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ΕΠΑΡΧΟΣΑΙΓΥΠΤΟΥ. . Lord Valentia, by the help of scaffolding and plaster, made out. more of it, but unfortunately lost his copy. Scarcely any part of it can be discovered without intense attention. Mr. W.Turner, at noon, which is the most favourable time for inspecting the inscription, distinguished AIO, and under that, 110—and felt no doubt that the character following the AIO was a mutilated K. Upon the whole, then, Dr. Clarke's opinion seems to be untenable; and we may conclude, with great probability, that this celebrated pillar was in fact erected by Pompeius, a prefect of Egypt, in honour of Diocletian.
In the Catacombs of Alexandria, Mr. Davison found many remains of Alexandrian painting upon the walls. In the temples of Tentyra, Thebes and Diospolis, the colours are still fresh and vivid. It is well known, both from the testimonies of ancient authors, and from traces of the custom which are still visible, that the Greek sculptures were frequently painted. Several instances are mentioned by Mr. Walpole, who observes, (p. 3812) that there is reason to believe that the word ypáqw was applied by the Greeks to express a combination of sculpture and painting.' We believe not: ypa eiv never signifies more than to delineate' or paint;' but since it was customary to paint sculpture, the word ypadel may have been used of a relievo, taking the previous carving for granted. The passage of Pliny which the learned Editor adduces in support of his opinion is of no force. Fuisse Panænum fratrem ejus, qui et clypeum intus pinxit Elide Minervæ.'. Heyne observes, that instead of painting, we should have expected some bas-relief within the shield, consistently with what Pliny relates elsewhere of the buckler of Minerva in the Parthenon, scuti concava parte deorum et gigantum dimicationem coelavit. Heyne supposes, therefore, that Pliny, or the author whom he followed, misunderstood the word bypave, which was employed to signify work in bas-relief; and this is also Mr. Walpole's opinion: that it should be so, surprises us a little, seeing he has mentioned this Panænus as a painter in p. 378. That there was a bas-relief on the interior of the shield, is very probable; but Phidias carved, and Panænus painted it, as he did the statue of Olympian Jove. Strabo, viii. p. $54. Hold de ouvé pats tam Φειδία Πάναινος ο ζωγραφος, αδελφιδούς ων αυτού και συνεργολαβος, προς την του ξοάνου κατασκευήν, δια την των χρωμάτων κόσμησιν, και jánlota tñs to bñtos. [The MS. author whom Pliny used, had αδελφός for αδελφιδούς, probably by the inadvertence of the copyist.
Pantænus, for so the name should be written, was the nephew of Phidias]-δείκνυται δε και γραφαί πολλαί τε και θαυμασται περί το ιερόν, εκείνου έργα. So Νicias was employed to colour the statues made by Praxiteles. Plin. xxxv. 10. Hic est Nicias, de quo dicebat Praxiteles, interrogatus quæ maxime opera sua probarit in marmoribus, quibus Niçias manum adınovisset: tantum circumlitioni ejus tribuit.' This practice, which is altogether adverse to the taste of modern times, seems to have prevailed amongst all the people of antiquity. Sir W. Hamilton, in the accounts which accompanied the drawings made of the discoveries at Pompeii, and presented to the Antiquarian Society, says, that in the chapel of Isis, the image of that goddess still retains the coat of paint; her robe being of a purple hue. Something therefore may be said, on the score of precedent, in behalf of the richly gilt and painted images of saints which decorate the Romish churches, as well as of the gorgeous robes and wigs of many of our English worthies of former times, whose costume still lives in marble and vermilion. Shakspeare, in the Winter's Tale, represents the statue of Hermione as painted by Giulio Romano.
The first instance which Mr. Walpole adduces, is from Ælian, ωμολόγει την πράξιν του Γέλωνος το γράμμα,-where, says Cuper, ypáupia may mean a statue; which we shall content ourselves with denying.
The second is from Athenaeus, οι ποιηται και οι γραφεϊς πλεϊν αυτόν εν ποτηρίω εμυθολόγησαν, where Casaubon says per pictores intellige omnes simulacrorum artifices. The fact is, that ypa eis is a mere rapadiópowpiece of Casaubon. The old and genuine lection is oi montal xal currypadeīs the poets and historians.'
