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vel alium seu alios ad id per te deputandum our Realnı, and all other Officers, Ministers, sive deputandos, tam ex officio mero mixto and Subjects, these our Letters hearing or quam promoto super quorumcunq; excessi- seeing, Greeting. We let you wit, That bebus, criminibus seu delictis quibuscunq; ad ing desirous to have our People at all times forum Ecclesiasticum spectantibus infra convenient, give themselves to the attaining Dioc. London. ac delinquentes sive crimi. the knowledg of God's Word, whereby they nosos, juxta comperta per te in ea parte per will the better bonour him, and observe and Licita Juris remedia pro modo culpæ, prout keep his Commandments; and also do their natura et qualitas delicti poposcerit, coer. Duties better to us, being their Prince and cendum et puniendum, cæteraq; omnia et Sovereign Lord: And considering that this singula in Præmissis seu aliquo præmisso- our Zeal and Desire cannot by any mean take rum, aut circa ea necessaria seu quomodoli- so good effect, as by the granting to them the bet opportuna, ac alia quæcunq; Autoritatem free and liberal use of the Bible in our own et Jurisdictionem Episcopalem quovismodo natural and English Tongue: so unless it be respiciend. et concernend. præter et ultra ea foreseen that the same pass at the beginning quæ tibi ex Sacris Literis divinitus commissa by one Translation to be perused and consi. esse dignoscantur, vice, nomine, et Autori. dered; The frailty of Men is such, that the tate nostris exequendum, Tibi, de cujus sana diversity thereof 'may breed and bring forth doctrina, conscientiæ puritate, vitæq; et mo- manifold Inconveniences; as when wilful and rum integritate, ac in rebus gerendis fide et heady Folk sball confer upon the diversity of industria plurimum confidimus, vices nostras the said Translations. We have therefore cum potestate alium vel alios, Commissarium appointed our right trusty and well-beloved vel Commissarios, ad præmissa seu eorum ali- Counsellor, the Lord Cromwell, Keeper of qua surrogandi et substituendi, eosdemq; ad our Privy Seal, to take for us, and in our placitum revocand. tenore præsentium com. Name, special care and charge, that no man. mittimus, ac liberam facultatem concedimus; ner of Person, or Persons, within this our Teq; licentiam per præsentes ad nostri bene Realm, shall enterprise, attempt, or set in placiti duntaxat duraturas, cum cujuslibet hand to print any Bible in the English Tongue congruæ et Ecclesiasticæ coercionis potestate of any manner of Volum, during the space of quacunq; inhibitione in te datam præsentium five years next ensuing after the Date hereof, emanata in aliquo non obstante Tuam Con- but only all such as shall be deputed, assignscientiam coram Deo strictissime onerantes, ed, and admitted by the said Lord Cromwell. et ut summo omnium judici aliquando ratio. The 13 Novemb. Tricesimo primo Regni. nem reddere, et coram nobis tuo cum periculo corporali respondere intendis : te admonentes ut interim tuum officium juxta Evan- XVI.-The Attainder of Thomas Cromwell. gelii normam pie et sancte exercere studeas,

" Item quædam alia petitio, formam cujusdam acet ne quem ullo tempore unquam vel ad sa

tus attinctura in se continens, eahibita est sue cros ordines promoveas, vel ad curam ani.

Regiæ Majestati in Parliamento prædicto, cumarum gerend. quovis modo admittas, nisi

jus tenor sequitur in hæc verba. eos duntaxat quos ad tanti et tam venerabilis Officii functionem vitæ et morum integritas [Parliament Rolls. Act 60. Anno Regni tricecertissimis testimoniis approbata, literarum

