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ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

Notices of the AncieNT KINGDOM OF YLLI IN Britanny. Mr. URBAN,

St. Servan, France, N. E. of Brest, and a part of it stilt

June 25. bears the name of Lysien, above. A MONG the many principalities mentioned. So that the palace of king

into which Armorica was divid. Ausochus may be safely placed at Treed, after the departure of the Romans garantec. and under the British colonization,

The kingdom of Ylli contained only was one which bore the name of Ylli. seventeen villages, in the time of Cle Its insignificance might have excluded rod, a valiant monarch, who is said it from history, but for the marriage of to have been twice crowned with one of its princesses to a king of Bri

a cap of wreathed laurel. He hadi ianny. Hence it has become an ob- three sons, each of whom had a reject of inquiry to Breton antiquaries, markable impression on the right shoulwho are not agreed upon geogra

der; the eldest' a bow, the second a phical situation, some placing it near spear's head, and the third a sword; Morlaix, and others confounding it which denoted their military renown. with a different state.

They bore this motto on their shields, M. Miorcec de Kerdanet, the first

Carantez e peb amser, living archæologist of Britanny, has e peb hænt lealdet. published a little tract on the subject, Charity at all times, in which he considers the question as

Honour in every way. set at rest.* The words of Ingomar, as quoted by son Hilperuit, or the Gloomy. After

Clerod was succeeded by his grandDom Morice, appear to point out the him reigned his son Ausoch, who is situation of Ylli, if they can be satis known in history as the father of the factorily explained. He

beautiful Pradell or Pritell.* During King á usochus, dwelt in capite lit. his absence at a neighbouring court, toris magni, à parte occidentali, in it happened that Jadual, Prince of tribu Lysiá, in commendatione Ylli. Dumnonia;t who had lost his way in In mediæval Latin, commendatio means hunting, arrived at the palace. He government or custody, answering to the was struck with the charms of the Breton word Quemenet; aod Quemenet

princess, and ihe same night he saw her Ylli, was actually the name of a canion

image in a drea surrounded with weaof Lower Britanny, in the district of pons of war. The omen might betokeo Leon, or northern part of the present that the lady's hand must be songbt in department of Finisterre. This coun- perils and enterprises ; but the lover did try contained a bishopric and

not despair; he consulted the bard and subordinate dioceses, or archidiaconates, namely Ach (Lat. Aginense), dwelt in the peninsula of Rhuis ;t by

prophet Tholosin, son of Onis, who and Quemenet-Ylli. The chief place whom he was told, that the issue of the of this latter division was Tregarantec, marriage would be a warlike sona or Charity's home, t so called because Encouraged by this explanation, he dethe inhabitants of Pleudiher found re

manded and obtained the hand of the fuge there, at the time of a raging Princess: their marriage is placed in epide nic. It is about five leaguis.

* Pridd, adj. precious, Welsh Dict. * Notice sur le Royaume d'Ylli. 18mo. + The North-Eastern part of pp. 10. Printed for Duchesne, at Rennes. Mr. Turner considers it as the refuge of the

+ M. Miorcee renders this word trève de" exiles from Devonshire. la charité, I should conceive erroneously. I Opposite Quiberon, on the southern I have given the Welsh, or more ancient coast of Britanny: An Abbey was dedicated meaning of the word.

there to St. Gildas.

says, that

two

Bricany

His son

B

Ancient Kingilomi" of Ylli.-On Bridges.

