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17 And God set them in the firmament of the and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas; and heaven, to give light upon the earth,
let fowl multiply in the earth. 18 And to rule over the day and over the night, 23 And the evening and the morning were the and to divide the light from the darkness : and God fifth day. saw that it was good.
24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the 19 And the evening and the morning were the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping fourth day,
thing, and beast of the earth after his kind : and it 20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth was so. abundantly the moving *creature that hath "life, and 25 And God made the beast of the earth after his fowl that may fly above the earth in the open kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing Sfirmament of heaven.
that creepeth upon the earth after his kind : and 21 And God created great whales, and every. God saw that it was good. living creature that moveth, which the waters 26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, brought forth abundantly after their kind, and every after our likeness; and let them have dominion over winged fowl after his kind : and God saw that it the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and was good.
over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over 22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 9 Jer. 31. 35. creeping. teoul. I let fowl fy.
S face of the firmamene of heaeen. affront to God, and a great reproach to ourselves, to make kinds, conformable to the ideas of them in the divine counsels deities of them, and give them divine honours ; see Deut. 4. concerning their creation.” 2. He also did the work; he made 19. (2.) The duty and wisdom of daily worshipping that God them all after their kind, not only of divers shapes, but of divers who made all these things, and made them to be that to us natures, manners, food, and fashions : some to be tame about which they are, The revolutions of the day and night oblige the house, others to be wild in the fields ; some living upon grass us to the solemn sacrifice of prayers and praises, every mor- and herbs, others upon flesh; some harmless, and others ravening and evening.
nous ; some bold, and others timorous; some for man's service, V. 20-23. Each day, hitherto, has produced very noble and not his sustenance, as the horse ; others for his sustenance, and excellent beings, which we can never sufficiently admire; and not his service, as the sheep ; others for both, as the ox; but we do not read of the creation of any living creature, till and some for neither, as the wild beasts. In all which appears the fifth day, which these verses give us an account of. The the manifold wisdom of the Creator. work of creation not only proceeded gradually from one thing V. 26–28. We have here the second part of the sixth day's to another, but rose and advanced gradually from that which work, the creation of man, which we are, in a special manner, was less excellent to that which was more so, teaching us to concerned to take notico of, that we may know ourselves. press toward perfection, and endeavour that our last works may Observe, be our best works. It was on the fifth day that the fish and I. That man was made last of all the creatures, that it might fowl were created, and both out of the waters; though there is not be suspected that he had been, any way, a helper to God in one kind of Aesh of fishes, and another of birds, yet they were the creation of the world : that question must be for ever hummade together, and both out of the waters;
for the power of bling and mortifying to him, Where wast thou, or any of thy the first Cause can produce very different effects from the same kind, when I laid the foundations of the earth? Job 38. 4. Yet second causes. Observe,
it was both an honour and a favour to him, that he was made 1. The making of the fish and fowl, at first, v. 20, 21. God last ; an honour, for the method of the creation was to advance commanded them to be produced; he said, Let the waters from that which was less perfect to that which was more so; bring forth abundantly; not as if the waters
had any productive and a favour, for it was not fit he should be lodged in the palace power of their own, but, “Let them be brought into being, the designed for him, till it was completely filled up and furnished fish in the waters, and the fowl out of them." This command for his reception. Man, as soon as he was made, had the he himself executed ; God created great whales, foc. Insects, whole visible creation before him, both to contemplate, and to which perhaps are as various and as numerous as any species take the comfort of. Man was made the same day that the of animals, and their structure as curious, were part of this beasts were, because his body was made of the same earth day's work, some of them
being allied to the fish, and others to with their's; and while he is in the body, he inhabits the same the fowl. Mr. Boyle (I remember) says, he admires the Crea- earth with them: God forbid that by indulging the body and tor's wisdom and power as much in an ant as in an elephant. the desires of it, we should make ourselves like the beasts that Notice is here taken of the various sorts of fish and fowl, each perish! after their kind; and of the great numbers of both that were pro II. That man's creation was a more signal and immediate duced, for the waters brought forth abundantly; and particular act of divine wisdom and power than that of the other creatures. mention is made of great whales, the largest of fishes, whose The narrative of it is introduced with something of solemnity, bulk and strength, exceeding that of any other animal, are and a manifest distinction from the rest : hitherto, it had been remarkable proofs of the power and greatness of the Creator. said, Let there be light, and Let there be a firmament; or, “Let The express notice here taken of the whale, above all the rest, the earth, or waters, bring forth such a thing;", but now the seems sufficient to determine what animal is meant by the word of command is turned into a word of consultation, “ Let Leviathan, Job 41.1. The curious formation of the bodies of us make man, for whose sake the rest of the creatures were animals, their different sizes, shapes, and natures, with the made : this is a work we must take into our own hands." In admirable powers of the sensitive life with which they are the former, he speaks as one having authority, in this as one endued, when duly considered, serve, not only to silence and having affection, for his delights were with the sons of men, shame the objections of atheists and infidels, but to raise high Prov. 8.31. It should seem as if this were the work which he thoughts and high praises of God in pious and devout souls, Ps. longed to be at; as if he had said, “having
at last settled the 104, 25, &c.
