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ever, she adds, had a baby richly dressed in her arms and when any one asked whose it was, answered with great coolness and complacency, that the czar ha done her the honour to make her the mother of it The czarine was very short, tawny, and ungraceful dressed like a provincial German player, in an old fashioned robe, covered with dirt and silver, and wit some dozens of medals and pictures of saints strun down the front, which clattered every time she move like the bells of a pack-horse. She spoke little Ge man, and no French; and finding that she got on bu ill with the queen and her party, she called her fo into a corner to come and entertain her in Russianwhich she did with such effect, that she kept her in continual roar of laughter before all the court. Th czar himself is described as tall and rather handsom though with something intolerably harsh in his phys ognomy. On first seeing our royal author he took h in his arms, and rubbed the skin off her face in kis ing her, with his rough beard; laughing very heartily the airs with which she resented this familiarity. I was liable at times to convulsive starts and spasms, a being seized with them when at table, with his knife his hand, put his hosts into no little bodily terror. I told the queen, however, that he would do her no har and took her hand in token of his good humour ; b squeezed it so unmercifully that she was forced to c out-at which he laughed again with great violen and said, her bones were not so well knit as his Cath rine's.' There was to be a grand ball in the evenin but as soon as he had done eating, he got up, a trudged home by himself to his lodgings in the subur Next day they went to see the curiosities of the pla What pleased him most was a piece of antique scu ture, most grossly indecent. Nothing, however, wo serve him but that his wife should kiss this figure; a

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THE BACHELOR'S WIFE

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ever, she adds, had a baby richly dressed in her arms and when any one asked whose it was, answered xti great coolness and complacency, that the car done her the honour to make her the mother of t The czarine was very short, tawny, and ungracef dressed like a provincial German player, in an a fashioned robe, covered with dirt and silver, and viti some dozens of medals and pictures of saints s down the front, which clattered every time she moves like the bells of a pack-horse. She spoke litte Ge man, and no French; and finding that she got on t ill with the queen and her party, she called her into a corner to come and entertain her in Russianwhich she did with such effect, that she kept her continual roar of laughter before all the court. I czar himself is described as tall and rather handswe. though with something intolerably harsh in his phy ognomy. On first seeing our royal author he took he Be up in his arms, and rubbed the skin off her face in his ing her, with his rough beard; laughing very hearty the airs with which she resented this familiarity. was liable at times to convulsive starts and spasms, and being seized with them when at table, with his knie his hand, put his hosts into no little bodily terror. H told the queen, however, that he would do her no harm, and took her hand in token of his good humour; but squeezed it so unmercifully that she was forced to of out at which he laughed again with great violence, and said, 'her bones were not so well knit as his Cathe rine's. There was to be a grand ball in the evening but as soon as he had done eating, he got up,

trudged home by himself to his lodgings in the suburbs

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Next day they went to see the curiosities of the place What pleased him most was a piece of antique sculp ture, most grossly indecent. Nothing, however, would serve him but that his wife should kiss this figure; and

THE PHILOSOPHY OF KANT.

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when she hesitated, he told her he would cut off her head if she refused. He then asked this piece and several other things of value from the King, and packed them off for Petersburgh, without ceremony. In a few days after, he took his departure; leaving the palace in which he had been lodged in such a state of filth and dilapidation as to remind one of the desolation of Jerusalem."

CHAP. XXIII.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF KANT.

"WELL, I do think," said Egeria, one morning in attempting to read Villers' account of the Transcendental Philosophy of Kant, " that the history of philosophy may be described as the history of human folly; and yet the art of philosophizing purposes to itself the development of the truths and principles of Divine wisdom!-I begin to suspect, that the slow progress which the generality of mankind make in the science of the mind, is owing in a great measure to the many dogmas which every system of metaphysics entertains obnoxious to comBut of all systems, that of this ethereal German seems the most pregnant with these sort of absurdities; and yet it is impossible to deny to the author the praise of great acumen, and a degree of subtlety almost without parallel. The history of the man indeed demonstrates, that, by the course of reflection and meditation which he adopted, he neces-.

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sarily disqualified himself from advancing the improvement of mankind,-the sole end and object of all science; for, beyond question, the only authors that have helped forward the process of intel lectualizing in the world, are those who have mixed much with the bustle and business of life. Ther is no example of a mere literary man ever having done much good to his species, except in the capa city of a schoolmaster,-if, in that capacity, it b fair to consider him as exclusively literary; for, per haps, few situations are more trying, or require mor of address to manage, and of discernment to perceiv the peculiarities of those to be managed, than tha of a schoolmaster."

