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Retrospełtive view of American affairs in tbe year 1776. Preparation in

Canada for the armament on Lake Champlain. State of the American
force. Engagement near the isle Valcour. Arnold retires ; pursuit ;
overtaken ; burns his vessels, Crown Point destroyed and abandoned.
General Garleron lands there with the army. Motives for not attacking
Ficonderoga. General Carleton returns with the army 10 Canada.
Situation of affairs to the southward. General Lee taken. Perseverance
of the Congres. Measures for renewing their armies. Lands allotted
for serving during the war. Morey borrowed. Address to the people.
Petitions from the inhabitants of New York, and from those of Queen's
county in Long Ifan?, to obe Commissioners. Critical fate of Phila-
delphia. Congress retire to Baltimore. Divisions in Pennsylvanis.
Desertions. Surprize at Trenton. Lord Cornwallis returns

to the
Jerseys. Prevenied fron etracking the enemy at Trenton by impediments
of situation. General Wahington quits his camp, and attacks Colonel
Mawhood, near Princetoru'n. Lard Cornwallis returns from the Delaware
to Brunswick. Americans over-run the Jerseys. British and Auxiliary
forces keep poffeffion of Brunswick and Amboy, during the remainder of
the winter. Indian war. Articles of confederation and perpetual union
between the thirteen revolted Colonies.


Slate of affairs previous to the meeting of parliament. New peers. Change

in the department for the education of ibe Royal Brothers. 'Extraordinary
augmentation of the peerage in Ireland. Diftrefes of the Wej - India
islands. Depredations of tbe American cruizers.

Conduct observed in
ibe French and Spanit ports. Armaments. Several mer: of war com-


Distrid. Pres. D tertitt tre cits of Lorder ardite Arira's.
á 1511 of Focniri Pzur ; be bornsite bez-bca'é at Perumah;
jer: fir: i5 il te huis ut D . 594.2075 ice brone. cdire
Amendments motii. Great detzes.

Dibutes won e proclamation ijued in Arxrica b; be Comitickers. Mais

for a rivijo Le Aint.iar jazs bs Lird John Caterdik. Motion ri-

jitlil b; a great 12 korri. Se 12. Arguments urged for and again:

1 ke propric:a fartial jcie cli. 43,000 lumen vored. Dilate on naval

ajairs. Surroies for tre ratai anu ile iana jervice. Reces. - [42


Accounts laid before the committee of supply. Motions by the winter.

Contracts animadverted on. Payment of an unexpected demand made
by the Landgrave of Helje for le vy-money. Debates. Message from the
obrone. The message referred 10 the coinmittee of supply. Motion by Lord
john Cavendish, that the order of reference be discharged. Great
sebeiis. The motion rejEtid upon a division. Resolutions palled in the
{"nzmittee of lumply for ihe discharge of ibe debts incurred on the cizil
bijt establishment, and for an annual augmeniation of that reven!?.
Debates renewed upon receiving the re; crt from the committee of juipos
First rejolution paljed without a divisium. Amendment moved to ibe
jecond resoluiioita Ainendment rejeéteit'. Second rejolution carried aper
a divifion. Mifaze stared in the House of Lords. Address of con-
currence moved by the Eorl of Derly. Amendment moved by the
Bluquues of Rockingham. Amendment rejicted upon a division. Prey
vious question moved by the Duke of Grafion, and rejected. Addres
carried upou a division. Pretijl.

1 [67


Morion by the minister for the payment of a demand made by the
Landgrave of life, on an unliquidated hospital account of the last


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State of affairs at Naw-York previous to be opening of the campaign. Lozal

provincinis embodiaid, and placed under the command of Governor Tryon.

Expedition 10 Pork's Kiil. To Dandry, 1 er Güncial Tryon. Maga-

zines destroyed. General W'cofler kilicd. Vebels and provisions destroyed

at Sagg Harbour, by a detaihinent from Connecticut under Colonel Meigs.

