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the Tower. The duke prepared for death, the following morning was to be his last; but an event of greater consequence to the kingdom intervened, and prevented his execution.

The king had been for some time approaching faft towards his end; and for several days all those about his person, plainly saw that his speedy death was inevitable. I he disorder in his leg was now grown extremely painful; and this, added to his monstrous corpulency, which rendered him unable to ftir, made him more furious than a chained lion. He had been ever stern and severe ; he was now outrageous. In this state he had continued for near four years before his death, the terror of all, and the tormentor of himself; his courtiers having no inclination to make an enemy of him, as they were more ardently employed in conspiring the death of each other. In this manner, therefore, he was suffered to struggle, without any of his domestics having the courage to warn him of his approaching end, as more than once during this reign, perfons had been put to death for foretelling the death of the king. At laft, Sir Anthony Denny had the courage to disclose to him this dreadful secret; and, contrary to his usual custom, he receiyed the tidings with an expression of refignation. His anguish and remorse was at this time greater than can be expressed : he desired that Cranmer might be sent for ; but before that prelate could arrive, he was speechless. Cranmer defiring him to give some sign of his dying in the faith of Christ, he squeezed his hand, and immediately expired, after a reign of thirtyfeven years and nine months, in the fifty-sixth A. D. year of his age.

of his age. Some kings have been

tyrants from contradiction and revolt; 1547. some from being misled by favourites, and some from a spirit of party. But Henry was


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cruel from a depraved difpofition alone; cruel in government, cruel in religion, and cruel in his family. Our divines have taken some pains to vindicate the character of this brutal prince, as if his conduct and our reformation had any connexion with each other. There is nothing so absurd as to defend the one by the other; the most noble designs are brought about by the most vicious inftruments; for we see even that cruelty and injuftice wer ethought necessary to be employed in our holy redemption.

With regard to foreign states, Henry made some expeditions into France, which were attend. ed with vast expence to the nation, and broughe them no kind of advantage. However, he allalong maintained an intercourse of friendship with Francis, which appeared disinterested and sincere. Against the Scotch he was rather more successful ; his generals having worsted their incursive arnie, on several occasions. They particularly gained a signal advantage, besides that already rela ed of Flodden-field, at a place near Pinkey-House, in which near ten thousand Scots were sain. But that which gave England the greatest afcendancy over that nation, was the spirit of concord which soon after seemed to prevail between the two kingdoms; and that seemed to pave the way for their being in time united under the same Tovereign. There were ten parliaments summoned in this reign, and twenty-three sessions held ; but the whole time in which these parliaments fat, during this long reign, did not exceed three years and an half. The foreign commerce of England, during this age, was mostly confined to the Netherlands. The merchants of the Low-Countries bought the English commodities, and distributed them into the other parts of Europe. These com



modities, however, were generally little more than the natural productions of the country, without any manufactures ; for it must be observed at this time that foreign artificers much furpassed the Eng. Jifh in dexterity, industry, and frugality ; and it is said that at one time not less than fifteen thousand artizans of the Flemish nation alone were fettled in London.




ACHAMBER, John, heads a rebellion, 204; taken

prisoner, and put to death, 205 Acon, in Palestine, the Siege of, raised, 3 Alban's, St. first battle of, 160 ; second battle of, 164. Alençon, count de, Nain in the battle of Cressy, 72 Ardévelt, James, account of, 65 Arras, treaty of, 135. Arthur, prince of Wales, married to Catherine of Spain,

222 ; his death, ib. Artillery, used by Edward III. at the battle of Cressy, 70 Askew, Anne, put to the torture, 289; condemned to

the flames, ib. Alafins, who, 3; their detested character, 4; under

take to murder prince Edward, ib. disappointed, and

their emissary slain, ib. Audley, lord, joins the Cornish insurgents, 212; taken

and executed, ib. Aumerle, duke of, detrays a conspiracy formed against

Henry IV. 113 Azincourt, baitle of, 131


BAINHAM, James, burnt for his religion, 260

Baliol, John, claims the Scotish throne, 14; acknowledges the superiority of Edward, 15; renews his oath of fealty, 16; placed on the throne of Scotland, ib. is fummoned to appear at Westminster, ib. revolts from Edward, ib. enters into a treaty with Philip, ib. summoned to appear before the parliament of England, 17; is assigned a council of twelve noblemen, ib, makes his peace with Edward, 18; resigns


N 5

ham, 190

his crown into that prince's hands, ib. carried priso-
ner to London, 19; banished to France, and dies in a
private station, ib.
Baliol, Edward claims the crown of Scotland, 60; is

supported by Edward III. ib. gains a considerable vic-
cory, ib. crowned at Scone, 61; defeated by Archi.
bald Douglas, ib. takes refuge in England, ib. rein-

stated by Edward, 62
Banister, betrays his benefactor, the duke of Bucking-
Banockburn, battle of, 45
Bards, the Welsh, masacred, 13
Barnet, battle of 171
Beaufort, Henry, bishop of Winchester, opposes the

duke of Gloucester, 152; gains the ascendant, 153;
is accused of the death of that nobleman, 154; his

death, ib.
Becket, Thomas, his shrine demolished, 264; his name

struck out of the breviary, ib.
Bedford, duke of, brother to Henry V. appointed protec-

tor of England, 141; totally defeats the dauphin, 142;
retires into England, ib. causes Henry VI. to be
crowned at Paris, 147; burns the maid of Orleans at

Rouen, 149; his death, 150
Bible, trarsiated into English, 265
Bigod, Roger, refuses the command of an army, 24
Bilney, Thomas, burnt for fupporting the protestant te-

Blorebeatb, action of, 161
Bloody Statute, what, 265
Bohun, Humphry, refuses to take the command of an
army, 24

Henry de, killed by Bruce, 45
Boleyn, Anne, account of, 249; privately married to

Henry VIII. 257; favours the reformation, 259.;
confined to her apartment, 267; accused of inconti-
nence, ib. sent to the Tower, ib. her letter to the king,
269; tried by a jury of peers, 271; her noble de-
fence, ib. her protestations of innocence, 272; her

execution, ib.
Bosworth-field, battle of, 192



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