preliminaries, let us now apply ourselves to the business, Let II. The blessing of them, in order to their continuance. Life us make man." Man was to be a creature different from all is a wasting thing; its strength is not the strength of stones, it that had been hitherto made. Flesh and spirit, heaven and is a candle that will burn out, if it be not first blown out; and earth, must be put together in him, and he must be allied to therefore the wise Creator not only made the individuals, but both worlds. And therefore God himself not only undertakes provided for the propagating of the several kinds, v. 22. God to make, but is pleased so to express himself, as if he called a blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply. God will bless council to consider of the making of him; Let us make man. his own works, and not forsake them; and what he doeth it. The three persons of the Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, shall be for a perpetuity, Ec. 3. 14. The power of God's consult about it, and concur in it, because man, when he was providence preserves all things, as, at first, his creating power made, was to be dedicated and devoted to Father, Son, and produced them. Fruitfulness is the effect of God's blessing, Holy Ghost. Into that Great Name we are, with good reason, and must be ascribed to it; the multiplying of the fish and fowl, baptised, for to that Great Name we owe our being. Let them from year to year, is still the fruit of this blessing. Well, let rule man, who said, Let us make man. us give to God the glory of the continuance of these creatures III. That man was made in God's image, and after his liketo this day for the benefit of man. See Job 12.7–9. It is ness; two words to express the same thing, and making each pity that fishing and fowling, recreations innocent in themselves, other the more expressive ; image and likeness denote the likest should ever be abused to divert any from God and their duty, image, the nearest resemblance of any of the visible creatures. while they are capable of being improved to lead us to the con- Man was not made in the likeness of any creature that went templation of the wisdom, power, and goodness of him that before him, but in the likeness of his Creator ; yet still, between made all these things, and to engage us to stand in awe of him, God and man there is an infinite distance. Christ only is the as the fish and fowl do of us.
express image of God's person, as the Son of his Father, having V. 24, 25. We have here the first part of the sirth day's the same nature. It is only some of God's honour, that is put work. The sea was, the day before, replenished with its fish, upon man, who is God's image, only as the shadow in the glass, and the air with its fowl; and, this day, were made the beast or the king's impress upon the coin. God's image upon man of the earth, cattle, and the creeping things that pertain to the consists in these three things, 1. In his nature and constitution, carth. Here, as before, 1. The Lord gave the word; he said, not those of his body, (for God has not a body,) but those of his Let the earth bring forth, not as if the earth had any such pro- soul. This honour indeed God has put upon the body of man, lific virtue as to produce these animals, or as if God resigned that the Word was made flesh, the Son of God was clothed his creating power to it; but, “Let these creatures now come with a body like unto our's, and will shortly clothe our's with a into being upon the earth, and out of it, in their respective glory like unto his. And this we may safely say, That he by
27 So God created man in his own image, in the herb 'bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the image of God created he him; male and female cre-earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a ated he them.
tree yielding seed; sto you it shall be for meat. 28 And God blessed them, and God said unto 30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and every green herb for meat: and it was so. over every living thing that moveth * upon the 31 And God saw every thing that he had made, earth.
and, behold, it was very good. And the evening 29 And God said, Behold I have given you every and the morning were the sixth day. r Ec. 7. 29. Eph. 4. 24. • creepeti.
† seeding seed. & c. 9.3. I a living soul. whom God made the worlds, not only the great world, but man V. That God gave to man, when he had made him, a the little world, formed the human body, at the first, according dominion over the inferior creatures, over the fish of the sea, and to the platforın he designed for himself in the fulness of time. over the fowl of the air : though man provides for neither, he has But it is the soul, the great soul, of man, that does especially power over both, much more over every living thing that moveth bear God's image. The soul is a spirit, an intelligent immortal | upon the earth, which are more under his care, and within his spirit, an influencing active spirit, herein reseinbling God, the reach. God designed, hereby, to put an honour upon man, Father of Spirits, and the Soul of the world. The spirit of man is that he might find himself the more strongly obliged to bring the candle of the Lord. The soul of man, considered in its three honour to his Maker. This dominion is very much diminished noble faculties, understanding, will, and active power, is perhaps and lost by the fall : yet God's providence continues so much the brightest clearest looking-glass in nature, wherein to see of it to the children of me as is necessary to the safety and God. 2. In his place and authority. Let us make man in our support of their lives, and God's grace has given to the saints a image, and let him have dominion. As he has the government new and better title to the creature than that which was forfeited of the inferior creatures, he is, as it were, God's representa- by sin; for all is ours, if we are Christ's, 1 Cor. 3. 22. tive, or viceroy, upon earth ; they are not capable of fearing V. 29, 30. We have here the third part of the sixth day's and serving God, therefore God has appointed ihem to fear and work, which was, not any new creation, but a gracious provision serve man. Yet his government of himself by the freedom of of food for all flesh, Ps. 136. 25. He that made man and beast, his will, has in it more of God's image than his government of thus took care to preserve both, Ps. 36. 6. Here is, the creatures. 3. In his purity and rectitude. God's image I. Food provided for man, v. 29. Herbs and fruits must be upon man consists in knowledge, righteousness, and true holi- his meat, including corn, and all the products of the earth; these ness, Eph. 4. 24. Col. 3. 10. He was upright, Ec. 7. 29. were allowed him, but (it should seem) not Hesh, till after the He had an habitual conformity of all his natural powers to the flood, ch. 9. 3. And before the earth was deluged, much more whole will of God. His understanding saw divino things before it was cursed for man's sake, its fruits, no doubt, were clearly and truly, and there were no errors or mistakes in his more pleasing to the taste, and more strengthening and nourishknowledge : his will complied readily and universally with the ing to the body, than marrow and fatness, and all the portion of will of God, without reluctancy or resistance : his affections the king's meat, are now. See here, 1. That which should were all regular, and he had no inordinate appetites or pas- make us humble. As we were made out of the earth, so we are sions : his thoughts were easily brought, and fixed, to the best maintained out of it. Once indeed, man did eat angels' food, subjects, and there was no vanity or ungovernableness in them. bread from heaven ; but they died, John 6. 49: it was to them All the inferior powers were subject to the dictates and direc- but as food out of the earth, Ps. 104. 14. There is meat that tions of the superior, without any mutiny or rebellion. Thus endures to everlasting lifo ; the Lord evermore give us thai! holy, thus happy, were our first parents, in having the image 2. That which should make us thankful. The Lord is for the of God upon them. And this honour put upon man, at first, body; from him we receive all the supports and comforts of this is a good reason why we should not speak ill one of another, life, and to him we must give thanks. He gives us all things Jam. 3. 9, nor do ill one to another, Gen. 9. 6, and a good reason richly to enjoy, not only for necessity, but plenty, dainties, and why we should not debase ourselves to the service of sin, and varieties, for ornament and delight. How much are we inwhy we should devote ourselves to God's service. But how debted! How careful should we be, as we live upon God's art thou fallen, O son of the morning! How is this image of bounty, to live to his glory! 3. That which should make us God upon man defaced ! how small are the remains of it, and temperate, and content with our lot. Though Adam had domihow great the ruins of it! The Lord renew it upon our souls nion given him over fish and fowl, yet God confined him, in by his sanctifying grace!