[July. the year 590. The same Judual is property, it may have experienced called Hoel III. by some writers; he more happiness than larger states, extended his dominion, says M. De- where kings can only see with the laporte, over nearly the whole of Bri- eyes of ministers. That it should have tanny, which is parıly accounted for remained unconquered in those turbuby his marriage with the heiress of lent. times, supposes patriotism in the Ylli. He took the title of sing. The inhabitants, affection towards their historian just quoted throws no light chiefs, and a propitious course of ciron the marriage, but merely says, "he cumstances. The name of Tregaranespoused Pratelle, by whom he had tec speaks highly for the character of several children.

the people, and is no trivial instance Judwal died about 620.

of the value of etymology in corroboand successor was the celebrated Judia rating history. It is possible that a cail, whom tradition represents as a diligent search of the early Welsh match for the stoutest antagonist when Bards may throw some light on the a boy, but who shines in history as a events of this interesting little king.. very amiable character. * He married dom, or on the names of its princes. Moron, daughter of Even, King of

CYDWELI. Ach. One of his sons, named Arnec, was bishop of the litile diocese. It seems that he resigned it in favour of

Mr. URBAN,

July 20. St. Vigan, his neighbour. The legend

EING resident between the Sesays, ibat he promised him as much territory as he could traverse, while he observed the injury and inconvenience himself was asleep. Arnec betook sustained by the neighbourhooil

, for himself to slumber, and Vigan mount- want of a bridge over the Severn at ed his horse; but it was on the steeple Newnham; travellers in carriages heing of St. Eloi, between Landerneau and compelled to go round either by GlouLesneven ; and taking a spring froin cester or the Old Passage, from

twenty thence, he traversed the whole of the or more miles out of their way, if their diocese in the air before Arnec awoke, direction be the opposite populous and it was accordingly ceded to him. country, and the parts beyond. I have

The kingdom appears to have revert- therefore collected, for the information ed to temporal princes, for Argan, or of my neighbours, various matters conArastan, reigned in the time of Char- cerning bridges, which I think it may lemagne. (It might be an apanage.) be amusing and useful to lay before This prince accompanied Charles in the public, as they do not apply to a his expeditions, was distinguished as a particular case only. soldier, and fell at Roncevaus in 778.7. It is well known that the erection His exploits were a favourite theme of of bridges has become so exceedingly the Breton Troubadours. His succes- expensive, and so accompanied with sor was Prinitis, of whom nothing is heavy loss to the shareholders, that a recorded, or indeed of any later sove- virtual prohibition exists to the inreigo.

crease of such conveniences, except It has escaped the keen antiquary of at the public cost. Nevertheless, I beg Les Tourelles, that Ylli is a word to premise, that I am not such a Vandal' meaning a division, or something as to object 19 stone bridges, chain

to parted off. It is natural to suppose bridges, or any l'est things, where they that this little kingdom had been de- can be afforded; only that where they tached from some other, and thence cunnot be afforded, expense is not to obtained its name. Too insignificant be doctrinal against convenience; stones to be an object of cupidity, and no and mortar against ten per cent. ; facilarger than an English nobleman's lity of conimunication, which

aug.

ments commerce and the value of es* See Mr. Turner's sketch of Breton his

tates, against mere outside show. But tory, in the first and fourth editions of his History of the Anglo Saxons.

more money gained will cause money + M. Miorcec adds, " Le Tasse l'a célé

to be spent. The country, which bré dans la Jérusalem. Il a extrait ce qu'il

has exhibited the best modes of enen dit de l'archevêque, Turpin, contemporaiu r countering the difficulty is America ; d'Argan."

Yil. s. mã that tends to part. Yllt, a are too rude for adoption here, yet, rent.-Welsh Dict. Lysien hias a similar there are others whichinierit attention. signification :-Llys, s. m. that separates. In the first place, then, I would ob- .