The third is from an epigram of Antipater, xar' củópodox ypattó téyos, which Mr. Walpole translates, on the well-roofed pediment, sculptured and painted, in which version túyou is improperly rendered pediment, and the words in italics are a gratuitous addition. If it be true that the roofs or ceilings of houses were frequently carved and painted, does it therefore follow that there is any allusion to carving in the word ypáow? A roof which was both carved and painted might be called indifferently the carved roof, or the painted roof. The fourth is from an epigram of Perses, Brunck. Anal. ii. p. 4.
Δειλαία Μνάσυλλα, τί του και επ' ηρίω ούτος
Μυρομένας κούρας γραπτός έπεστι τύπος; ; where Túmos may perhaps mean a sculptured image, but ypatTÓS certainly means only painted. Mr. Walpole has observed, in p. 378, that the custom of painting tombs was common in Greece. Upon the whole, we assert, that ygápeu was never used of a statue or relievo, except with reference to the painting. The ygantai eixóves, VOL. XIX. NO. XXXVII.
which we find occasionally mentioned, may seem at first sight more favourable to Mr. Walpole's opinion; but even these, we believe, were no more than portraits. Inscript. ap. Spon. Miscell.p. 344. αναθείναι δε αυτού εικόνα γραπτήν. This was an honour frequently paid to illustrious men. Pseudo-Plutarch. Vit. Isocr. p. 839. C. ήν δε αυτου γραπτή είκων εν τω Πομπείν. Strabo xiv. p. 648. και η πατρίς δ' εκάνως αυτον ηύξησε, σορφύραν ενδύσασα ιερωμένην του Σωσιπόλιδος Διός: καθάπερ και η γραπτή είκων εμφανίζει η εν τη αγορά. Αnasis presented to the temple of Minerva εικόνα έωυτού ygartýv, says Herodotus ii. 182. So Pausanias v. 16. xai Er; úvabeīvai σφισιν έστι γραψαμέναις εικόνας, having caused their own portraits to be painted. Hence eixovoygápos, Aristot. Poet. 28.
p. 425 we are presented with a valuable dissertation by the Earl of Aberdeen, upon the gold and silver coinage of Attica. Many learned men have doubted whether the Athenians ever coined any gold money. Our own opinion is that they never did, except perhaps a few pieces on some particular occasions. Gold coin was current at Athens, but it was of foreign coinage; either the stater of Persia, of Ægina, of Cyzicum or some other town; and when gold coin is spoken of generally, under the name of χρυσούς or στατήρ, we are to understand the Δαρεικός. The authorities by which we could support this opinion would occupy. too much
space in our pages. Aristophanes in the Frogs speaks of a gold coinage, greatly alloyed with copper; and calls the pieces Toumpee gaaxia, which words the learned Corsini (Diss. XII. p. 225.) misunderstands, as being spoken of copper money. It is probable that from its extreme badness it was not long current. Lord Aberdeen justly observes that • The currency of the silver money of Athens was almost universal, owing to the deservedly high reputation for purity which it possessed; and on this account we find several cities of Crete copying precisely in their coins the design, weight and execution of the Attic tetradrachms, in order to facilitate their intercourse with the barbarians. It is possible that the general use and estimation of the produce of the Attic mines contributed to render the Athenians averse from a coinage of another metal, which, by supplying the place of silver money at home,' might, in some degree, tend to lessen its reputation abroad? —p. 445.
The Attic tetradrachm seems to bave obtained as extensive a currency in ancient times, as the Spanish dollar since the discovery of the silver mines of the new world; and for the same reason. The following remarks are important and original.
• One of the greatest problems in numismatical difficulties is the cause of the manifest neglect, both in design and execution, which is invariably to be met with in the silver money of Athens ; in which the affectation of an archaic style of work is easily distinguished from the rudeness of remote antiquity. Different attempts have been made to elucidate the subject: De Pauw affirms that, owing to a wise economy, the magistrates, whose office it was to superintend the coinage of silver, employed none but inferior artists in making the design, as well as in other branches of the process, an hypothesis wholly inconsistent with the characteristic magnificence of the republic. Pinkerton asserts, that it can only be accounted for from the excellence of the artists being such as to occasion all the good to be called into other countries, and none but the bad left at home. It would be somewhat difficult to explain how Athens came to be so long honoured both by the presence and the works of Phidias and Praxiteles, Zeuxis and Apelles.'*
“The Attic silver was of acknowledged purity, and circulated very extensively: the Athenian merchants, particularly in their commercial dealings with the more distant and barbarous nations, appear frequently to have made their payments in it. The, barbarians. being once impressed with these notions of its purity, the government of Athens, in all probability, was afraid materially to change that style and appearance by which their money was known and valued among these people. A similar proceeding in the state of Venice throws the strongest light on the practice of the Athenians. The Venetian sechin is perhaps the mosť unseemly of the coins of modern Europe : it has long been the current gold of the Turkish empire, in which its purity is universally and justly esteemed ; any change in its appearance on the part of the Venetian government would have tended to create distrust.'