his food, to herbs and fruits; and he never complained of it. IV. That man was made male and female, and blessed with Though afterward he coveted forbidden fruit, for the sake of the blessing of fruitfulness and increase. God said, Let us the wisdom and knowledge he promised himself from it, yet we make man, and immediately it follows, So God created man; never read that he coveted forbidden flesh. If God give us food he performed what he resolved. With us, saying and doing for our lives, let us not, with murmuring Israel, ask food for our are two things ; but they are not so with God. He created lusts, Ps, 78. 18. See Dan. 1. 15. him male and female, Adam and Eve; Adam, first out of earth, II. Food provided for the beasts, v. 30.
Doth God take care and Eve out of his side, ch. 2. It should seem that of the rest for oxen? Yes, certainly; he provides food convenient for of the creatures, God made many couples, but of man did not them, and not for oxen only, which were used in his sacrifices, he make one ? (Mal. 2. 15,) though he had the residue of the and man's service, but even the young lions and the young spirit: whence Christ gathers an argument against divorce, ravens are the care of his providence, they ask and have their Matt. 19. 4, 5. Our first father, Adam, was confined to one meat from God. Let us give to God the glory of his bounty to wife ; and if he had put her away, there was no other for him the inferior creatures, that are all fed, as it were, at his table, to marry, which plainly intimated that the bond of marriage was every day. He is a great Housekeeper, a very rich and bounnot to be dissolved at pleasure. Angels were not made male tiful one, that satisfies the desire of every living thing. Let and female, for they were not to propagate their kind, (Luko this encourage God's people to cast their care upon him, and 20. 34–36,) but man was inade so that the nature might be not to be solicitous respecting what they shall eat, and what propagatod, and the race continued. Fires and candles, the they shall drink. He that provided for Adam without his care, luminaries of this lower world, because they waste, and go out, and still provides for all the creatures without their care, will not have a power to light more ; but it is not so with the lights of let those that trust him want any good thing, Matt. 6. 26. He heaven, stars do not kindle stars. God made but one male and that feeds his birds, will not starve his babes. one female, that all the nations of men might know themselves V. 31. We have, here, the approbation and conclusion of to be made of one blood, descendants from one common stock, the whole work of creation. As for God, his work is perfect; and might thereby be induced to love one another. God, having and if he begin, he will also make an end, in providence and made them capable of transmitting the nature they had received, grace, as well as here in creation. Observe, said to them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. I. The review God took of his work ; he saw every thing Here he gave them, 1. A large inheritance; Replenish the that he had made : so he does still; all the works of his hands carth ; that is it that is bestowed upon the children of men. are under his eye. He that made all, sees all; he that made They were made to dwell upon the face of all the earth, Acts us, sees us, Ps. 139. 1-16. Omniscience cannot be sepa17. 26. That is the place in which God has set man to be the rated from Omnipotence. Known unto God are all his works, servant of his providence, in the government of the inferior Acts 15. 18. But this was the Eternal mind's solemn refleccreatures, and, as it were, the intelligence of this orb; to be tion upon the copies of its own wisdom, and the product of its the receiver of God's bounty, which other creatures live upon, own power. God has hereby set us an example of reviewing but do not know it: to be likewise the collector of his praises our works. Having given us a power of reflection, he expects in this lower world, and to pay them into the exchequer above, we should use that power, see our way, Jer. 2. 23, and think of Ps. 145. 10, and (lastly) to be a probationer for a better state it, Ps. 119. 59. When we have finished a day's work, and are 2. A numerous, lasting family, to enjoy this inheritance; pro- entering upon the rest of the night, we should commune with nouncing a blessing upon them, in the virtue of which their our own hearts about what we have been doing that day; so posterity should extend to the utmost corners of the earth, and likewise, when we have finished a week's work, and are entering continue to the utmost period of time. Fruitfulness and upon the sabbath rest, we should thus prepare to meet our God; increase depend upon the blessing of God : Obed-Edom bad and when we are finishing our life's work, and are entering upon cight sons, for God blessed him, ! Chr. 26. 5. It is owing our rest in the grave, that is a time to bring to remembrance, to this blessing which God commanded at first, that the race of that we may die repenting, and so take leave of it. mankind is still in being, and that as one generation passeth II. The complacency God took in his work. When we come away, another cometh.
