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education. No wonder if his scholars hate the muses, being presented unto them in the shapes of fiends and furies. Junius complains "de insolenti carnificina" of his school master, by whom "conscindebatur flagris septies aut octies in dies singulos." Yea hear the lamentable verses of poor Tusser in his own life:
'From Paul's I went, to Eaton sent,
For fault but small, or none at all,
"Such an Orbilius marres more schollars than he makes: their tyranny hath caused many tongues to stammer which spake plain by nature, and whose stuttering at first was nothing else but fears quavering on their speech at their master's presence. And whose mauling them about their heads hath dulled those who in quickness exceeded their master.
"He makes his school free to him who sues to him in forma pauperis. And surely learning is the greatest alms that can be given. But he is a beast, who, because the poor scholar cannot pay him his wages, payes the scholar in his whipping. Rather are diligent lads to be encouraged with all excitements to learning. This minds me of what I have heard concerning Mr. Bust, that worthy late school master of Eaton, who would never suffer any wandring begging scholar (such as justly the statute hath ranked in the fore-front of rogues) to come into his school, but would thrust him out with earnestness (however privately charitable unto him) lest his school boyes should be disheartned from their books, by seeing some scholars after their studying in the university preferred to beggery.
"He spoils not a good school to make thereof a bad colledge, therein to teach his scholars logick. For besides that logick may have an action of trespess against grammer for encroaching on her liberties, syllogismes are solecismes taught in the school, and oftentimes they are forced afterwards in the university to unlearn the fumbling skill they had before.
"Out of his school he is no whit pedantical in carriage or discourse; contenting himself to be rich in Latine, though he doth not gingle with it in every company wherein he comes.
"To conclude, let this amongst other motives make school masters careful in their place, that the eminences of their scholars have commended the memories of their schoolmasters to posterity,
* Nich. Udal, school-master of Eaton, in the reign of King Henry the Eighth.
who otherwise in obscurity had altogether been forgotten. Who had ever heard of R. Bond, in Lancashire, but for the breeding of learned Ascham, his scholar? or of Hartgrave, in Brundly school, in the same county, but because he was the first did teach worthy Doctor Whitaker. Nor do I honour the memory of Mulcaster for any thing so much as his scholar, that gulf of learning, Bishop Andrews. This made the Athenians, the day before the great feast of Theseus their founder, to sacrifice a ram to the memory of Conidas, his school master, that first instructed him."
Nor is the next character inferior to either of the foregoing. "The general Artist.
"I know the general cavil against general learning is this, that aliquis in omnibus est nullus in singulis. He that sips of many arts, drinkes of none. However we must know, that all learning, which is but one grand science, hath so homogeneal a body, that the parts thereof do with a mutuall service relate to, and communicate strength and lustre each to other. Our artist, knowing language to be the key of learning, thus begins.
"His tongue being but one by nature, he gets cloven by art and industry. Before the confusion of Babel, all the world was one continent in language; since divided into severall tongues, as several ilands. Grammer is the ship, by benefit whereof we pass from one to another, in the learned languages generally spoken in no countrey. His mother-tongue was like the dull musick of a monochord, which, by study, he turns into the harmony of severall instruments.
"He first gaineth skill in the Latine and Greek tongues. On the credit of the former alone he may trade in discourse over all Christendome: but the Greek, though not so generally spoken, is known with no less profit and more pleasure. The joynts of her compounded words are so naturally oyled, that they run nimbly on the tongue; which makes them, though long, never tedious, because significant. Besides, it is full and stately in sound: onely it pities our artist to see the vowels therein rackt in pronouncing them, hanging oftentimes one way by their native force, and haled another by their accents which countermand them.
"Hence he proceeds to the Hebrew, the mother-tongue of the world. More pains than quickness of wit is required to get it, and with daily exercise he continues it. Apostacy herein is usual, to fall totally from the language by a little neglect. As for the Arabick, and other oriental languages, he rather makes sallies and incursions into them, than any solemn sitting before them.