simo secundo.) scientiæ et aliæ qualitates requisitæ ad boc In their most humble-wise shewing to your habiles et idoneos clare et luculenter osten- most Royal Majesty, the Lords Spiritual and derint et declaraverint; Nam ut maxime Temporal, and all your most loving and obe. compertum cognitumq; habemus morum dieni Subjects, the Commons in this your Most omnium, et Maxime Christianæ Religionis High Court of Parliament assembled ; That corruptelam a malis Pastoribus in populum where your most Royal Majesty, our Natural emanasse, sic ut veram Christi Religionem, Sovereign Lord, is justly, lawfully, and really vitæq; et morum emendationem a bonis Pas. entituled to be our sole Supream Head and toribus iterum delectis et assumptis in inte- Governour, of this your Realm of England, grum restitutum iri haud dubie speramus. in and of the Dominions of the same; to whom, cujus rei testimonium præsentes Literas nos. and to none other under God the Kingly Ditras inde fieri, et Sigilli nostra quod ad Cau- rection, Order, and Governance, of your most sas Ecclesiasticas utimur appensione jussi. loving and obedient Subjects, and people of mus Cominuniri. Dat. 12. die mensis No. this your Realm, only appertaineth and bevemb. Anno Dom. 1539. et Regni nostri longeth. And the which your most loving Anno 31.

and obedient Subjects, your Highness pru. dently and quietly, without any manner of

disturbance, by a long time most graciously XV.- The King's Letters Patents for printing bath preserved, sustained, and defended : And the Bible in English.

your Highness, for the Quietness, Wealth,

and Tranquillity of your said humble and obe[Rot. Pat. 31 Hen. 8.)