to review our works, we find, to our shame, that much has been
3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sancti
fied it; because that in it he had rested from all his This chapter is an appendix to the history of the creation, more particularly er.
plainine, and enlarang upuan, llune part of the history, which relatea imunolitely work which God created and made. Banctification of the sabbath, which was made for man, to further his holiness
4 These are the generations ot the heavens and and comfort, v. 1–3. 11. A more particular account of man's creation, as the of the earth when they were created, in the day that den of Eden, and the placing of ran in it under the obligations of a law and cove: the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, naut, v. 9-17. IV. The creation of the woman, her marriage to the man, and
5 And every plant of the field before it was in the the inruitution of the ordinance of marriage, v. 18-25.
earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: VHUS the heavens and the earth were finished, for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon and all the host of them.
the earth, and there was not a man to till the 2 And 'on the seventh day God ended his work ground. which he had made; and he rested on the seventh 6 But there went up a mist from the earth, and day from all his work which he had made. watered the whole face of the ground. a Ex. 20. 11. le. 98. 13, Heb. 4. 4.
• created to make. t or, a miat which went up from. very bad; but when God reviewed his, all was very good. He it, and appointed us, on that day, lo rest and take a compladid not pronounce it good, till he had seen it so; to teach uscency in the Creator; and his rest is, in the fourth commandnot to answer a matter before we hear it. The work of creation ment, made a reason for our's, after six days' labour. Observe, was a very good work. All that God made was well made, and 1. That the solemn observation of one day in seven, as a day there was no tlaw or defect in it. 1. It was good. Good, for it of holy rest, and holy work, to God's honour, is the indispenis all agreeable to the mind of the Creator, just as he would sable duty of all those to whom God has revealed his holy have it to be; when the transcript came to be compared with sabbaths. 2. That the way of sabbath sanctification is the the great original, it was found to be exact, no errata in it; not good old way, Jer. 6. 16. Sabbaths are as ancient as the one misplaced stroke. Good, for it answers the end of its cre- world; and I see no reason to doubt that the sabbath, being now ation, and is fit for the purpose for which it was designed instituted in innocency, was righteously observed by the people Good, for it is serviceable to man, whom God had appointed of God throughout the patriarchal age. 3. That the sabbath of lord of the visible creation. Good, for it is all for God's glory; the Lord is truly honourable, and we have reason to honour it; there is that in the whole visible creation, which is a demonstra- honour it, for the sake of its antiquity, its great Author, the sanca lion of God's being and perfections, and which tends to beget, tification of the first sabbath by the holy God himself, and, in obein the soul of man, a religious regard to him, and veneration of dience to him, by our first parents in innocency. 4. That the him. 2. It was very good. Of each day's work, (except the sabbath-day is a blessed day, for God blessed it; and that which second,) it was said that it was good, but now it is very good. he blesses is blessed indeed. God has put an honour upon it, For, I. Now, man was made, who was the chief of the ways has appointed us, on that day, to bless him, and has promised, of God, who was designed to be the visible image of the Crear on that day, to meet us and bless us. 5. That the sabbath-day is tor's glory, and the mouth of the creation in his praises. 2. a holy day, for God has sanctifed it. He has separated and Now, all was made ; every part was good, but altogether very distinguished it from the rest of the days of the week, and be good. The glory and goodness, the beauty harmony, of has consecrat it, and set it apart to himself and his own serGod's works, both of providence and grace, as this of creation, vice and honour.' Though it is commonly taken for granted, will best appear when they are perfected. When the top stone that the Christian sabbath we observe, reckoning from the creis brought forth, we shall cry Grace, grace, unto it, Zech. 4. 7. alion, is not the seventh but the first day of the week, yet being Therefore judge nothing before the time.
a seventh day, and we, in it, celebrating the rest of God the III. The time when this work was concluded. The evening Son, and the finishing the work of our redemption, we may and and the morning were the sixth day. So that in six days God ought to act faith upon this original institution of the sabbathmade the world. We are not to think but that God could have day, and to commemorate the work of creation, to the bonour made the world in an instant. He that said, Let there be light of the great Creator, who is therefore worthy to receive, on and there was light, could have said, " Let there be a world," that day, blessing, and honour, and praise, from all religious and there would have been a world, in a moment, in the twinkling assemblies, of an eye, as at the resurrection, 1 Cor. 15. 52. But he did it V. 47. In these verses, I. Here is a name given to the in six days, that he might show himself a free agent, doing his Creator, which we have not yet met with, and that is Jehovah; own work, both in his own way, and in his own time; that his the LORD in capital letters, which is constantly used, in our wisdom, power, and goodness, might appear to us, and be medi-English translation, to intimate that in the original it is Jehovah. lated upon by us, the more distinctly; and that he might set us All along, in the first chapter, he was called Elohim, a God of an example of working six days, and resting the seventh; it is power, but now Jehovah Elohim, a God of power and perfection, therefore made the reason of the fourth commandment. So a finishing Gou. As we find him known by his name Jehovah, much would the sabbath conduce to the keeping up of religion when he appeared to perform what he had promised, Ex. 6. in the world, that God had an eye to it, in the timing of his 3, so now we have him known by that name, when be had per. creation. And now, as God reviewed his work, let us review fected what he had begun. Jehwah is that great and incomour meditations upon it, and we shall find them very lame and municable name of God, which denotes his having his being defective, and our praises low and flat; let is therefore stir up of himself, and his giving his being to all things; fitly thereourselves, and all ihat is within us, to worship him that marle fore is he called by that name, now that heaven and earth are the heaven, earth, and sea, and the fountains of waters, according finished. to the tenor of the everlasting Gospel which is preached to every II. Further notice taken of the production of plants and nation, Rev. 14. 6, 7. All his works, in all places of his do herbs, because they were made and appointed to be fool for minion, do bless him; and therefore, bless thou the Lord, O my man, v. 5, 6, where observe, 1. The earth did not bring forth soul.