"Then he applies his study to logick and ethicks. The latter makes a man's soul mannerly and wise; but as for logick, that is the armory of reason, furnisht with all offensive and defensive weapons. There are syllogismes, long swords; enthymems, short daggers; dilemmas, two-edged swords that cut on both sides; sorites, chainshot: and for the defensive, distinctions, which are shields; retortions, which are targets with a pike in the middest of them, both to defend and oppose. From hence he raiseth his studies to the knowledge of
physics, the great hall of nature, and metaphysicks the closet thereof; and is carefull not to wade therein so farre, till by subtill distinguishing of notions he confounds himself.
"He is skilful in rhetorick, which gives a speech colour, as logick doth favour, and both together beauty. Though some condemne rhetorick as the mother of lies, speaking more than the truth in hyperboles, less in her miosis, otherwise in her metaphors, contrary in her ironies; yet is there excellent use of all these, when disposed of with judgement. Nor is he a stranger to poetry, which is musick in words; nor to musick, which is poetry in sound: both excellent sauce, but they have lived and died poor, that made them their meat.
"Mathematicks he moderately studieth to his great contentment. Using it as ballast for his soul, yet to fix it not to stall it; nor suffers he it to be so unmannerly as to justle out other arts. As for judicial astrology (which hath the least judgement in it) this vagrant hath been out of all learned corporations. If our artist lodgeth her in the outrooms of his soul for a night or two, it is rather to hear than believe her relations.
"Hence he makes his progress into the study of history. Nestor, who lived three ages, was accounted the wisest man in the world. But the historian may make himself wise, by living as many ages as have past since the beginning of the world. His books enable him to maintain discourse, who, besides the stock of his own experience, may spend on the common purse of his reading. This directs him, in his life, so that he makes the shipwracks of other sea-marks to himself; yea, accidents, which other start from for their strangeness, he welcomes as his wonted acquaintance, having found precedents for them formerly. Without history a man's soul is purblinde, seeing onely the things which almost touch his eyes.
"He is well seen in chronology, without which history is but an heap of tales. If, by the laws of the land, he is counted a natural, who hath not wit enough to tell twenty, or to tell his age; he shall not pass with me for wise in learning, who cannot tell the age of the world, and count hundreds of years: I mean not so critically as to solve all doubts arising thence; but that he may be able to give some tolerable account thereof. He is, also, acquainted with cosmography, treating of the world in whole joynts; with chorography, shredding it into countries; and with topography, mincing it into particnlar places.
"Thus taking these sciences in their general latitude, he hath finished the round circle or golden ring of the arts; onely he keeps a place for the diamond to be set in, I mean for that predominant profession of law, physick, divinity, or state-policie, which he intends for his principal calling hereafter.
In the biographical portion of the book, we meet with lives of Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, Lord Burleigh, Cambden, Sir Francis Drake, Edward the Black Prince, Queen Elizabeth, Lady Jane Grey, Sir John Markham, Dr. Metcalf, Perkins, Bishop Ridley, Cardinal Wolsey, and Dr. William Whitaker.They are all good, some of them excellent.-Our limits, unfor
tunately, prevent us from giving a specimen.-After the lives and characters follow what the author entitles general rules. The following Essay on Recreation is one of the best.
"Recreation is a second creation, when weariness hath almost annihilated one's spirits. It is the breathing of the soul, which otherwise would be stifled with continual business. We may trespass in them, if using such as are forbidden by the lawyer as against the sta tutes; physician, as against health; divine, as against conscience.
"Be well satisfied in thy conscience of the lawfulness of the recreation thou usest. Some fight against cock-fighting, and bait bull and bear-baiting, because man is not to be a common barretour to set the creatures at discord; and seeing antipathy betwixt creatures was kindled by man's sin, what pleasure can he take to see it burn? Others are of the contrary opinion, and that Christianity gives us a placard to use these sports; and that man's charter of dominion over the creatures enables him to employ them as well for pleasure as necessity. In these, as in all other doubtful recreations, be well assured first of the legality of them. He that sins against his conscience sins with a witness.