dient Subjects, hath made, and ordained, Henry the Eighth, &c. To all and singu- divers and many most godly, vertuous, and lar Printers and Sellers of Books within this wholesome Laws; and for due execution of the same, bath not desisted to travel in your grant, as well unto Aliens, as to your Subown most Royal Person, to support and main- jects, a great number of Licences for conveightain, as well the Laws of Almighty God, as ing and carrying of Mony, Corn, Grain, Beans, the Laws by your Highness made and ordain- Beer, Leather, Tallow, Bells, Mettals, Horses, ed, by due and condign execution of the same and other Commodities of this your Realm, Laws upon the Transgressors offending con- contrary to your Highness's most Godly and trary to the same : and your Majesty bath al- Gracious Proclamations made for the Comways most vertuously studied and laboured, by mon-Wealth of your People of this your Realm all ways, and all means, to and for the setting in that behalf, and in derogation of your Crown forth thereof, in such wise as it might be and Dignity. And the same Thomas Crommost to the Honour, Glory, and Pleasure of well, elated, and full of pride, contrary to his Almighty God; and for the common accord most bounden Duty, of his own Authority and and wealth of this your Realm, and other Power, not regarding your Majesty Royal; your Dominions : And, for the true execution And further, taking upon him your Power, of the same, hath elected, chosen, and made Sovereign Lord, in that behalf, divers and divers, as well of your Nobles, as others to many times most traiterously hath constituted. be of your most honourable Council, as to the deputed, and assigned, many singular Persons honour of a Noble Prince appertaineth. And of your Subjects to be Commissioners in many where your Majesty bath had a special trust your great, urgent, and weighty Causes and and confidence in your said most trusty Coun- Affairs, executed and done in this your Realm, sellors, that the same your Counsellors, and without the assent, knowledg, or consent of every of them, had minded and intended, and your Highness. And further also, being a finally purposed to have followed and pur- Person of as poor and low degree, as few be sued your most Godly and Princely Purpose, within this your Realm ; pretending to have as of truth the more number bath most faithe so great a stroak about you, our, and his nafully done ; Yet nevertheless Thomas Crom- tural Sovereign Liege Lord, that he letted not well, now Earl of Essex, whom your Majesty to say publickly, and declare, That he was took and received into your trusty Service, sure of you ; which is detestable, and to be the same Thomas then being a Man of very abhorred amongst all good subjects in any base and low degree, and for singular favour, Christian Realin, that any Subject should trust, and confidence, which your Majesty enterprize or take upon him so to speak of bare and had in him, did not only erect and his Sovereign Liege Lord and King. And advance the said Thomas unto the State of an also of his own Authority and Power, withEarl, and enriched him with many-fold Gifts, out your Highness's consent, hath made, and as well of Goods, as of Lands and Offices, granted, as well to Strangers as to your own but also him, the said Thomas Cromwell, Subjects, divers and many Pass ports, to pass Earl of Essex, did erect and make one of your over the Seas with Horses, and great Sums of most trusty Counsellors, as well concerning Mony, without any search. And over that, your Grace's Supream Jurisdictions Ecclesi- most Gracious Sovereign Lord, amongst diastical, as your most high secret Affairs Tem- vers other his Treasons, Deceits, and Fals. poral. Nevertheless your Majesty now of hoods, the said Thomas Cromwell, Earl of late hath found, and tried, by a large number Essex, being a detestable Heretick, and being of Witnesses, being your faithful Subjects, in himself utterly disposed to sett and sow and Personages of great Honour, Worship, common Sedition and Variance among your and Discretion, the said Thomas Cromwell, true and loving Subjects, bath secretly set Earl of Essex, contrary to the singular trust forth and dispersed into all Shires, and other and confidence wbich your Majesty bad in Territories of this your Realm, and other your him, to be the most false and corrupt Traitor, Dominions, great numbers of false Erroneous Deceiver, and Circumventor against your Books, whereof many were printed and made most Royal Person, and the Imperial Crown beyond the Seas, and divers other within this of this your Realm, that hath been known, Realm, comprising and declaring, amongst seen, or heard of in all the time of your most many other Evils and Errors, manifest MatNoble Reign ; Insomuch that it is manifestly ters to induce and lead your Subjects to diffiproved and declared, by the Depositions of the dence, and refusal of the true and sincere Faith Witnesses aforesaid, That the same Thomas and Belief, wbich Christian Religion bindeth Croinwell, Earl of Essex, usurping upon your all Christian People to have, in the most Holy Kingly Estate, Power, Authority, and Office; and Blessed Sacrament of the Altar, and without your Grace's Commandment or As- other Articles of Christian Religion, most sent, hath taken upon him to set at liberty graciously declared by your Majesty, by Au divers Persons, being convicted and attainted thority of Parliament : And certain Matters of Misprision of High Treason; and divers comprised in some of the said Books, bath other being apprehended, and in Prison, for caused to be translated into our maternal and Suspection of High Treason ; and over that, English Tongue: And upon Report made divers and many times, at sundry places, in unto him by the Translator thereof, that the this your realm, for manifold Sums of Mony Matter so translated bath expressly been to him given, most traiterously hath taken against the said most Blessed and Holy S70 upon him, by several Writings, to give and crament; Yet the said Thomas Cromwe.' Earl of Essex, after he had read the same abominable Heresies, Errors, and Offences, Translation, most heretically bath affirmed committed and done by the said Thomas the same material Heresie so translated, to Cromwell, being over-tedious, long, and of be good; and further hath said, that he too great number here to be expressed, defound no fault therein ; and over that, hath clared, or written. And to the intent to have openly and obstinately bolden Opinion, and those damnable Errors and Heresies, to be said, That it was as lawful for every Chris. inculcated, impressed, and infixed in the tian Man to be a Minister of the said Sacra- Hearts of your Subjects, as well contrary