its fruits of itself, by any innate virtue of its own, but purely by NOTES.
the almighty power of God, which formed every plant and CHAP. II. V.1-3. We have here,
every herb, before it grew in the earth. Thus grace in the 1. The settlement of the kingdom of nature, in God's resting soul, that plant of renown, grows not of itself in nature's soil, from the work of creation, v. 1, 2. Where observe, 1. That but is the work of Gol's own hands. 2. Rain also is the gift the creatures, made both in heaven and earth, are the hosts, or of God; it came not till the Lord God caused it to rain. If armies of them, which denotes them to be numerous, but mar- rain be wanted, it is God that withholds it; if rain come plenshalled, disciplined, and under command. How great is the tifully in its season, it is God that sends it ; if it come in a sum of them! And yet every one knows and keeps his place. distinguishing way, it is God that couseth it to rain upon one God uses them as his hosts for the defence of his people, and city, and not upon another, Am. 4.7. 3. Though God, ordithe destruction of his enemies; for he is the Lord of hosts, of narily, works by means, yet he is not tied to them, but when he all these bosts, Dan. 4. 35. 2. That the heavens and the earth pleases, he can do his own work without them. As the plants are finished pieces, and so are all the creatures in them. So were produced before the sun was made, so they were before perfect is God's work, that nothing can be added to it, or taken there was either rain to water the earth, or man to till it. Therefrom it, Ec. 3. 14. God that began to build, showed himself fore, though we must not tempt God in the neglect of means, well able to finish. 3. That after the end of the first six days, yet we must trust God in the want of means.
4. Some way God ceased from all works of creation. He has so ended or other, God will take care to water the plants that are of his his work, as that though, in his providence, he worketh own planting. Though, as yet, there was no rain, God made hitherto, (John 5. 17,) preserving and governing all the a mist equivalent to a shower, and with it watered the whole face creatures, and particularly forming the spirit of man within of the ground. Thus he chose to fulfil bis purpose by the him, yet he does not make any new species of creatures. In weakest means, that the ercellency of the power might be of God. miracles, he has controlled and overruled nature, but never Divine grace descends like a mist or silent dew, and waters the changed its settled course, or repealed, or added to, any of its church without noise, Deut. 32. 2. establishments. 4. That the eternal God, though infinitely III. A more particular account of the creation of man, v. 7. happy in the enjoyment of himself, yet took a satisfaction in Man is a little world, consisting of heaven and earth, soul and the work of his own hands. He did not rest as one weary, but body ; now here we have an account of the original of both, as one well pleased with the instances of his own goodness, and and the putting of both together: let us seriously consider it, the manifestations of his own glory.
and say, to our Creator's praiso, We are fearfully and wonII. The commencement of the kingdom of grace, in the derfully made, Ps. 139. 14. Elihu, in the patriarchal age, refers sanctification of the sabbath-day, v. 3. He rested on that day, to this history, when he says, Job 33. 6, I also am formed out and took a complacency in his creatures, and then sanctified of the clay, and v. 4, The breath of the Almighty haih given me
7 And the Lord God formed man* of the dust 11 The name of the first is Pison : that is it of the ground, and breathed into his dnostrils the which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, breath of life, and man became a living soul. where there is gold;
8 And the Lord God planted / a garden eastward 12 And the gold of that land is good : there is in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had bdellium and the onyx-stone. formed.
13 And the name of the second river is Gihon : 9 And out of the ground made the Lord God to the same is it that compasseth the whole land of grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and Ethiopia, good for food; the stree of life also in the midst of 14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel : the garden, and the "tree of knowledge of good and that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. evil.
And the fourth river is Euphrates. 10 And a river went out of Eden to water the 15 And the Lord God took she man, and 'put garden; and from thence it was parted, and be- him into the garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep came into four heads.
it. • dust of the ground, b c. 3. 19. Ps. 103. 14. Is. 61. 8. 1 Cor. 15, 47. c Job
S c. 3.22. Prov. 3. 18. Rev. 2. 7. h ver. 17. i c. 25. 18. Cush. k Dan. 10. 4. 33. 4. d 18. 2. 22. o1 Cor. 15, 45. Ex. 91.8, 9.
or, ensluard to Assyria.