We agree with the editor in considering these remarks of the Earl of Aberdeen, as affording a more satisfactory explanation of the difficulty in question, than any which has hitherto been offered. We cannot help adducing a testimony in favour of his lordship’s hypothesis, from a quarter, where one would not expect to meet with any thing bearing upon a question of this kind. Sir W. D'Avenant, in his Prologue to The Wits,' says that there are
wbo would the world persuade
Intrinsick value for their handsomeness.' If merit depended, in poetry as well as numismatics, upon ugliness' and · raggedness,' these verses of Sir William would be, in their way, perfect Attic tetradrachms. The present volume has also been enriched by the same accurate and learned nobleman with an account of two very curious and interesting marbles, found at Amyclæ, in Laconia, which is the place where the Abbé Fourmont pretended to have found his celebrated ivscriptions, the
spul. riousness of which has been so ably demonstrated by Mr. R. P. Knight
Of the two pieces of sculpture described by the Earl of Quo-How long was Atheps honoured by the presence of either Zeuxis or Apelles ?
Aberdeen, and copied in an engraving at p. 446, each represents a hand-basin, surrounded with the various implements of a female toilet, combs, pins, a needle or bodkin, perfume-boxes and bottles, mirrors, paint-boxes, curling-irons, rollers, toothpicks, and reticules (or perhaps night-caps). What we believe to be hand-basins the Earl of Aberdeen calls patera. In one of them is the following inscription, ΑΝΘΟΥΣΗ ΔΑΜΑΙΝΕΤΟΥ ΥΠΟΣΤΑΤΡΙΑ; and in the other, AAYATHTA ANTINATPOT IEPEIA. The first remark which suggests itself, upon inspecting these inscriptions, is, that they are not in the Laconic dialect. The only Doric form in the first, is the first A in AÁMAINETOT. In the second, Lord Aberdeen considers AATAIHTA to be for AAOATHTA. But AAOATHTA assuredly was not a Greek proper name. We suspect some error in the transcript. Mr. Walpole supposes the marbles to have been offerings made by the priestesses Anthusa and Laoageta; or as consecrated during the priesthood of those women; in which case they may have been presented by the KOZMHTPIAI or ornatrices of some deity: Caylus considers the word TITOZTATPIA to signify sous-prétresse. Lord Aberdeen thinks that it may have some allusion to distribution or regulated measure. The fact is that the word means nothing more nor less than under-dresser. Etárpia was one appellation of a female hair-dresser. Ηesych. Στάτρια. εμπλέκτρια. Now εμπλέκτρια was the same as xoje pecórgia, a tire-woman, one who dressed and depilated the ladies; as an old grammarian explains it. The name κομμώτρια is derived from κόμμι, a sort of gum, used by females to make the plaits of their hair retain the form which was given them: the profession itself was called τέχνη κομμωτική. This is the account given by a scholiast on Plato; to which, if it were necessary, we could add much more, illustrative of the subject.
Amongst the articles, represented upon each of these marbles, are two pair of slippers. We have an epigram of Antipater of Sidon, which mentions the dedication to Venus of sandals, amongst other articles of dress.
Σάνδαλα μεν τα ποδών θαλπτήρια ταύτα Βίτιννα, κ.τ.λ. And we may observe, by the way, that a peculiar kind of sandals were used at Amyclæ, where these marbles were found, and were thence called Αμύκλαι or'Αμυκλαΐδες, for withholding a dissertation upon which, our readers will probably thank us; as also for the suppression of a page or two of observations on the Caryatides of ancient architecture, of which no satisfactory account bas hitherto been given, nor is the matter cleared up by Mr. Walpole in his remarks at p. 602. Mr. Wilkins conjectures, that these Caryatides, who are called Kopru in a very ancient inscription, were no other than the Canephoræ.