to ment, as well as a Priest. And where also God's Laws, as to your Laws and Ordinances. your most Royal Majesty, being a Prince of Most Gracious Soveraign Lord, the same Vertue, Learning, and Justice, of singular Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, bath allured Confidence and Trust, did constitute and and drawn unto him by Retainours, many of make the said Thomas Cromwell, Earl of your Subjects sunderly inhabiting in every Essex, your Highness's Vicegerent within this of your said Shires and territories, as well your Realın of England; and by the same, erroneously perswading and declaring to them gave unto him Authority and Power, not only the Contents of the false erroneous Books, to redress and reform all, and all manner of above-written, to be good, true, and best Errors, and Erroneous Opinions, insurging standing with the most Holy Word and Pleaand growing among your loving and obedient sure of God; as other his false and heretical Subjects of this your Realm, and of the Do- Opinions and Errors; whereby, and by his minions of the same, but also to order and Confederacies therein, he hath caused many direct all Ecclesiastical and Spiritual Causes of your faithful Subjects to be greatly infected within your said Realm and Dominions; the with Heresies, and other Errors, contrary to said Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, not the right Laws and Pleasure of Almighty regarding his Duty to Almighty God, and to God. And the same Thomas Cromwell, Earl your Highness, under the Seal of your Vice- of Essex, by the false and traiterous means gerent, bath, without your Grace's assent or above-written, supposing himself to be fully knowledg, licensed and authorized divers able, by force and strength, to maintain and Persons, detected and suspected of Heresies, defend his said abominable Treasons, Here. openly to teach and preach amongst your sies, and Errors, not regarding his most most loving and obedient Subjects, within bounden Duty to Almighty God, and his this your Realm of England. And under Laws, nor the natural Duty of Allegiance to the pretence and colour of the said great your Majesty, in the last day of March, in Authorities and Cures, which your Majesty the 30 year of your most gracious Reign, in hath committed unto him in the Premisses, the Parish of St. Peter the Poor, within your hath not only of his corrupt and damnable City of London, upon demonstration and deWill and Mind, actually, at some time, by claration then and there made unto him, that bis own Deed and Commandment, and at there were certain new Preachers, as Robert many other times by his Letters, expressly Barnes Clerk, and other, whereof part been written to divers worshipful Persons, being now committed to the Tower of London for Sheriffs, in sundry Shires of this your Realm, preaching and teaching of Leud Learning falsly suggesting thereby your Grace's Plea- against your Highness's Proclamations; the sure so to have been, caused to be set at same Thomas affirming the said preaching large many false Hereticks, some being to be good, most detestably, arrogantly, era there indicted, and some other being there- roneously, wilfully, maliciously, and traiterof apprebended, and in ward : and com- ously, expressly against your Laws and Stamonly, upon complaints made by credible tutes, then and there did not lett to declare, Persons unto the said Thomas Cromwell, and say; these most traiterous and detestable Earl of Essex, of great and most detestable words ensuing, amongst other words of like Heresies committed and sprung in many matter and effect; that is to say, that “If places of this your Realm, with declaration the King would turn from it, yet I would of the Specialities of the same Heresies, and not turn; And if the King did turn, and all the Names of the Offenders therein, the same his People, I would fight in the field in mine Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, by bis own Person, with my Sword in my hand, crafty and subtil means and inventions, hath against him and all others ;” and then, and not only defended the same Hereticks from there, most traiterously pulled out his DagPunishment and Reformation ; but being a ger, and held it on high, saying these words, fautor, maintainer, and supporter of Here- “Or else this Dagger thrust me to the heart, ticks, divers times hath terribly rebuked di. if I would not die in that Quarrel against vers of the said credible Persons being their them all : And I trust, if I live one year or Accusers, and some others of them hath per- two, it shall not lie in the King's Power to secuted and vexed by Imprisonment and resist or lett it if he would.” And further, otherwise. So that thereby many of your then and there swearing by a great Oath, Grace's true and loving Subjects have been traiterously affirmed the same his traiterous in much dread and fear, to detect or accuse saying and pronunciation of words, saying, such detestable known Hereticks; the par- “I will do so indeed," extending up his Arin, ticularities and specialities of which said as though he had had a Sword in his Hand; to the most perilous, grievous, and wicked March, in the said thirtieth Year of your Example of all other your loving, faithful, most Gracious Reign, or at any time sith or and obedient Subjects in this your Realm, after, as in Cases of High Treason. And and to the peril of your most Royal Person. that all the said Castles, Lordships, Mannors, And moreover, our most Gracious Soveraign Lands, Mesuages, Tenements, Rents, Rever. Lord, the said Thomas Cromwell, Earl of sions, Remainders, Services, Possessions, Essex, hath acquired and obtained into his Offices, and all other the Premisses forfeited, possession, by Oppression, Bribery, Extort, as is abovesaid, shall be deemed, invested, Power, and false promises made by him to and adjudged, in the lawful, real, and actual your Subjects of your Realm, innumerable possession of your Highness, your Heirs, and Sams of Mony and Treasure; and being so Successors for ever in the same, and such esenriched, hath had your Nobles of your Realm tate, manner, and form, as if the said Castles, in great disdain, derision, and detestation, Lordships, Mannors, Mesuages, Lands, l'ene. as by express words by him most opprobri- ments, Reuts, Reversions, Remainders, Ser. ously spoken bath appeared. And being put vices, Possessions, Offices, and other the Prein remembrance of others, of his estate, misses, with their Appurtenances, and every of which your Bighness bath called him unto, them, were specially or particularly founden, offending in like Treasons, the last day of by Office or Offices, Inquisition or InquisiJanuary, in the 31 year of your Most