I ver, 8. life, and ch. 32, 8, There is a spirit in man. Observe for the mansion and demesne of this great lord, the palace of then,
this prince. The inspired penman, in this history, writing for 1. The mean original, and yet the curious structure, of the the Jews first, and calculating his narratives for the infant-state body of man. (1.) The matter was despicable. He was made of the church, describes things by their outward sensible of the dust of the ground, a very unlikely thing to make a man appearances, and leaves us, by further discoveries of the of; but the same Infinite Power that made the world of nothing, divine light, to be led into the understanding of the mysteries made man, its masterpiece, of next to nothing. He was made couched under them. Spiritual things were strong meat, which of the dust, the small"dust, such as is upon the surface of the they could not yet bear; but he writes to them as unto carnal, earth. Probably, not dry dust, but dust moistened with the 1 Cor. 3.1. Therefore he does not so much insist upon the hapmist that went up, v. 6. He was not made of gold-dust, pow. piness of Adam's mind, as upon that of his outward estate. der of pearl, or diamond dust, but common dust, dust of the The Mosaic history, as well as the Mosaic law, has rather the ground. Hence he is said to be of the earth, xoikosusty, patterns of heavenly things, than the heavenly things themi Cor. 15. 47. And we also are of the earth, for we are his selves, Heb. 9. 23. Observe, offspring, and of the same mould. So near an affinity is there 1. The place appointed for Adam's residence was a garden; between the earth and our earthly parents, that our mother's not an ivory house, or a palace overlaid with gold, but a garden womb, out of which we were born, is called the earth ; (Ps. 139. furnished and adorned by nature, not by art. What little reason 15;) and the earth, in which we must be buried, is called our have men to be proud of stately and magnificent buildings, when mother's womb, Job 1.21. Our foundation is in the earth, Job it was the happiness of man in innocency, that he needed none ! 4. 19. Our fabric is earthly, and the fashioning of it like that As clothes came in with sin, so did houses. The heaven was of an earthen vessel, Job 10. 9. Our food is out of the earth, the roof of Adam's house ; and never was any roof so curiously Job 28. 5. Our familiarity is with the earth, Job 17. 14. Our ceiled and painted : the earth was his floor ; and never was any fathers are in the earth, and our own final tendency is to it;foor so richly inlaid : the shadow of the trees was his retireand what have we to be proud of then? Is. 51. 1. (2.) Yet the ment, under them were his dining-rooms, his lodging-rooms; Maker was great, and the make fine. The Lord God, the great and never were any rooms so finely hung as these; Solomon's, Fountain of being and power,
The better we tures it is said, that they were created and made ; but of man, can accommodate ourselves to plain things, and the less we that he was formed, which denotes a gradual process in the indulge ourselves with those artificial delights which have been work with great accuracy and exactness, To express the cre- invented to gratify men's pride and luxury, the nearer we ation of this new thing, he takes a new word; a word (some approach to a state of innocency. Nature is content with a think) borrowed from the potter's forming his vessel upon the little, and that which is most natural ; grace with less ; but lust wheel, for we are the clay, and God the Potter, Is. 64.8. The with nothing. body of man is curiously wronght, Ps. 139. 15, 16. Materiam 2. The contrivance and furniture of this garden were the imsuperabat opus-The workmanship erceeded the materials. Let mediate work of God's wisdom and power. The Lord God us present our bodies to God as living sacrifices, Rom. 12.1; planted this garden, that is, he had planted it-upon the third as living temples, 1 Cor. 6. 19; and then these vile bodies shall day, when the fruits of the earth were made. We may well shortly be new-formed like Christ's glorious body, Phil. 3. 21. suppose it to have been the most accomplished place for pleasure
2. The high original, and yet the admirable serviceableness, and delight that ever the sun saw ; when the all-sufficient God of the soul of man. (1.) It takes its rise from the breath of hea- himself designed it to be the present happiness of his beloved ven, and is produced by it. It was not made of the earth, as creature, man, in innocency, and a type and figure of the happithe body was ; it is pity then that it should cleave to the earth, ness of ine chosen remnant in glory. No delights can be and mind earthly things. It came immediately from God, he agreeable or satisfying to a soul, but those that God himself has gave it to be put into the body, (Ec. 12. 7,) as, afterward, he provided and appointed for it; no true paradise, but of God's gave the tables of stone of his own writing to be put into the planting ; the light of our own fires, and the sparks of our own ark, and the urim of his own framing to be put into the breast- kindling, will soon leave us in the dark, Is. 50. 11.
The whole plate. Hence God is not only the Former, but the Father, of earth was now a paradise, compared with what it is since the spirits. Let the soul which God has breathed into us, breathe fall, and since the Hood; the finest gardiens in the world are a after him; and let it be for him, since it is from him.' Into his wilderness, compared with what the whole face of the ground hands let us commit our spirits, for from his hands we had them. was before it was cursed for man's sake : yet that was not (2.) It takes its lodging in a house of clay, and is the life and enough ; God planted a garden for Adam. God's chosen ones support of it. It is by it, that man is a living soul, that is, a shall have distinguishing favours showed them. living man; for the soul is the man. The body would be a 3. The situation of this garden was extremely sweet; it was worthless, useless, loathsome carcass, if the soul did not animate in Eden, which signifies delight and pleasure. The place it. To God that gave us these souls, we must shortly give an here particularly pointed out by such marks and bounds as were account of them, how we have employed them, used them, pro- sufficient, (I suppose,) when Moses wrote, to specify the place portioned them, and disposed of them: and if then it be found to those who knew that country ; but now, it seems, the curious that we have lost them, though it were to gain the world, we are cannot satisfy themselves concerning it. Let it be our care to undone for ever. Since the extraction of the soul is so noble, make sure a place in the heavenly paradise, and then we need and its nature and faculties are so excellent, let us not be of not perplex ourselves with a search after the place of the earthly those fools that despise their own souls, by preferring their paradise. It is certain, wherever it was, it had all desirable bodies before them, Prov. 15. 32. When our Lord Jesus conveniences, and (which never any house or garden on earth anointed the blind man's eyes with clay, perhaps he intimated was) without any inconvenience; beautiful for situation, the that it was he who first formed man out of the clay; and when joy and glory of ihe whole earth was this gardca doubtless, it he breathed on his disciples, saying, Receive ye the Holy Ghost, was earth in its highest perfection. he intimated that it was he who first breathed into man's nos 4. The trees with which this garden was planted. (1.) It had trils the breath of life. He that made the soul, is alone ablo to all the best and choicest trees in common with the rest of the new-make it.