"Spill not the morning (the quintessence of the day) in recreations. For sleep itself is a recreation; add not therefore sauce to sauces; and he cannot properly have any title to be refreshed, who was not first faint. Pastime, like wine, is poyson in the morning. It is then good husbandry to sow the head, which hath lain fallow all night, with some serious work. Chiefly intrench not on the Lord's day to use unlawful sports; this were to spare thine owne flock, and to sheere God's lamb.
"Let thy recreations be ingenious, and bear proportion with thine age. If thou sayest with Paul, when I was a child I did as a child; say also with him, But when I was a man I put away childish things. Wear also the child's coat, if thou usest his sports.
"Take heed of boisterous and over-violent exercises. Ringing oft times hath made good musick on the bells, and put men's bodies out of tune, so that by overheating themselves they have rung their own passing-bell.
"Yet the ruder sort of people scarce count any thing a sport which is not loud and violent. The Muscovite women esteem none loving husbands except they beat their wives. "Tis no pastime with country clowns, that cracks not pates, breaks not shins, bruises not limbs, tumbles and tosses not all the body. They think themselves not warm in their geeres, till they are all on fire; and count it but dry sport, till they swim in their own sweat. Yet I conceive the physician's rule in exercises, Ad ruborem, but non ad sudorem, is too scant
"Refresh that part of thyself which is most wearied If thy life be sedentary, exercise thy body; if stirring and active, recreate thy mind. But take heed of couzening thy mind, in setting it to do a double task under pretence of giving it a play day, as in the labyrinth of chess, and other tedious and studious
"Yet recreations distastful to some dispositions rellish best to others. Fishing with an angle is to some rather a torture than a pleasure, to stand an houre as mute as the fish they mean to take: yet herewithall Dr. Whitaker was much delighted. When some noblemen had gotten William Cecill, Lord Burleigh and Treasurer of England, to ride with them a hunting, and the sport began to be cold; What call you this, said the Treasurer? Oh now, said they, the dogs are at a fault. Yea, quoth the Treasurer, take me again in such a fault, and I'le give you leave to punish me. Thus as soon may the same meat please all palats, as the same sport suit with all dispositions.
Running, leaping, and dancing, the descants on the plain song of walking, are all excellent exercises. And yet those are the best recreations, which besides refreshing, enable, at least dispose men to some other good ends. Bowling teaches men's hands and eyes mathematicks, and the rules of proportion; swimming hath saved many a man's life, when himself hath been both the wares, and the ship: tilting and fencing is warre without anger; and manly sports are the grammer of military performance.
"But above all shooting is a noble recreation, and an half liberal art. A rich man told a poor man that he walked to get a stomach for his meat and I, said the poor man, walk to get meat for my stomach. Now shooting would have fitted both their turns, it provides food when men are hungry, and helps digestion when they are full. King Edward the Sixth, (though he drew no strong bow) shot very well, and when once John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, commended him for hitting the mark; you shot better (quoth the King) when you shot off my good uncle Protectour's head. But our age sees his successour exceeding him in that art, whose eye like his judgement is clear and quick to discover the mark, and his hands as just in shooting as in dealing aright.
"Some sports being granted to be lawful, more propend to be ill then well used. Such I count stage-plays, when made alwaies the actour's work, and often the spectator's recreation. Zeuxis, the curious picturer, painted a boy holding a dish full of grapes in his hand, done so lively, that the birds being deceived flew to peck the grapes. But Zeuxis, in an ingenious choller, was angry with his own workmanship. Had I (said he) made the boy as lively as the grapes, the birds would have been afraid to touch them. Thus two things are set forth to us in stage-playes: some grave sentences, prudent counsels, and punishment of vitious examples; and with these desperate oaths, lustful talk, and riotous acts are so personated to the life, that wantons are tickled with delight, and feed their palats upon them. It seems the goodness is not portrayed out with equal accents of liveliness as the wicked things are: otherwise men would be deterred from vitious courses, with seeing the woful success which follows them. But the main is, wanton speeches on stages are the devil's ordinance to beget badness; but I question whether the pious speeches spoken there be God's ordinance to increase goodness, as wanting both his institution and benediction.