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and connected with many of the principal ladies at court. It is said that she kept up a secret correspondence with the queen heitelf, who fecretly favoured the reformation; and this correspondence only served to haften this poor woman's ruin, the chancellor being known to be her enemy. However this be, the happened to differ from the esta. blished code of belief, particularly in the article of the real presence ; and, notwithstanding the weakness of her sex and age, she was thrown into prilon, and accused of herely. In this situation, with courage far beyond what might be expected, the employed her time in composing prayers and discourses, and vindicating the truth of her opinions. The chancellor, who was much attached to the catholic party, was sent to examine her with regard to her abertors at court; but the maintained the utinoft secrely, and would accuse none. In consequence of this contuinacy, as it was called, the poor young lady was put to the torture; but she still continued resolute, and her filence testified her contempt of their petty ciuelties. The chanc llor, therefore, became outrageous, and ordered the lieutenant of the Tower, who executed this punishment, te stretch the rack ftill harder ; which he refuing to do, and, though menaced, itiil perlifting in a refusal, the chancellor himself, intoxicated with a religious zeal, grasped the cords himself, and drew it fo violently, that the woman's body was almost torn asunder. But her constancy was greater than the barbarity of her perlecutors ; lo chat finding 10 other method to subdue her, she was condumned to be burnt alive. She received this sentence with a traníport of joy, and as a release from a state of the greatest pain to the greatest felicity. As all her joints had been ditlocated by the rack, so that she could not stand, she was carried co the VOL. II.



place of execution in a chair. Together with her, were brought Nicholas Belenian a priest, John Lassals of the king's houshold, and John Adams a taylor, who had all been condemned for the same crime, They were tied to the stake ; and in that dreadful situation informed, that upon recanting they should be granted their lives. But they refused a life that was to be gained by such prostiturion; and they saw with tranquillity, the execu. cioner kindle the flames which consumed them.

From this indiscriminate severity the queen was not herself entirely fecuie. She had for some time attended the king in his indisposition, and endea. voured to footh him by her arts and affiduity. His favourite topic of conversation was theology, and Catharine, who was tinctured with the spirit of the time, would now and then enter into a debate with him, upon many speculative tenets, that were then in agitation between the Catholics and Lutherans. Henry, highly provoked that the should presume to differ from him, made complaints of her obitinacy to Gardiner, who gladly laid hold of the opportunity to enflaine the quarrel.

Even articles of impeachment were drawn up against her, which were brought to the king by the chan- cellor to be signed ; but in returning home, he happened to drop the paper. It was very lucky för the queen, that the person who found it was in her interests; it was immediately carried to her, and the contents foon made her sensible of the danger to which she was exposed. In this exigence, she was resolved to work upon the king ; and paying him her customary visit, he led her, as usual, to the subject of theology, which at first The seemed to decline, but in which the afterwards engaged, as if merely to gratify his inclinati

In the course of her conversation, however, the gave him to know, that her whole aim


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in talking, was to receive his instructions, and not to controvert them; that it was not for her to set her opinions in opposition to those that served to direct the nation ; but the alleged, she could not help trying every art that could induce the king to exert that eloquence which served, for the time to mitigate his bodily pain. Henry seemed charmed at this discovery; “ And is it so, sweet-heart, cried he, then we are perfect friends again.” Just after this reconciliation, the chancellor made his appearance, with a party of forty pursuivants at his heels, prepared to take the queen into custody. But the king advanced to meet him ; and seemed to expostulate with him in the severest terms. Tho queen could over hear the terms, knave, fool, and beast, which he very liberally bestowed upon that magistrate ; and his being ordered to depart. When he was gone, the interposed in his defence ; but the king could not help saying, " Poor soul, you know not how little entitled this man is to your good offices.'

From thenceforth the queen was Gareful not to offend Henry's humour by contradiction He was contented to suffer the divines to dispute, and the executioner to destroy. The fires accordingly were kindled against the heretics of both sides as usual, during which dreadful exhibitions, the king would frequently assemble the houses of parlianient, and harangue them with flo. rid orations, in which he would aver, that never prince had a greater affection for his people ; nor ever people had a greater affection for their king. In every pause of these extraordinary orations, fome of his creatures, near his person, would begin to applaud ; and this was followed by loud acclamacions from all the rest of the audience.

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But though his health was declining apace, yet his implacable cruelties were not the less frequent, His relentments were diffused indiscriminately to all ; at one time a protestant, and at another a catholic, were the objects of his severity, The duke of Norfolk and his son, the earl of Surry, were the last that felt the injustice of the tyrant's groundless suspicions. The duke was a nobleman who had served the king with talents and fidelity ; his son was a young man of the most promising hopes, who excelled in every accomplishment that became a scholar, a courtier, and a soldier. He excelled in ail the military exercises, which were then in request; he encouraged the fine arts by his practice and example ; and it is remarkable, that he was the first who brought our language, in his poetical pieces, to any degree of refinement. He celebrated the fair Geraldina in all his sonnets, and main ained her superior beauty in all places of public contention. These qualifications, however, were no safeguard co him against Henry's fufpicions; he had dropt some expressions of resentment against the king's ministers, upon being displaced from the governinent of Boulogne; and the whole family was become obnoxious from the late incontinency of Catharine Howard, the queen who was executed. From these motives, therefore, private orders were given to arrest the father and the son ; and accordingly they were arrested both on the same day, and confined to the Tower. Surry being a commoner, his trial was the more expeditious; and as to proofs, there were many informers base enough to betray the intimacies of private confidence, and all the connections of blood. The dutchefs dowager of Richmond, Surry's own fifter, enlisted herfelf among the number of his accusers ; and wir


Richard Southwell allo, his most intimate friend, charged him with infidelity to the king. It would seem, that, at this dreary period, there was neither faith nor honour to be found in all the nation ; Surry denied the charge, and challenged his accuser to fingle combat. This favour was refused him ; and it was alleged, that he had quartered the arms of Edward the Confessor on his escutcheon, which alone was fufficient to convict him of aspiring to the crown. To this he could make no reply; and indeed any answer would have been needlers, for neither parliaments nor juries, during this reign, feerned to be guided by any other proofs, but the will of the crown. This young nobleman was, therefore, condemned for high treason, notwithstanding his eloquent and fpirited defen'ce'; and the fentence was soon after executed upon him on Tower-Hill. In the mean time the duke endeavoured to mollify the king by letters and submislions ; but the monster's hard heart was rarely subject to tender impressions. The 'parliament meeting on the fourteenth day of January, a bill of attainder was found at

found A. D. againt the duke of Norfolk ; as it was

on 1546. thought he could not to easily have been "944• convicted on a fair hearing by his peers. The only crime that his accusers could aliege against him was, that he had once said, that the king was fickly, and could not hold out long; and the kingdom was likely to be torn between the contending parties of different persuasions. Cranmer, though engaged for many years in an oppofite party to Norfolk, and though he had received many and great injuries from him, would have no hand in so unjust a prosecution ; but retired to his seat at Croydon. However, the death warrant was made oat; and immediately fent to the lieutenant of

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