ground. It was beautified and adorned with every tree that, V.8-15. Man consisting of body and soul, a body made for its height or breadth, its make or colour, its leaf or flower, out of the earth, and a rational immortal soul the breath of hea- was pleasant to the sighi, and charmed the eye; it was repleven, we have, in these verses, the provision that was made for nished and enriched with every tree that yielded fruit grateful to the happiness of both; he that made him, took care to make the taste, and useful to the body, and so good for food. God, him happy, if he could but have kept himself so, and known as a tender Father, consulted not only Adam's profit, but his when he was well off. That part of man by which he is allied pleasure ; for there is a pleasure consistent with innocency, nav, to the world of sense, was mado happy; for he was put in the there is a true and transcendent pleasure in innocency. God paradise of God that part by which he is allied to the world delights in the prosperity of his servants, and would have them of spirits, was well provided for ; for he was taken into cover casy ; it is owing to themselves, if they be uneasy. When nant with God. Lord, what is man, that he should be thus dig- Providence puts us into an Eden of plenty and pleasure, we nified ? Man that is a worm ? Here we have,
ought to serve him with joyfulness and gladness of heart, in the I. A description of the garden of Eden, which was intended l abundance of the good things he gives us. But, (2.) It had two
and thou art made for every, Here, (1.) Adam is threatened
16 And the LORD God commanded the man, 17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and saying, Of every tree of the garden * thou mayest evil, mthou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that freely eat:
thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die. ealing thou shalt eat.
m c. 3. 1, 3, 11, 17. Rom. 6. 23. I Cor. 15. 56. 1 dying thou shalt die. extraordinary trees peculiar to itself; on earth there were not generation, and to work out our salvation; if we do not mind their like. [1.] There was the tree of life in the midst of the our business, we are unworthy of our being and maintenance. garden, which was not so much a memorandum to him of the (2.) That secular employmenis will very well consist with a Fountain and Author of his life, nor perhaps any natural means state of innocency, and a lite of communion with God. The to preserve or prolong life ; but it was chictly intended to be a sons and heirs of heaven, while they are here in this world, sign and seal to Adam, assuring him of the continuance of life have something to do about this earth, which must have its share and happiness, even to immortality and everlasting bliss, through of their time and thoughts ; and if they do it with an eye to the grace and favour of his Maker, upon condition of his perse- God, they are as truly serving him in it, as when they are upon verance in this state of innocency and obedience. Of this he their knees. (3.) That the husbandman's calling is an ancient might eat and live. Christ is now to us the Tree of life, Rev. and honourable calling; it was needful even in paradise. The 2.1.-22. 2, and the Bread of life, John 6. 48. 53. (2.) There garden of Eden, though it needed not to be weeded, (for thorns was the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, so called, not and thistles were not yet a nuisance,) yet it must be dressed because it had any virtue in it to beget or increase useful know- and kept. Nature, even in its primitive state, left room for the ledge, surely then it would not have been forbidden; but, First, improvements of art and industry. It was a calling fit for a state because there was an express positive revelation of the will of of innocency, making provision for life, and not for lust ; and God concerning this tree, so that by it he might know moral giving man an opportunity of admiring the Creator, and acgood and evil. What is good ? It is good not to eat of this knowledging his providence; while his hands were about his tree. What is evil? It is evil to eat of this tree. The dis- trees, his heart might be with his God. (4.) There is a true tinction between all other moral good and evil was written in pleasure in the business which God calls us to, and employs us the heart of man by nature ; but this which resulted from a in ; Adam's work was so far from being an allay, that it was positive law, was wriuen upon this tree. Secondly, Because, an addition, to the pleasures of paradise ; he could not have in the event, it proved to givo Adam an experimental know been happy, if he had been idle : it is still a law, He that will ledge of good by the loss of it, and of evil by the sense of it. not work, has no right to eat, 2 Thes. 3. 10. Prov. 27. 23. As the covenant of grace has in it, not only, Believe and be III. The command which God gave to man in innocency, saved, but also, Believe not, and be damned, Mark 16. 16, so the and the covenant he then took him into. Hitherio, we have covenant of innocency had in it, not only, '“ Do this and live," seen God, man's powerful Creator, and his bountiful Benefacwhich was sealed and contirmed by the tree of life, but, “Fail tor ; now he appears as his Ruler and Lawgiver. God put him and die," which man was assured of by this other tree; into the garden of Eden, not to live there as he might list, but " Touch it at your peril ;" so that, in these two trees, God sei to be under government. As we are not allowed to be idle in before Adam good and evil, the blessing and the curse, Deut, 30. this world, and to do nothing, so we are not allowed 10 be wiltul, 19. These two trees were as two sacraments.