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On the Erection of Bridges. serve; that there does already exist a them; whereas, had it been built with stone, ferry at Newnham; and that such it would not even now produce an interest ferry may be made to answer every of more than 25 per cent."-Faulkner's purpose of a bridge (except, perhaps, Chelsea, i. 33. when the Boar or Hygre, i.e. the tide, I have heard that the wooden bridge is pouring in) by the following simple at Putney pays ten per cent., and that means; and I beg it to be recollected, the shareholders a few years ago wise. that I shall say nothing wilhout autho- ly resisted the conversion of it into rity.

stone, because, as public convenience At Philadelphia, the finest object is

was served without it, they saw no reathe river Delaware, and its opposite shore,

son why their private property was to about half a mile across, with a little island suffer for the sake of a good job. in the middle of it. Steam and team boats “But ugliness is avoidable, for Colonel By are continually crossing and recrossing. has erected a beautiful wooden frame bridge They are double boats, or two placed side over the Big Kettle in Canada.”—Mac Tagby side, the paddles working between with a gart's Canada, i. 347. deck across both, to take waggons, car

Of the hopeless proceeds of stone and riages, &c. You may drive into them seated

iron bridges, the following table, taken in any vehicle, and out on the opposite side on coming to shore, without the least danger. A

from your Magazine for May, 1830, p. large bell is rany every time they make the 479, tells a melancholy tale: shore, stop about ten minutes, ring again,

Price of
BRIDGES :

Div. and off."- Pickering's Emigration, p. 28.

Shares. per ann. That a similar espedient might be

Hammersmith. £24 0 £1 10

Southwark . here adopted, is beyond doubt, because

24 0 a rafe conveys a stage-coach without Do. New 74 per cent.

Vauxhall unhorsing or unloading, across an es- Waterloo tvary in or near Arundel in Sussex,

Ann. of 81.

17 4 and was contrived by the coach-pro- Aon. of 71. prietor, because a bridge was refused,

If Government would make a dona. The rast was lowed by a chain and

tion of timber from the neighbouring windlass, but as the rope or chain, (not necessarily so, though troublesome) bridge at Newnham would be very

forest of Dean, the expense of a wooden might impede the navigation of the considerably reduced. river, it would be objectionable at

The indispensable expense of a chain Newnham. To the double-boat described above, Mr. MacTaggart, a government engi.

bridge has been very much exaggerated; no such impediment exists. The pad

neer, said, des might be worked by a man in each boat, and simple machinery; and

A chain bridge to stretch across the St. quays or causeways of differing heights Lawrence, from Cape Diamond to Point Levi,

a distance of more than a mile, where the and extents might be thrown out on

current is strong and water deep, seems no both shores, to meet the changeable

easy task, yet it might be performed. The elevations of the tide.

chain bridge would require five floating piers, The next economical substitute

and these may be so constructed and so anwould be a wooden bridge, with a chored that even the heaviest drift ice rushdrawbridge in the centre, for vessels to ing before a flood would not be able to sweep pass, as at Amsterdam, and but lately them away. The expeuse attending such an unat Weymouth. But stone bridges are dertaking, considering coutingencies, might by far the best. Undoubtedly; but probably amount to 40,000l.; nothing less, there is a wide difference in cost be- at least, could possibly answer.”—MacTagtween a crown and a pound. Wooden gart's Canada, Vol. i. p. 315. bridges, (expense is ihe question), do Now, the breadth of the water way not cost more than one fourth of stone at Newnbam in full tide is, according ones, are the only bridges across wide to a trigonometrical admeasurement, rivers which pay good interest of money, 560 yards, and, of course, but the third and may be made picturesque and beaue of a mile and eighty yards over. Divide tiful. Now for the proofs :

40,0001. by 3, and

upon

Mr. MacTagA stone bridge was first meditated at gart's estimate, a bridge could be built Chelsea ; but the estimate given in was

across the Severn at Newpham for 83,0001. The proprietors, alarmed at the 13,3301. Two, or at most three, piers expense, erected a wooden one for about would be enough. 20,0001. The concern now amply remunerates But the most appalling circumstance

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Bridgo oier. the Severn at Newnham.