"What is the history of Kant ?" said Benedict "I never recollect to have heard much either him or of his philosophy,-but that implies nothin derogatory either to his wisdom or his genius. T tardiness with which the discoveries of Newton,simple and so important, and so readily correspon ing with the general habits of science,—were adopt among ourselves, is well known; and, therefore, need not wonder that Kant's philosophy should so little studied or understood in this country.'

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"It will never be either studied or understood England, you may rely on that, Benedict," repli the Nymph; "we are much too practical a peop to waste our time or thoughts on the unprofital phantoms of a flatulent imagination. Kant, the sa or visionary of Köningsberg, is reputed as havin in a life of nearly eighty years, sequestrated hims from the world, his admirers say, contenting hi self, in the true simplicity of a sage, with the oc

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sarily disqualified himself from advancing the is provement of mankind-the sole end and obje

all science; for, beyond question, the only thors that have helped forward the process of it lectualizing in the world, are those who have mirel much with the bustle and business of life. There is no example of a mere literary man ever having done much good to his species, except in the cap city of a schoolmaster,-if, in that capacity, i fair to consider him as exclusively literary; for pe haps, few situations are more trying, or requireme of address to manage, and of discernment to pencere the peculiarities of those to be managed, than of a schoolmaster."

"What is the history of Kant?" said Benedit; "I never recollect to have heard much either d him or of his philosophy-but that implies nothing derogatory either to his wisdom or his genius. The tardiness with which the discoveries of Newtonsimple and so important, and so readily corresp ing with the general habits of science-were adopted among ourselves, is well known; and, therefore, re need not wonder that Kant's philosophy shoulde so little studied or understood in this country."

It will never be either studied or understood in England, you may rely on that, Benedict," repel the Nymph; "we are much too practical appl to waste our time or thoughts on the unprofita phantoms of a flatulent imagination. Kant, the sage evisionary of Köningsberg, is reputed as having in life of nearly eighty years, sequestrated himself froth world-his admirers say, contenting hisin true simplicity of a sage, with the occ

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pations of study and the society of a few favoured friends. It does not appear in his case more than in that of any other of your solitaries, that retirement is favourable to modesty; for it would seem it is not merely as a metaphysician that he claims to be considered; there is scarcely a science that he has not ventured to attempt to illustrate. He is,' says his disciple, a mathematician, an astronomer, a chemist;-in natural history, in physics, in physiology, in history, in languages, and literature and the arts, -in all the details of geography, as they relate to the exact situation of the parts of the globe, their inhabitants and productions, every thing is familiar to him;' that is to say, he was a dabbler and a meddler with every thing of which books treat, and did nothing worth the consideration of a tyro in any of them. It is true, that Monsieur Villers contends, that the planet which Herschell discovered ought to have been known to astronomers under the ridiculous name of the Kant;' because, twenty-six years before the discovery of that portion of the solar system, its existence had been predicted by Kant in some conjectures on the heavenly bodies, which probably went beyond the orbit of Saturn, published in 1755, in a work entitled, The Natural History of the World, and Theory of the Heavens, on the Principles of the Newtonian Philosophy." This is a very silly claim to set up. It ought rather to have been called The Newton ;' for, after the demonstration which the English philosopher gave of the Copernican system, the existence of unknown planets, both within and without the orbit of Saturn, could not be

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doubted. The discovery of them depends on the patience and telescopes of the observers."

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"I see you are no admirer, Nymph as you are, said the Bachelor," of the metaphysical German; "but what can you tell me of his system-his philosophy ?"

"I can tell you nothing," replied Egeria," and I hope ever to be prevented from having it in my power: but, if you have any curiosity on the subject, look into the first volume of the Edinburgh Review, and there you will find quite enough to satisfy you that it very little deserves the attention of things of flesh and blood."

"Philosophy, in relation to the process which i adopts, is considered by Kant as of three kinds. It i dogmatical, when it founds a system on principles as sumed as certain; sceptical, when it shows the insuffi ciency of those principles which the dogmatist has as sumed; and critical, when, after adopting the objec tions of the sceptic, it does not rest satisfied with doub but proceeds to inquire from what principle of our na ture the allusions of the dogmatist have arisen, and, b a minute analysis of the cognitive powers of man, trac the whole system of his knowledge through all the m difications of its original elements, by his independe and fundamental forms of thought. It is in this anal sis that the spirit of the critical philosophy is to found and till the process have become familiar, t whole system must appear peculiarly unintelligibl but, when the reduction of all our feelings to their o jective and subjective elements is well understoo though we may still be perplexed by the cumbrous s perfluity of nomenclature, we are able to discov

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