and do what we please. When God had given man a dominion 5. The rivers with which this garden was watered, v. 10— over the creatures, he would let him know that still he himself 14. These four rivers (or one river branched into four streams) was under the government of his Creator. contributed much both to the pleasantness and the fruitfulness of V. 16, 17. Observe here, I. God's anthority over man, as this garden. T land of Sodom is said to be well-watered every a creature that had reason and freedom of will. The Lord God where as the garden of the Lord, ch. 13. 10. Observe, That commanded the man, who stood now as a public person, the which God plants, he will take care to keep watered. The trees father and representative of all mankind, to receive law, as he of righteousness are set by the rivers, Ps. 1. 3. In the heavenly had lately received a nature, for himself, and all his. God comparaulise there is a river infinitely surpassing these ; for it is a manded all the creatures, according to their capacity ; the river of the water of life, not coming out of Eden, as this, but settled course of nature is a law, Ps. 148. 6.-104. 9. The proceeding out of the throne of God, and of the Lamb, Rev. 22. brute creatures have their respective instincts ; but man was 1; a river that makes glad the city of our God, Ps, 46. 4. Hid-made capable of perforining reasonable service, and therefore dekel and Euphrates are rivers of Babylon, which we read of receives, not only the command of a Creator, but the command elsewhere ; by these the captive Jews sat down and wept, when of a Prince and Master. Thoughi Adain was a very great man, they remembered Zion, Ps. 137. 1; but inethinks they had a very good man, and a very happy man, yet the Lord God much more reason to weep, (and so have we,) at the remem- commanded him ; and the command was no disparagement to brance of Eden ; Adam's paradise was their prison ; such his greatness, no reproach to his goodness, nor any diminution wretched work has sin made of the land of Havilah, it is said, at all to his happiness. Let us acknowledge God's right to ruie r. 11, 12, that the gold of that land was good, and that there was and our own obligations to be ruled by him; and never allow belellium, and the onyx-stone : surely this is mentioned, that the any will of our own, in contradiction to, or competition with, wealth which the land of Havilah boasted of, might be as a foil the holy will of God. to that which was the glory of the land of Eden. Havilah had II. The particular act of this authority, in prescribing to him gold, and spices, and precious stones ; but Eden had that which what he should do, and upon what terms he should stand with was infinitely better, the tree of life, and communion with God. his Creator. Here is, So we may say of the Africans and Indians, " They have the 1. A confirmation of his present happiness to him, in that goll, but we have the Gospel. The gold of their land is good, grant, Of every tree in the garden thou mayest freely cut. This but ihe riches of ours are infinitely better."
was not only an allowance of liberty to him, in taking the deliII. The placing of man in this paradise of delight, v. 15, cious fruits of paradise, as a recompense for his care and pains where observe,
in dressing and keeping it, (1 Cor. 9.7, 10,) but it was, withal, 1. How God put him in possession of it. The Lord God an assurance of life to him, immortal life, upon bis obedience. took the man and put him into the garden of Eden; so v. 8, 15. For the tree of life being put in the midst of the garden, v. 9, as Note here, (1.) That man was made out of paradise ; for, after the heart and soul of it, doubtless, God had an eye to that, espeGod had formed him, he put him into the garden; he was made cjally in this grant; and therefore, when, upon his revolt, this of common clay, not of paradise-dust. He lived out of Eden grant is recalled, no notice is taken of any tree of the garden as before he lived in it, that he might see that all the comforts of prohibited to him, except the tree of life, ch. 3. 22, of which it his paradise-state were owing to God's free grace. He could not is there said, he mighi have eaten and lived for ever, that is, plead a tenant-right to the garden, for he was not born upon the never died, nor ever lost his happiness. “Continue holy as thou premises, nor had any thing but what he received ; all boasting art, in conformity to thy Creator's will, and thou shalt continue was hereby for ever excluded. (2.) The same God that was the happy as thou art, in the enjoyment of thy Creator's favour, Author of his being, was the Author of his bliss ; the same cither in this paradise, or in a better.” Thus, upon condition hand that made him a living soul, planted the tree of life for of perfect personal and perpetual obedience, Adam was sure of him, and settled him by it: he that made us, is alone able to paradise to himself and his heirs for ever. make us happy; he that is the Former of our bodies, and the 2. A trial of his obedience, upon pain of the forfeiture of all Faiher of our spirits ; he, and none but he, can effectually his happiness; but of the other tree, which stood very near the provide for the felicity of both. (3.) It adds much to the comfort tree of life, (for they are both said to be in the midst of the garof any condition, if we have plainly seen God going before us, den,) and which was called the tree of knowledge, in the day al putting us into it. If we have not forced providence, but thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die; as if he had said, followed it, and taken the hints of direction it has given us, we “Know, Adam, that thou art now upon thy good behaviour, may impe to find a paradise there, where otherwise we could thou art put into paradise upon trial; be observant, be obedient, not have expected il ; see Ps. 47. 4.
otherwise thou wilt be as rnisera2. How God appointed him business and employment; he ble, as now thou art happy.? put him there,
not like Leviathan into the waters, to play therein, with death, in case of disobedience; dying thou shall die, denobut to dress the garden, and to keep it. Paradise itself was not ting a sure and dreadful sentence, as, in the
former part of the a place of exemption from work, Note here, (1.) That we covenant, eating thou shall eal, denotes a free and full grant. were none of us went into the world to be idle, He that made Observe,'[1.] That even Adam, in innocency, was awed with us these souls and bodies, has given us something to work with ; a threatening ; fear is one of the handles of the soul, by which and he that gave us this earth for our habitation, has made us it is taken hold of and held. If he then needed this hedge, something to work on. If either a high extraction, or a great much more do we now. [2.] The penalty threatened is deathi, estate, or a large dominion, or perfect innocency, or a genius Thou shalt die, that is, " Thou shalt be debarred from the tree for pure contemplation, or a small family, coulă have
given a of life, and all the good that is signified by it, all the happiness man a writ of ease, Adam had not been set to work ; but he thou hast, either in possession or prospect; and thou shalt bethal gave us being, has given us business, to serve him and our como liable to death, and all the miserios that preface it and