Advantages dirived by Gineral Wahington frim the detention of the

army at New York through the wound of tenis. Dfirent jchemes fuge

gefied for conducting the oferations of the campaigi, oli rending to one object.

General Sir William Howe takes the field ; fuiis in his attempts to bring

I afhington to an action; reiires to imbos. Turns fideidy and advances

upon the enemy. Skirmishes. Arnerican: under Lórd Sterling defeated.

Vi'ahington regains his itrung camp. Royal army pass over 10 Staten.

Ijland. dlom excited by the preparations for the grand expedition.

General Prescot carrieit of" from Rhode ljiond. Rate of intereft upon the

public loan, advanced by the Congress. Monuments decreed for the Geue-

rals Warren and Merier. Fleet and arıny depart from Sandy Hook.

Force embarked on the expedition. Congress and Wajhington alarmed by

the loss of Iiconderoga. Fliet arrives at the River Elk, afier a tedio's

voyage, and difficult pasage up Chc/apeok Pnr. Ármy lands at Elk

Ferry. Declaration issued by the General. W hington ratu-95 10 the

defence of Philade!; liū. Atvances to the Brandywine, and to Red-Clady

Creek. Various movements on bo'b fides. dition at the Brandywine.

General Knyhausen makes an attack ar Chai's Forit. Lored Corzavallis

marches round to the forks oj' the, qvhere he pales, in order

to attack the enemy's right. Defears General Sullivan. Po fues bis ad.

vantages until fopped by night. General knyphou en pafes at Chud's

Ford. Enemy every wbere defeated. Los on both findes. Reflections on

the action. Victory not dreifive. Foreign officers in ihe American jer vice.

Motions of the armies. Engagement prevented by a great fall of ra ..

Major. General Grey Jurprizes and deficis a party of Americans un'r

General Wayne. Royal army pares the Schayikiil, and can ances 10 Ger.

man-Town. Lord Cornwallis takes polition of Pbilide piia. Some of

the principal inhabitants font prisoners 10 Virginia, upon the approach


of the army. Attack on the new batteries at Philadelphia. Delo
ware frigate taken. Works constructed by the Americans to render the
passage of the Delaware impracticable

. Successful expedition to Billings
Fori, and a pasjage made through the lower barrier. Royal arm; jur.
prized and attacked by the Americans at German-Town. Americans te.
pulsed with loss and pursued. Brigadier-General Agnew, and Colonel Bird
killed. Arity removes to Philadelphia. Unsuccessful attack upon rbe ent-
my's works on the Delaware. Hillians repuljed with great loss at Red
Bank. Colonel Donop killed. dugifta man of war and Merlin floop de
Aroyed. New and efectual measures taken for forcing the enemy's works.
Müd Ifland, and Red Bank, abandoned, and taken with ibeir artillery
and fores. Americans burn their gallies and other shipping: Parage of
the Delaware opened to Philadelphia. General Sir William Howe, finding
all his efforts to bring Washington to a general actia fruitless, returns
with the army to Philadelphia. Americans but their camp at Valley Forge

for the winter.


Canada. Conduct of the northern expedition committed to General Burgoyne.

Preparations made by General Carleton. Line of condu& pursued by bist
upon the new arrangement. Different opinions upon the utility and pro-

priety of employing the Savages. State of the force under the command of

General Burgoyne. Canadians obliged to contribute largely ro the service


Expedition under Colonel St. Leger. War feast, and speech to the Indians

at ibe river Bouquet. Manifesto. Royal army invest Ticonderoga and

Mount Independence. Council of war beld, and the forts abandoned by

the Americans. Boom and bridge cut through. Pursuit by land and

water. American gallies and batteaux destroyed near Skenesborough Wa.

