at the expence of 389,0001. defrayed by parliament.

1739 Letters of marque issued out in Britain against Spain, July 21, and war de

clared October 23. J743 The battle of Dettingen won by the English and allies, in favour of the

queen of Hungary. 1744 War declared against France. Commodore An son returns from his voyage

round the world. 174.5 The allies lose the battle of Fontenoy.

The rebellion breaks out in Scotland, and the Pretender's army defeated by

the duke of Cumberland, atCulloden, April 16, 1746. 1746 British Linen Company erected.

1748 The peace of Aix la-Chapelle, by which a restitution of all places, taken

during the war, was to be made on all sides.

1749 The interest of the British funds reduced to threeptr cent. British herring fishery incorporated.

1751 Frederic, prince of Wales, father to his present majesty, died. Antiquarian society at London incorporated.

1752 The new style introduced into Great Britain; the third of September being

counted the fourteenth.

1753 The British Museum erected at Montagu-house.

Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, instituted in London.

1755 Lisbon destroyed by an earthquake.

1756 146Englishmen are confined in the black hole at Calcutta, in the East In

dies, by order of the Nabob, and 123 found dead next morning.

1756 Marine 1756 Marine society established at London.

1757 Damien attempted to assassinate the French king.

1759 General Wolfe is killed in the battle of Quebec, which is gained- by the


1760 King George II. dies, October 25, in the 77 th year of his age, and is fuci

ceeded by his present majesty, who, on the nd of September, 1761, married the princess Charlotte of Mecklenburgh Strelitz. • v "-" Black-Friars bridge, consisting of nine arches, begun; finished 1770, at the expence of 52,8401. to be discharged by a toll. Toll,taken off 1785.

1762 War declared against Spain.

Peter III. emperor of Russia, is deposed, imprisoned, and murdered. \
American Philosophical Society established in Philadelphia. ,
George Augustus Frederic, prince of Wales, born August 12.

1763 The definitive treaty of peace between Great Britain, France, Spain, and

Portugal, concluded at Paris, February 10, which confirms to-Great Britain the extensive provinces of Canada, East and We.t Florida, and part of Louisiana, in North America; also the islands of Granada, St. Vincent, Dominica, and Tobago, in the West Indies.

1764 The parliament granted 10,0001. to Mr. Harrison, for his discovery of the

longitude by his time-piece.

1765 His majesty's royal charter passed for incorporating the Society of Artists'. An act passed annexing the sovereignty of the island of Man to the crowa

of Great Britain.

1766 April 21, a spot or macula of the sun, more than thrice the bigness of our

earth, passed the fun's centre. 1768 Academy of painting established in London.

The Turks imprison the Russian ambassador, and declare war against that empire. 1771 Dr. Solander and Mr. Banks, in his majesty's (hip the Endeavour, lieut. Cook, return from a voyage round the world, having made several important discoveries in the South Seas. 177,2 The king of Sweden changes the constitution of that kingdom.

The Pretender marries a princess of Germany, grand-daughter of Thomas, late earl of Aylesbury.

The emperor of Germany, empress of Russia, and the king of Prussia, strip the king of Poland of great part of his dominions, which they divide among themselves, in violation of the most solemn treaties. 1773 Captain Phipps is sent to explore the North Pole, but having made eightyone degrees, is in danger of being locked up by the ice, and his attempt to discover a passage in that quarter proves fruitless.

The Jesuits expelled from the pope's dominions.

The English East India company having, by conquest or treaty, acquired the extensive provinces of Bengal, Orixa, and Bahar, containing fifteen millions of inhabitants, great irregularities are committed by their servants abroad, upon which government interferes, and fends out judges, &c. for the better administration of justice.

The war between the Russians and Turks proves disgraceful to the latter, who lose the islands in the Archipelago, and by sea are every where unsuccessful. J774 Peace is proclaimed between the Russians and Turks.

The British parliament having passed an act, laying a duty of three pence per pound upon all teas imported into America, the Colonists, considering this as a grievance, deny the right of the British parliament to tax them.

Deputies from the several American colonies meet at Philadelphia, as the

fcril Gensial Congress, Sept. 5. ---"• *' 177.) First

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