noble tions, to be taken by any Escheator, or EscheaReign, at the Parish of St. Martin in the tors, or any other Commissioner or Commis. Field, in the County of Middlesex, most ar. sioners, by virtue of any Commission or Comrogantly, willingly, maliciously, and traiter missions to them, or any of them, to be diously, said, published, and declared, that rected in any County or Counties, Shire or “If the Lords would handle him so, that he Shires, within this your Realm of England, would give them such a Break-fast as never where the said Castles, and other the Prewas made in England, and that the proudest misses, or any of them, been, or do lay, and of them should know;" to the great peril and returned into any of your Majesties Courts. danger, as well of your Majesty, as of your Saving to all and singular, Person and PerHeirs and Successors : For the which his sons, Bodies politick and corporate, their most detestable and abominable Heresies and Heirs and Successors, and their Successors Treasons, and many other his like Offences and Assignees of every of them, other than and Treasons, over-long here to be rehearsed the said Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, and declared. Be it Enacted, Ordained, and and his Heirs, and all and every other PerEstablished by your Majesty, with the As- son and Persons, claiming by the same sent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, Thomas Cromwell, and to his use, all such and the Commons in this present Parliament Right, Title, Entrie, Possession, Interest, assembled, and by the Authority of the same, Reversions, Remainders, Lease, Leases, Con. That the said Thomas Cromwell, Earl of ditions, Fees, Offices, Rerts, Annuities, ComEssex, for his abominable and detestable mons, and all other Commodities, Profits, Heresies and Treasons, by him most abomi- and Hereditaments whatsoever they or any nably, heretically, and traiterously practised, of them might, should, or ought to have had, coinmitted, and done, as well against Al- if this Act had never been had nor made. mighty God, as against your Majesty, and Provided always, and be it enacted by the this your said Realm, shall be, and stand, Authority aforesaid, that this Act of Atby Authority of this present Parliament, con- tainder, ne any Offence, ne other thing there. victed and attainted of Heresie and High in contained, extend not unto the Deanery Treason, and be adjudged an abominable of Wella, in the County of Sommerset; nor and detestable Heretick and Traitor ; and to any Mannors, Lands, Tenements, or Hereshall have and suffer such pains of death, ditaments thereunto belonging ; nor be in losses, and forfeitures of Goods, Debts, and any wise prejudicial or hurtful unto the Bishop Chattels, as in cases of Heresie and High of Bath and Wells, nor to the Dean and ChapTreason, or as in cases of either of them, at ter of the Cathedral Church of St. Andrew the pleasure of your most Royal Majesty of Wells, nor to any of them, nor to any of And that the same Thomas Cromwell, Earl their Successors; but that the said Bishop, of Essex, shall, by Authority abovesaid, lose Dean, and Chapters, and their Successors, and forfeit to your Highness, and to your and every of them, sball and may have, bold, Heirs and Successors, all such his Castles, use, occupy, and enjoy, all and singular their Lordships, Mannors, Mesuages, Lands, Tene. Titles, Rights, Mannors, Lands, Tenements, ments, Rents, Reversions, Remainders, Ser. Rents, Reversions, and Services, and all and vices, Possessions, Offices, Rights, Condi. singular other their Hereditaments, Commotions, and all other his Hereditaments, of dities, and Profits, of what pature, kind, or what naines, natures, or qualities soever they quality, or condition soever they be, in as be, which he the said Thomas Cromwell, ample and large manner and form, as tho Farl of Essex, or any other to his use had, tbis Act of Attainder, or any Offence therein or ought to have had, of any Estate of In- mentioned, had never been bad, committed, beritance, in Fee-Simple or Fee-Tail, in Re- nor made ; and that from hence-forth the version or Possession, at the said last day of Dean, and his Successors, Deans of the said Cathedral Church that hereafter shall be that she should be at Rochester on New years prefected, elected, and admitted to the same, Even at night, your Highness declared to me, Shall, by the Authority aforesaid, be Dean of that you would privily visit her at Rochester, the said Cathedral Church, fully and wholly upon New-years-day, adding these words, incorporated with the Chapter of the same, “ To nourish love;" wbich accordingly your in as ample, large, and like manner and form, Grace did upon New years-day, as is aboveto all intents and purposes, as the Deans said. And the next day, being Friday, your hefore this time hath been and used to be, Grace returned to Greenwich, where i spake with the said Chapter of the said Cathedral with your Grace, and demanded of your Church of Wells. And that the same Dean Majesty, How ye liked the Lady Ann : your and Chapter, and their Successors, shall have, Highness answered, as me thought, heavily, occupy, and enjoy, all and singular their and not pleasantly, “ Nothing so well as she such Possessions, Mannors, Lands, Tene- was spoken of;" saving further, “That if ment, Rents, Reversions, and Services, and your Highness had known as much before as all and singular their Hereditaments, of what ye then knew, she should not bave come nature, kind, name or names they be called within this Realm ;" saying, as by the way or known. And shall be adjudged, and of lamentation, “ What Remedy ? Unto the deemed in actual and real possession and which I answered and said, I know none hut season of, and in the same Premisses, to all was very sorry therefore, and so God knowintents and purposes, according to their old etb I was, for I thought it a hard beginning. Corporation, as tho this Act of Attainder, or The next day after the receipt of the said any thing, clause, or matter therein contain: Lady, and her entry made unto Greenwich, ed had never been had, committed, nor made. and after your Highness had brought her to This said Act of Attainder, or any other Act, her Chamber, I then waited upon your HighProvision, or any thing heretofore had orness into your Privy-Chamber; and being made to the contrary notwithstanding. Cui there, your Grace called me unto you, saving quidem petitioni cum prorisione pradict. perlect. to me these words, or the like, « My Lord, et intellect. per dictum Dominum Regem er Au- is it not as I told you ? say what they will, thoritute et consensu Parliamenti pradicti sic she is nothing so fair as she hath been reResponsum est,

