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and other necessary Circumstances in like selse, (so long as the King shall continue the Cases usual, especially against one of our Prosecution of the Cause in that forcible Sort Qualitie, as it could not but have bene pub- he now doeth) then to be an Instrument to liquelie known, if any such thing had bene put take bim away from thence by such violent in Execution. This then being true, we leave Means, that hath dealt in a more Honourable to the Worlde to judge howe maliciously and and Gracious Sort in the Charge committed injuriously the Author of the said Pamphlet unto him, then any other that bath ever gone deleth with us, in charging us by so notable before hiin, or is likely to succeede after him. an Untruth with a Vice that of all others we Now therefore how unlikely it is, that we do most Hate and Abhorre. And therefore having neither Cause to mislike of his Person, by the manifest Untruth of this linputation, nor that the Prosecution of the Warres shoulde Neu not transported with Passion may easily cease by losse of him, should be either Audiscerne wbat Untruth is conteined in the thour, or any way assenting to so horrible a Second, by the which we are charged to bave Fact, we refer to the Judgment of such as bene acquainted with an intended Attempt looke into Causes, not with the Eyes of their against the Life of the said Prince: A Matter, Afection, but do measure and weigh Things if any such thing should have been by us in according to Honour and Reason. Besides, tended, must have proceeded, either of a mis- it is likely if it had bene true that we had lyking we bad of bis Person, or that the Pro- bene any way Chargeable, (as the Author resecution of the Warres in the Lowe Countries porteth) the Confessions of the Parties exewas so committed unto him, as no other migbt cuted, (importing such Matter, as by him is prosecute the same but be.
alledged) would have been both produced and And First for his Person, we could never published; for Malice leaveth nothing unlearne that he hath at any Time, by Acte, or searched, that may nourish the Venime of that Speach, done any Thing that might justly Humour. breede a Nislike in us towards hiin,inuch lesse The best Course therefore that both we and a Hatred against his Person in so high a De- all other Princes can bolde in this Unfortunate gree, as to be eiiber Privie, or Assenting to Age, that overfloweth with Nombers of maligo the taking away of bis Life: Besides, he is nant Spirits, is through the Grace and Goodone of whom we have ever had an Honourable ness of Almighty God, to direct our Course Conceite, in respect of those singular rare in such sort, as they may rather shewe their Partes we alwaies have noted in bim, which willes through Malice, than with just Cause hath won unto him as great Reputation, as with Desert, to say ill, or detace Princes, any Man this Day Living carrieth of bis De- either by Speech or Writing : Assuring our gree and Qualitie: And so have we always selves, ibat besides tbe Punishment that such delivered out by Speeche unto the World, Wicked and Infamous Libellours shall receive when any Occasion bath bene offered to make at the Handes of the Almightie for depraving mention of him. Nowe, touching the Prose. of Princes and Lawful) Magistrates, who are cution committed unto him of the Warres in God's Ministers, they both are, and alwayes the Lowe Countries, as all Men of Judginent shall be thought by all good Men, Unworthie know that the taking away of this Life carri- to live upon the face of the Earth. eth no likelihood that the same sball worke any Ende of the said Prosecution : So is it
Given at Richmount the First of October, manifestly knowen, that no Man hath dealt
1583; and the 27th Yere of the Reigne more Honourablie then the saide Prince,
of our Soveraigne Lady the Queenes either in duely observing of his Promise, or
to be published. extending Grace and Mercie, where Merite and Deserte bath craved the same : And there. Imprinted at London by Christopher Barker, fore no greater Impietie by any coulde bee Printer to the Queene of England, Her wrought, nor nothing more Prejudicial to our most Excellent Majestie. 1585.
SOME PAPERS RELATING TO THE TWO VOLUMES
HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION
CHURCH OF ENGLAND.
1. A Letter written to me by Anthony Wood, in Justification of his History of the Univer
sity of Oxford : with reflections upon it, referred to alphabetically. 2. A Letter to Mr. Ausont, which was translated into French, upon his procuring for me
a Censure in Writing, made in Paris, upon the First Volume of my History of the Reformation.
3. Some Remarks, sent me by another Hand.
I.-A Letter written to me by Anthony Wood, Written by a Master of Arts Septimo Eliza.
in Justification of his History of the Univer- bethæ. 'Tis a manuscript also, and hath all sity of Orford, with reflections on it ; referred the King's letters therein; written to the to alphabetically.
Universitie about the question of marriage
and divorce, with several passages relating to Sir,
convocations concerning the said questions. Your book of the The Reformation of the
So that by this you see I do not frame those Church of England, I have latelie perused, reasons out of mine owne head (as partiall and finding my self mentioned therein, not
men might) but what other authours dictate to without some discredit, I thought fit to vindicate my self so far in these animadversions
P. 138. Upon what design I cannot easily following, that you may see your mistakes,
.magine. and accordingly rectifie them, (if you think
No designe at all God-wot, but meerlie fit) in the next part that is yet to publish. for truth's sake, which verie few in these