ter falls. Americans set fire to, and abandon their works. Rear of the

Americans overtaken by General Frazer near Hubberton. Golonel Francis

defeated and killed. General St. Clair, with the remains of his arki,

take to the woods; and arrive at length at Fort Edward.. Enemy bravely

repuljed by Colonel Hill, and the gtb regiment, who are obliged to engage

under a vaft fuperiority of force. Americans set fire to, and abandon Fort

Anne. Extraordinary difficulties encountered by the royal army in the march

to Fort Edward. American Army retires to Saratoga. (141


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General terror excited by the loss of Ticonderoga, and the expedited pro-

gress of the favages. New England governments not withftanding few na
appearance of submiffion. Arnold Jent with a reinforcement to be
northern army. Ill effe&ts produced by the cruelties of the Indians. Dif
ficulties experienced by the royal army in the neighbourhood of Fort És
ward, and in the conveyance of provisions and stores from Lake George.
Movement made down the North River, and a bridge of rajis throur
over near Saratoga, in order to facilitate the operations of Colonel St.
beger. Expedition to furprize the magazines at Bennington, under the


condud of Colonel Baum. Colonel Breyman ordered forward to support
the expedition. Bauin defeated and taken prisoner; Breyman also defeat-
ed. Ill consequences. Fort Stanwix obstinately defended against Colonel
St. Leger. - General Harkimer attempts to relieve the fort with a body
of militia, who are moftly cut to pieces. Cruelty, and ill conduct of the
ja vages ; grow fullen and intra iable; oblige Colonel St. Leger to raise
the fege with precipitation and lofs. Villainy of their behaviour on ibe
retreat. Siege raised before the arrival of Arnold and his detachment
to the relief of the fort. General Gates takes the command of the Ame-
rican army. General Burgoyne with the royal army pass the North River
at Saratoga, and advance 10 attack the enemy near Still Water. Differ-
ence of opinion upon that measure, as well as the motives which led to its
being adopted. Severe and beavy ačtion on the nineteenth of Sep-
tember. Both armies fortify their camps. Unfortunate action on the
seventh of Oktober. Camp formed. Death of General Frazer, Co-
lonel Breyman, and Sir James Clarke. Distressed situation of the
royal army. Masterly movement made, and an entire new position
taken in the right. New engagement eagerly fought, but refufid on
the next day by the enemy. Retreat to Saratoga. Previous defertion
of the Indians and others. Royal army reduced to the utmost freights.
Nearly surrounded on all fides. Cut of from all means of fubfitence,
and poffibility of retreat. Councils of war.

Convention concluded
with General Gates. Terms of the convention. State of the army.
Successful expedition by Sir Henry Clinton and General Vaughan up ine
North River. Several forts taken ; Elopus and other places destroyed.
Colonel Campbell, with the Majors Sill and Grant, and Count Graboufie,
a Polish nobleman, killed in this expedition. Some observations on the


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Amicable change of disposition in the courts of Madrid and Lifoon, upon

the death of ihe King of Portugal. Some account of thar Monarch. Suc-
ceeded by his daughter the Princess of Brazil. Marquis of Pombal re-
moved from power. Public joy upon that occasion. Some account of
that minifter. Stafe prisoners enlarged, and popularity acquired by that
act. Orders fent 10 Scuth America for a cefation of boftilities. Account
of the state and progress of the armament which had been sent out from
Cadiz in the latter end of the preceding year. Takes the ifand of St.
Catharine's. Reduces the colony of St. Sacrament. Preliminaries of peace,
and a treaty of limits concluded between Spain and Portugal. Objerva.
tions on that event. Arntaments still continued in Spain. Differences be-
oween Rusia and the Porie. Rival Chans. Petty war in the Crimea,
Both sides unwilling to proceed to extremities. Iar between the Turks and
Perfians. State of Russia. King of Sweden visits that court. Dreadful
inundation at Petersburg. Emperor visits France. Treaty between France
and Switzerland. Death of the Ele&tor of Bavaria.


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