(July, as regards Newoham, is that no rocky This timber was perfectly sound after the bottom is to be found, except at such lapse of now above six centuries, aód proves a depth that piles are useless, and the a strong practical instance of the preservasubstilute must be sunk rock ; and as

tion of wood under water, when voexposed

to the action of air."-Archæol. xxii, 18. to floating piers, there being no depth of water, as in the Saint Lawrence, the In building our ancient bridges, the navigation of the river would be im- custom was to turn the water-course, peded, and falls, as at Old London make starlings, and apon thein raise Bridge, be created. Dig till you the piers; and if they had sunk their come to the solid ground,”* is certainly starlings to low-water level, and not an ancient and sound architectural made iheir piers unnecessarily thick; adage, and taking the main opening there would have been no falls. It (580 feet) of the famous Suspension does not appear, froin the London or Bridge over the Menai for a standard, Bristol old bridges, that they piled unthree piers would be required. But, der the sturlings. (See Seyer's Bristol.) whatever may be the hazard attached Nor is it at all probable, quick as are 10 a sandy foundation, it is certain that the sands of the Severn, and various it has been counteracted without exca

other sands, that a superstructure raised vation down to rock. Pliny (xxxvi. 14) upon the hull of the Royal George, the informs us, that the famous temple of Rother-ship, or a Severn trow bedded the Ephesian Diana was founded in a in sand, would subside much from the marshy soil to guard against earth- superincumbent weight; for Vauxhal! quakes, and that the foundations might bridge has its piers laid in boxes. not be laid in slippery ground,“ calca- to the Severn, the experiment could tis ea [fundamenta) carbonibus, dein be easily made by examining the depth velleribus lanz, substravere;" i. e.they to which the causeway on the Arlingunderlaid the foundations with trodden ham side, used from time immemorial, coals, afterwards with fleeces of wont; has subsided; and furthermore, the ford whence no doubt came the legend that al low water for carriages has been London Bridge was built upon wool. used from time immemorial, so that it sacks. This temple was in existence can never have been underinined, and long after the time of St. Paul. Alex- inust be firm enough for a timberander, when he wanted to pass the bridge, or an artificial bed of stone laid Arosis, demolished the villages, and, upon it. In excavation, the Amelaying the materials on blocks of stone, rican mode is twice as cheap as the promptly formed a bridge. (Pratt's Q English, both in bridge and canala Curt. ii. 30). Nor does it appear to be making. Instead of huinan labour bethe fact, that where there is an inter- ing employed in digging, a team or two vening artificial sound stratum; the ploughs the surface with a very strong substratum beneath is of much mo- plough, the men remove the earth as ment, for Alberti says, you may light fast as it is turned up; they then plough upon a country like that of the Adria again, and so continue the process, (if tic and Venice, where, under the con. the stratuin be not rocky) till the job is gestitia, you can find almost nothing completed. but loose mud (solutum limum). (De A bridge at Newnham, unless supre ædificat. fol. xxxii. b.) Our ancesa ported by Governinent (and in all na. tors seem to have acted in this way by tions except this, such public works making their starlings.

are so supported,) is, however, not like

ly to find patronage. The people of “ The original foundation of Old London Gloucester and the Old and New PasBridge appears to have been laid at low water, as the heads of the small piles were a

sages, have a strong interest in oplittle above that level; they were chiety of posing such a measure; but there is no elm, and driven in three rows, all rouod the

reasonable objection to a double-boat sides and ends of the piers, about six or

ferry like that used at Philadelphia, seven feet deep, and teu inches square, upon

and the profits of such a convenience an average. Between these piles a quantity might form a fair criterion as to the of loose rubble stones were laid without ce- prudence of ulterior measures. There ment, and upon this were bedded three strong are turnpike roads in communication sleepers, abont 21 inches wide and 9 thick. on both sides, and no approaches re

quired, nor acts of parliament, nor any * At veteres, quod faustum et felix sit, outlay except that which does not re-? fodito inquiunt usqueduw solidum invenias. quire serious consideration. Indeed one -- Alberti de re ædificat. fol. xxxii, or more patriotic noblemen or gentle