ported; howbeit she is well and seemly.” Whereunto I answered and said, By my Faith, Sir, ye say truth; adding thereunto,

that I thought she had a Queenly manner; XVII.- Cromwell's Letter to the King concerning and nevertheless was sorry that your Grace

his Marriage with Ann of Cleve. An Original. was no better content: And thereupon your To the King, my most Gracious Sovereign Lord Grace commanded me to call toyether your his Royal Majesty.

Council, which were these by name; The

Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, the Dukes of [Cott. Libr. Otho C. 10.]

Norfolk and Suffolk, my Lord Admiral, and Most Merciful King, and most Gracious my Lord of Duresme, and my self, to com. Sovereign Lord, may it please the same to be mune of these Matters, and to know what advertised, That the last time it pleased your Commissions the Agents of Cleves bad benign Goodness to send unto me the Right brougbt, as well touching the performance of Honourable Lord Chancellor, the Right the Covenants sent before from hence to Dr. Honourable Duke of Norff. and the Lord Wotton, to have been concluded in Cleves, Admiral, to examine, and also to declare unto as also in the declaration how the Matters me divers things from your Majesty; among stood for the Covenants of Marriage, hetween the which, one special thing they moved, and the Duke of Lorrain's Son, and the said Lady thereupon they charged me, as I would an- Ann. Whereupon Olisleger and Hogeston swer before God at the dreadful day of Judg- were called, and the Matters purposed ; ment, and also upon the extreme danger and whereby it plainly appeared, that they were damnating of my Soul and Conscience, to say much astonished and abashed, and desired what I knew in the Marriage, and concerning that they might make answer in the next the Marriage, between your Highness and morning, which was Sunday; And upon the the Queen. To the which I answered as I Sunday in the morning your said Counsellors knew, declaring unto them the Particulars, and they met together early, and there eft. as pigh as I then could call to remembrance. soons was proposed unto them, as will Which when they had heard, they, in your touching the Cominission for the performance Majesty's Name, and upon like charge as of the Treaty and Articles sent to Mr. Wotthey had given me before, commanded me ton, as also touching the Contracts and Coveto write to your Highness the truth, as much nants of Marriage between the Duke of Lor. as I knew in that Matter; which now I do, rain's Son, and the Lady Ann, and what and the very truth, as God shall save me, to terms they stood in. To which things so the uttermost of my knowledg. First; After proposed, they answered as men much per. your Majesty heard of the Lady Ann of plexed, That as toucbing Commission, they Cieves arrival at Dover, and that her Jour- had none to treat concerning the Articles sent nies were appointed toward Greenwich, and to Mr. Wotton. And as to the Contract acd

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