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the whole system that it is conveyed from the mother to the child, whose tender frame soon yields to its malignity; and the parents also, in a short time, fall a sacrifice to the obstinacy of the disorder. To evince how little the Indians understand the nature of the disease or mode of cure, I need but add that their last resort, in these cases, is the powow. This differs, as I am told, in nothing from the modern animal magnetism but the awkward howlings and gestures of the actor.
Although I am persuaded that from the foregoing observations we may account in part for the reduction of the natives, yet it appears to me that its progress has been too rapid for me to account for it fully, at present, from any natural causes which have fallen under my observation. I therefore must leave the subject as it is until I turn over one page more in the book of nature. Perhaps thereon I shall find the matter plainly engraven. If not, I can believe that others are to possess this country, who will pursue a course of life different from the one followed by its present inhabitants, and that a way will be opened, in proper time, for the introduction of that system founded in wisdom and justice.
Thursday, Aug. 8. Nothing particular of a public nature passed from the 1st until this evening, when there arrived two of Capt. Hendrick's men, with letters requesting some necessaries may be sent to him, and informing of the proceedings of the Indian councils at the Miami, and the disposition of the Indian nations relative to peace and war after our speech of the 31st ult. had been interpreted to them. By the information of the letters and messengers, it appeared that all the nations were for peace, except the Shawanese, Wyandots, Miamis and Delawares; that these had at length yielded to the opinion of the other nations; and that peace would probably be made. Captain Hendrick also expressed his opinion that we should receive an invitation from all the confederated nations to meet them near the mouth of the Miami this week.
Aug. 9. Twelve Munsees and Chippeways arrived. They said that they came to this side of the river on purpose to see the Commissioners of the United States. They confirmed generally the information of Hendrick's men. They said that they were on their way home, (except a Munsee who lives at Sandusky,) for they had worn out their clothes, and were tired of the long continuance of the treaty; and they expected that, the greatest difficulties being got over, the chiefs (some of all the nations remaining at the council,) would now make peace. Two of the oldest of them said, that when the warriors, who were going home, were about to leave the council, they enjoined it on their chiefs to make peace, that they might without fear or interruption return to their hunting.
Captain Bunbury (one of the British officers who accompanied the Commissioners) says that one of the twelve Indians who arrived to-day is an Ottawa (or Tawa, as the name is often spoken,) and that he said that the Shawanese and others are strong for war, and will not abide by a peace into which they shall be dragged by the other nations.
Sunday, Aug. 11. The king's vessel, called the Chippewa, arrived from Detroit, bound to Fort Erie. Twelve Senecas, including women and children, and most of them sick, from the Indian council at the Rapids of the Miami, came in her. These Senecas are well known to General Chapin; and Jones, the interpreter, one of them, an intelligent man, gave us the like information about the proceedings of the council upon our last speech, with that received from Hendrick's men and the Munsees and Chippeways ; only that the four nations who inclined to continue the war, remained obstinate when he departed from the council; that the Six Nation chiefs had twice addressed them, urging them to agree to a peace; were going to speak to them a third time; and if they were still obstinate, would exceed their usual custom, and speak a fourth time; and if without effect, that they would then leave them and go home. He says the Farmer's brother told him and his company, that they might expect to be overtaken by messengers to the Commissioners before they (the informant and his company) reached Detroit; but if none arrived before they got down to the Commissioners' quarters, that then they might conclude no peace would be made. This Seneca said that excepting the four nations before mentioned, the Indians were for peace. He particularly mentioned the Six Nations, and the Seven Nations of Canada, as strongly recommending to the hostile Indians to make peace; and that, for this purpose, Captain Brandt and the Farmer's brother spoke a great deal in council. He added that of the four excepted nations near one half were disposed for peace; and that the Messasaugues, Chippeways, and Ottawas are as strong for peace as the Seven Nations of Canada.
Monday, Aug. 12. No deputation or official information from the Indian council having yet arrived, the Commissioners judged that it would be expedient to proceed without more delay to the Miami bay or river, that they might more easily and expeditiously send to, and receive an answer from them. They accordingly wrote the following letter to Captain Ford, commanding the vessel assigned by Governor Simcoe for their accommodation.