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1980.] Italian Drama at Paris.--Alfieri's Plays. men nright, by an easy subscription, man vocalists in the French capital : have a model and full working descrip- they commenced their representations tjops sent from Philadelphia, and by on Tuesday last (6th July,) with Rosassent of the proprietor of the ferry, set munda, a tragedy in five acts, by Alfieri; the business going. The secret consists followed by La casa désabitata, a farce in nothing more than two barges, with in one act by the Count Giraud, an a stage or platform, guarded by rails, Italian by birth, but of French descent. and forming a moveable bridge, which It is worthy of remark, that Alfieri's may be hooked on to piers or quays. plays are seldom allowed to be per

Having stated plain mutters of fact, formed in Italy; and from the sentiI do not see why English men in Eng- ments which pervade them, it can lạnd cannot be as wise as Anglo-Ame- hardly be supposed that the French ricans, and not sneer at conveniences Gorernment would suffer them to be because they may be cheap; in short, represented in a translation. Alfieri, I affirm that by ihe Philadelphian con- in his disposition, seems to have restruction of double ferry-boais, the pur- sembled Lord Byron; he identifies poses of a bridge may, to a very ample tyranny with almost every act of erery extent, be exemplified at Newnham, government, and is unsparing in his lp the great eventual benefit of the condemnation of those public characļown, the country, and the public at ters who fall under his lash. His strong large. We borrowed our steam-boats unqualified language is in consequence from the Americans, why not other as scarcely fit for theatrical publication in practicable conveniences? I am aware the vulgar tongue of any country; and of insult, because architects will not however the French literati inight wish suffer any public convenience what- to excuse the boldness of his style, and ever to be projected, if it be possible to the free spirit of his writings, they canprevent it, unless it be done at an enor. not so easily pardon his severe sarcasms mous expence, and their plea is na. on their national character; they con. tional ornament. Their plea is just, if sider it rather inconversant to comthe funds can be afforded, but it is mence the Italian performances with a known, that if expensive architectural production of such a writer. The Corconstruction cannot be afforded, the saire observes, that if his satire, the picturesque supplies the useful without Miso-Gallo, had been read in the pit, a fiftieth of the cost; and that the pub- not an individual would have remained lic convenience is not nor ought to be in the house. With such preventions, impeded, because a man will obstruct the merits of the Italian drama cannot your having a picturesque dwelling- be justly appreciated in Paris, until the house, unless you sacrifice almost all works of some other authors have been you are worth 10 make it an architec- represented. tural palace. It is a notorious fact, in leading characteristic of Alfieri's farour of the picturesque or Gothic 'tragedies is, that instead of displaying style, that no other style assists or har, the action upon which his drama is inonizes with landscape. In the Gothic, founded, he produces long colloquial there are beautiful, picturesque, and descriptions of some strong passion. cheap modes of improvenient, and ac- Threats are held out, curses denounced, cordingly it is now a prevailing fashion and reproaches vented, with nothing 10 Goshicize rural dwellings. Such a to relieve the monotony of the converstyle requires far less sacrifices of mo- sation. Shakspeare has been blamed ney, and fesy or no demolitions; by our classical neighbours, for dewhereas the Grecian, unless it be scending suddenly from the high pitch spoiled, demands bogh as to buildings of tragic sublimity to the low merrinot wholly new. The Grecian style, ment of a farce : those, however, who therefore, for persons of moderate for, make this objection, forget that such a tune more extensively obstructs the na

travsition is often necessary to prevent vional ornament than here and there an the attention from Aagging. The inexpensive fabric improves it.

troduction of comic scenes frequently Yours, &c. AN ECONOMIST. enables the spectator to become better

acquainted with the progress of the nar

rative than he could be by the declama. Mr. URBAN, Paris, July 9, tions and soliloquies of the principal THE Luneliana Thespians, nåriuosi personages; and while it is admited

, succeeded the Ger. truism, that variety charms,

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