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of Warwick, and other lords of the opposition, from the council," The bishop of Hereford loft his office of treasurer ; the earl of Arundel was deprive ed of the post of high-admiral; all the great officers of the household, as well as the judges, were changed; and all the offices felt the influence of this extraordinary revolution.
The king being thus left at liberty to conduct the business of government at discretion, began by shewing many marks of moderation towards those who before had endeavoured to depress his power; he seemed to be entirely reconciled to his uncles ; and he remitted some subsidies which had been granted him, that acquired him for a time the affections of the people. But he wanted those arts that are usually found to procure a lasting respect ; he was fond of luxurious pleasures, and idle ostentation; he admitted the meanest ranks to his familiarity; and his conversation was not adapted to impress them with a reverence for his morals or abilities. His military talents on which mankind then placed the greatest value, were seldom exerted, and never with any great success. The French war was scarce heard of; and some successful inroads of the Scotch, particularly that which brought on a disputed victory at Otterbone, were only opposed by those barons whose poffeffions lay along the frontier. He gained indeed some reputation for arms in Ireland; but his successes there were too insignificant to give him'a decisive character. From thence, the small regard which the public bore his person, disposed them to murmur against his administration, and to receive with avidity every complaint which discontent, or ambition, suggested to his prejudice.
Whether the duke of Gloucester was fecretly displeased with this mean disposition in his royal nephew, or wanted to inake himself king, by fo. E 2
menting jealousies against him, must remain for ever unknown; but certain it is, that he used every art to encrease the aversion of the nation against him, and to establith his own popularity. He represented the peace which had been just A D then concluded with France, as the re
sult of the king's pufillanimity; and gue plausibly appeared to lament that Richard should have degenerated so far from the heroic virtues of his father. He frequently spoke with contempt of the king's person and government, and deliberated concerning the lawfulness of throwing off all allegiance to him. These were insults that deserved to be chastised in any subject ; but that called aloud for punishment in him, whose popularity was dangerous, and who more than once had testified a disposition to rebel. As all his conduct was fecretly observed by the king's emissaries, Richard at length formed a resolution of ridding himself entirely both of him and his fa&ion, senfible that he then had the parliament entirely at his disposal. He accordingly ordered Gloucester to be immediately arrested, and sent over to Calais, at which place there was no danger of a rescue from his numerous adherents. The earls of Arundel and Warwick were seized at the same time; and a parliament was summoned at Westminster, which the king knew to be obedient to his will. This parliament, as he was apprized, passed whatever acts he thought proper to dictate ; . they annulled for ever the commission of fourteen, which had usurped upon his authority; they repealed all those acts which had condemned his former ministers; and revoked the general pardon which the king had granted, upon his assuming the reins of government into his own hands. In confequence of this, several of the party of Gloucester
were impeached, condemned, and executed. FitzAlan, archbishop of Canterbury, was banished the kingdom, and his temporalities fequeftered. The earl of Arundel vainly attempted to plead the king's general pardon, to stop his execution; the earl of Warwick Thewing signs of contrition, had his life spared, but was banished to the isle of Man. The greatest criminal yet remained ; and a warrant was accordingly issued to the earl marechal, governor of Calais, to bring over the duke of Gloucester to take his trial, as the reft had done. It is probable this nobleman would have shared the same fate with the rest of his party; but he was privately dispatched in prison, being smothered, as it afterwards appeared, between two pillows, by the keepers.
The death of a nobleman fo popular as the duke, did not fail to encrease those animosities which had already taken deep root in the kingdoin. The aggrandisement of some new favourites, contributed still more to make the king odious; but though he seemed resulved, by all his actions, to set his subjects against him, it was accident that gave the occasion for his overthrow. After the destruction of the duke of Gloucester and the heads of that party, a misunderstanding broke out among those noblemen who had joined in the prosecution. The duke of Hereford appeared in parliament, and accused the duke of Norfolk of hav. ing spoken seditious words against his majesty, in a private conversation. Norfolk denied the charge; gave Hereford the lie; and offered to prove his innocence by single combat. As proofs were wanting for legal trial, the lords readily acquiesced in that mode of determination; the time and place were appointed ; and the whole nation waited with anxious sufpence for the event. At length the
day arrived, on which this duel was to be fought; and as combats of this kind were then very prevalent, it may not be amiss to describe the ceremonies on that occafion. Hereford, the challenger, first appeared on a white charger, gaily caparisoned, armed at ali points, and holding his drawn sword. When he approached the lifts, the marechal de-manded his name and business; to which he repli. ed, “I am Henry of Lancaster, duke of Hereford, « come hither acco ding to my duty, against " Thomas Mowbray duke of Norfolk, a false “ traitor to God and the king, the realm and me." Then taking the oath that his quarrel was just and true, he desired to enter the lifts, which being
runted, he theathed his sword, pulled down his beaver, crolled himself on the forehead, seized his lance, passed the barrier, alighted, and late down is a chair of green velvet, placed at one end of the lists. He had scarce taken his feat when the king came into the field with great pomp, attended by the lords, the count de St. Pol, who came from France, on purpose to see this famous trial, and ten Thousand men at arms, to prevent tumults and disturbances. His majesty being feated in his chair of ttare, the king at arms proclaimed, that none but such as were appointed to marshal the field, fhould presume to touch the lifts e pon pain of death, Then another herald proclaimed aloud, “ Behold “ here Henry of Lancaster, duke of Hereford, " who has entered the lifts to perform his devoir “ against Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, on " pain of being counced false and recreant.”. Just then the duke of Norfolk appeared in arms, mounta ed upon a barbed horse, with a coat of arms of crimion velvet embroidered with lions of silver, and mulberry trees; and having taken his oath be
fore the constable and marechal, entered the field, exclaiming aloud,“ God defend the right.” Then alighting from his horse, he placed himself in a chair of crimson velvet opposite to his antagonist, at the other end of che litts. After which, the marechal having ineasured their lances, delivered one to the challenger, and sent a knight with the other to the duke of Norfolk, and proclamation was made that they ihould prepare for the combat. Accordingly, mounting their horses, and closing their beavers, they fixed their lances' in rest, and the trumpets founded the charge. The duke of Hereford began his career with great violence; but, before he could join bis antagonist, the king threw down his warder, and the heraids interposed. By the advice and ano . thority of his parliamentary commissioners, he stopped the combat, and ordered both the coinbatanıs to leave the kingdom. The duke of Norfolk he banished for life, but the duke of Hereford only for ten years. Thus the one was condemned to exile without being charged with any offence, and the other without being convicted of any crime. The duke of Norfolk was overwhelmed with grief and despondence at the judgment awarded against him; he retired io Venice, where, in a little cime after, he died of a broken heart. Hereford's behaviour on this occasion was resigned and submila five, which fo pleafed the king, ihat he consenied to shorten the date of his banishment four years ; and he also granted him letters patent, ensuring him the enjoyment of any inheritance which should fall to him during his absence. But nothing could be more Huctuating than Richard's promises or friendihip. The earl of Hereford rea. tiring into Flanders, and from thence to Paris, found there a very favourable reception from the we wis .. . E 4.