Mouth of Detroit River, Aug. 12, 1793. Sir, We have been waiting here twelve days for a reply to our last answer to the Indian nations assembled at the Rapids of Miami. We can think of no sufficient reason for this delay, and must therefore take measures to obtain that reply, or to ascertain whether we ought any longer to expect it. For this purpose, we judge it proper to proceed ourselves to the Miami bay or river, that the necessary communication with the Indians may be easy and expeditious; for it is time that the business of our mission be brought to an issue. We therefore request you to be prepared to sail to-morrow morning, when we propose to embark. We are Sir, yours, &c.
Benjamin Lincoln, } Commissioners
Captain Jos. Ford, commanding the Dunmore.
Captain Ford having read the letter, came and informed the Commissioners that he was instructed to attend the Commissioners, but to receive his orders from Captain Bunbury; and desired us to speak to him. We spoke to Capt. Bunbury and told him that Governor Simcoe had assigned the Dunmore, Capt. Ford, to the use of the Commissioners, and that from what the Governor and his Secretary had repeatedly said, we had a right to conclude she was under our direction, to go when and where we thought proper, for the purpose of the treaty, except to Detroit. He said he had his orders from Governor Simcoe, and that by those orders he could not consent that the Commissioners, or any deputation from them, should go to the Miami bay or river, until Col. McKee should give notice that the Indians were ready to receive them. But, says he, if the Commissioners choose to go to Sandusky, I will order the Dunmore to proceed thither. He read some passages iu Governor Simcoe's letter to him. The Commissioners asked if he would give an extract of the letter containing his orders. He answered, that Mr. Storer might take an extract. They retired together; Capt. Bunbury read, and Mr. Storer wrote down from his mouth, the following words as an extract from the Governor's letter.
Extract of a letter from Col. Simcoe to Captain Bunbury, dated at Navy Hall, 28th June, 1793.
"The directing the king's vessel to carry them (the Commissioners) thither. She will anchor, therefore, as conveniently as possible to the northern shore of the river, on the banks of which they propose to remain until they hear from Col. McKee. The Indians do not wish they should visit the opposite shore."
Detroit River, \2th August, 1793. The above extract was this day verbally given me by Capt. Bunbury, who, though desired, refuses to sign it.
Tuesday, August 13th. Being thus prevented from proceeding to the Miami bay, the Commissioners concluded to send a message to the Indian nation at the Rapids, and a letter to Col. McKee. The message and letter here follow.
"To the chief warriors of the Indian nations assembled at the foot of the Rapids of the Miami river. Brothers, It is now fifteen days since we delivered our speech to your deputies at this place; in which we explicitly answered the written question presented by them from you, and gave our reasons why we could not make the Ohio the boundary between you and the United States. We also mentioned some of the heads of the engagements we were willing to make in behalf of the United States. The particulars, together with other stipulations for your benefit, we judged proper to reserve to be explained to you in full council, when we should meet face to face.
Brothers, the next morning your deputies spoke to us, said they would lay our speech before you, and desired us to wait for your answer; which we desired and expected might be speedily given.
Brothers, we have waited fourteen days, and no answer has yet arrived.
Brothers, it is time to bring the business to a conclusion. The summer has almost passed away, and we do not yet know even whether we are to have a treaty.
Brothers, you know that we came to treat with you of peace. We again tell you that we earnestly desire to make peace; and in the terms of peace we are disposed to do you ample justice. But if no treaty is to be held, if peace is not to be obtained, we desire immediately to know it, that we may go home.
Signed by the Commissioners.
Copy of a letter to Col. McKee.
Mouth of Detroit River, 14^ August, 1793. Sir, To the speech delivered here to the deputation of the Indian nation assembled at the Rapids of the Miami, we expected an early answer. We have waited fourteen days, and no answer has yet arrived. We have therefore despatched runners with a speech to the chiefs and warriors, manifesting our wishes to begin the treaty without more delay, and desiring to know immediately their decision on the subject. A copy of our speech is enclosed.
We presume that it will be in your power to forward the business. Your aid therein will be gratefully acknowledged. The mode in which the negotiations have hitherto been conducted is new, and as improper as new. All the questions which have been stated might have been proposed to our faces, and have received prompt answers. We must soon close the negotiation, unless substantial reasons demand procrastination. In that case we may think ourselves justified in giving further proof of our patience. We again request your assistance to expedite the business which is the object of our mission,
And are, sir, yours, &c.
Benjamin Lincoln, 1 Commissioners