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the ground, and he was soon killed by the sur., rounding crowd; all the king's efforts to save him proving ineffectual. In this manner, the French were overthrowo in every part of the field ; their number, being crowded into a very narrɔw space, were incapable of either Aying, or making any re. sistance, į so that they covered the ground with, heaps of Nain. After all appearance of opposition. was over, the English had leisure to make prifoners ; and having advanced with uninterrupted success to the open plain, they there saw the remains of the French rear-guard, which still maintained a, Thew of opposition. At the same time was heard an alarm from behind, which proceeded from a. number of peasants who had fallen upon the English baggage, and were putting those who guarded it to the sword. Henry, now seeing the enemy on all sides of him, began to entertain apprehensions: froin, his prisoners, the number of whom exceeded even that of his army. He chought it necessary, therefore, to issue general orders for putting them to death ;. but on the discovery of the certainty of his victory, he stopped the slaughter, and was still able to save a great number. This severity tara nished the glory which his victory would otherwise have acquired; but all the heroism of that age is: tinctured with.barbarity...

This battle was very fatal to France, from the number of princes and nobility flain or taken prisoners. Among the number of the slain, was the constable of France, the two brothers of the duke of Burgundy, the duke of Alençon, the duke of Barre,, and the count de Morle.. Anong the prisoners, were the duke of Orleans, the duke of Bourbon, with several others of inferior quality, An archbishop of Sens alto perished fighting in this battle. The killed are computed on the whole to have amounted to ten thousand men.;

and

and as the loss fell chiefly upon the cavalry, it is pretended, that of these eight thousand were gentlemen. The number of prisoners are computed at tourteen thousand. All the English who were Alain did not exceed forty, a number amazingly inconsiderable, if we compare the loss with the

victory.

This victory, how great foever it might have been, was attended with no immediate in effects. Henry did not interrupt his retreat a moment after the battle of Agin

1415.

' court; but carried his prisoners to Calais, c. 25. and from thence to England, where the parliament, dazzled with the fplendour of his late victories, granted him new fupplies, though unequal to the expences of a campaign. With these lupplies and new levies, he once more landed an army of twenty-five thousand men in un Normandy, and prepared to strike a decisive blow for the crown of France, to 14"7• which the English monarchs had long made pretensions. That wretched country was now in a most deplorable situation. The whole kingdom appeared as one vast theatre of crimes, murders, injustice, and devastation. The duke of Orleans was assassinated by the duke of Burgundy; and the duke of Burgundy, in his turn, fell by the treachery of the dauphin. At the same time, the duke's fon, desirous of revenging his father's death, entered into a secret treaty with the English; and a league was immediately concluded at Arras, between Henry and the young duke of Burgundy, in which the king promised to revenge the mura der of the late 'duke ; and the son seemed to infift upon no further ftipulations. Henry, therefore, proceeded in his conquests, without much opposition from any quarter. Several towns and

provinces

provinces submitted on his approach, the city of Rouen was befieged and taken; Pontoise and Gifors he soon became master of. He even threatened Paris by the terror of his power, and obliged the court to remove to Troye. It was at this city that the duke of Burgundy, who had taken upan him the protection of the French king, met Henry in order to ratify that treaty, which was formerly begun, and by which the crown of France was to be transferred to a stranger. The imbecillity into which Charles had fallen, made him paflive in this remarkable treaty; and Henry dic, tated the terms throughout the whole negotiation. The principal articles of this treaty were, bat Henry thould espouse the princess Catharine ; that king Charles Thould enjoy the title and dignity of king for life; but that Henry should be declared beir to the crown, and should be entrusted with the present administration of the government; that France and England fhould for ever be united under one king, but should still retain their respective laws and privileges ; that Henry thould unite his arms with those of king Charles, and the duke of Bus. gundy, to depress and subdue the Dauphin and his partizans. Such was the tenor of a treaty, too repugnant to the real interests of both kingdoms to be of long duration ; but the contending parties were too much blinded by their resentments and jealousies, to see that it is not in the power of princes to barter kingdoms, contrary to the real interests of the community.

It was not long after this treaty, that Henry married the princess Catharine ; after which he carricd his father-in-law to Paris, and took a formal poffeffion of that capital. There he obtained, f.om the estates of the kingdom, a ratification of the late compact; and then turned his arms, with

success, lucocks, againft the adherents of the Dauphin, who, in the mean time, wandered about a ftranger in his own patrimony, and to his enemies Luccesses only opposed fruitless expoftulations.

Henry's supplies were not provided in fuch plenty, as to enable him to carry on the war, without returning in person to prevail upon his parliament for fresh succours; and upon his arrival in England, though he found his subjects highly pleased with the splendour of his conquests, yet they seemed somewhat doubtful as to the advantage of them. A treaty, which in its consequences was likely to transfer the seat of empire from England, was not much relished by the parliament. They therefore, upon various pretences, refused him a supply equal to his exigencies or his der mands, but he was resolved on pursuing his fcbemes; and joining to the supplies granted at home, the contributions levied on the conquered provinces, he was able once more to assemble an army of twenty-eight thousand men, and with these he landed safely at Calais.

In the mean time the Dauphin, a prince of great prudence and activity, omitted no opportunity of repairing his ruined situation, and to take the advantage of Henry's absence from France. He prevailed upon the regent of Scotland to send him a body of eight thousand men from that kingdom; and with these, and fame few forces of his own. he attacked the late duke of Clarence, who cammanded the troops in Henry's absence, and gained a complete victory

This was the firft action which turned the tide Af success against the Englila. But it was of Port duration, for Henry soon after appearing with a consıderable army, the Dauphin fed at his approach ; wbile many of the places, which held

out

out for the Dauphin in the neighbourhood of Paris, surrendered to the conqueror. In this manner, while Henry was every where victorious, he fixed his residence at Paris; and while Charles had but á small court, he was attended with a very magniA D ficent one. On Wednefday the two

0 kings and their two queens with crowns 142. on their heads, dined together in public; Charles receiving apparent homage, but Henry commanding with absolute authority...

In the mean time, the Dauphin was chased beyond the Loire, and almost totally dispossessed of all the northern provinces. He was even puis fued into the south, by the united arms of the English and Burgundians, and threatened with -total destruction. In this exigence, he found it necessary to spin out the war, and to evade all hazardous actions with a rival who had been long accustomed to victory. His prudence was every where remarkable ; and, after a train of long pera secutions from fortune, he found her at l'ength wil. ling to declare in his favour, by ridding him of an antagonist that was likely to become a master.

Henry, at a time when his glory had nearly reached its summit, and both crowns were just devolved upon him, was seized with a fiftula ; a disorder, which, from the unskilfulness of the phyficians of the times, soon became mortal. Perceiv. ing his distemper incurable ; and that his end was approaching, he sent for his brother the duke of Bedford, the earl of Warwick, and a few other noblemen, whom he had honoured with his confidence; and to them he delivered, in great tran. quillity, his last will with regard to the government of his kingdom and family. He recommended his son to their protection, and though he regret

ted

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