P. 138. But afier he hath sei down the dayes will deliver. instrument, he gives some reasons, &c.
ibid. And as if it had been an ill thing, he The two first reasons, (if they may be so takes pains to purge the Universities of it, &c. called)a were put in by another hand, and the
It was an ill thing I think, (I am sure it other were taken from these three books fol- was taken so to be) for a prince by his letters lowing, b viz. from Dr. Nicholas Harpesfield's to frightend people out of their conscience, Treatise concerning Marriage, &c. which is a and by menaces force them to say what must fair manuscript in folio ; written either in please him. But seeing the masters would the time of Queen Marie, or in the beginning not be frightned, and therefore they were laid of Queen Elizabeth, and 'tis by me quoted in aside (the matter being discussed by a few my book, in the place excepted against. old timerous doctors and batchellors of diFrom Will. Forest's Life of Queen Catherine, vinity, who would say any thing to please the written in the raigne of Queen Marie, and King, least danger should follow) they ought dedicated to her. 'Tis a manuscript also, and written verie fairlie in parchment. • From An Apologie for the Government of the d I do not find there was any frightening Universitie against King Henry the villth, threatenings; none appear in the King's let.
If he had this from any good authors,
be bad done well to have quoted them. It is I could not know this : he publishes them, not honourable for the University, as it is not and , hustly to be charged with them. probable, to represent all the doctors and
b Fron. euch authorities what else was to batchelors of divinity, as men apt to be be expected
frightened out of their consciences; and that c This, as Dr. Lloyd informs me, is Pare only the masters of arts were impregnable. sons's book, an author of no better credit than It is rather to be supposed that the one sort the former : for he was a master of arts in were carried away by faction ; and that the Baliol College, in Queen Elizabeth's time. Others were guided by learning and conSee Wood in Bal. Col.
to be commended, or at least justified for to think, that it was only drawn up, and not keeping their consciences sake.
proposed; for if it had, it would have been P. 139. And without any proof gives credit registred : there being nothing proposed, to a lying story set down by Sunders, of an as- either in convocation or congregation, but is sembly culled by night.
registred, whether denied, or not. And the Sanders is not my authour, for he says no register of that time is most exactly kept ; such thing in his book de Schismute, of an as. and nothing thence, as I can perceive, is torn semblye called by night; my author for this out. is the Apologie before mentioned, which adds, P. 139. There seems to be also another misthat, when a Regent of Baliol College (whom take, in the relation he gives : for he says, those they called King Henry), heard that the com- of Paris had determined in this matter. missarie, and his company, were going to dis I sayi so from Warham, archbishop of patch this night work, denied the seule with his Canterbury, then chancellor of the Univerbreeches about his shoulders, for want of a hood, sity; who in bis letters thereunto, desires the See in Hist. et Antiq. Oxon. lib. i. p. 256. members, to make what eapedition they could, A.' The truth is, the meeting was unsea- to give in their answer to the King's question , sonable, and their actions clancular; as being forasınuch as Paris und Cambridge hud done it protested against by, and done without the already. - For this I quote the book of consent of the regents. And as for Sanders, Epistles, in Archiv. Lib. Bod. MS. Epist. though I cannot well defend him, yet many 197. Yet, I believe, the Archbishop said things in his book de Schismate, especially this, to hasten the University of Oxon the those relating to the Universitie of Oxford, more; tho' probably it was not so. HowI find from other places to be true.& ever, I am not to take notice of that, but to
Ibid. But it appears that he had never seen, follow record as I find it. And that I do or considered the other instrument, to which the follow record throughout all my book, there University set their seul.
is not one (I presume) of the Senate of AnThe grand collection, or farrago, which tiquaries can deny it: and therefore, how Mr. Thomas Masters made, (by the Lord there can be many things in my book (of my Herbert's appointment) in order to the framing) that are enemies to the Reformation writing of King Henry the Villth's life, I of the Church of England, as was suggested have seen and perused, but could not with by you to Sir Harbottle Grimston, (wbothereall my diligence find that instrument (as you upon made a complaint in open parliament, call it, yet we, an act, or decree) of convoca. last April, against the said book) I cannot tion ; neither in the three great folios, written seek Truth ought to take place; and must by another hand, containing materials at large not be concealed, especially when 'uis at a for the said life; neither in any of the regis- distance. And if our religion' bath bad its ters, records, or papers, belonging to the original, or base, on lust, blood, ruin and deUniversitie. So that for these reasons, and solation, (as all religions, or alterations in that because the Lord Herbert says, it wus governments, have had from one or more of blurred, and not intended for the King ; and them) why should it be hidden, seeing it is also not under seal, (you say 'twas) neither so obvious to all curious searchers into record. passed in the bouse by the majority of votes;
This is all from hiin therefore did I omit it, as not authentick. July the 5th, that studies truth, I truly believe, or at least have good grounds
Anthony à Wood. e He says it was called clam ; that could shews it was not subscribed; for it is in the hardly be, but in the night: so this is no ma name of John Cattisford, their commissary : terial difference. In the rest you agree with so it must have been either in the form of a Sanders.
notary's instrument, or must bave had the I see no reason for this. The instrument seal put to it, for he calls it an original. set forth by the Lord Herbert shews, that the Perhaps the blurring of it might either be persons deputed had good authority to set casual, or when was brought to court, the the University seal to their determination : King might have made some alterations in and they were not tied to forms, but might it, that it might be renewed according to these have done it at any time.
corrections. It might be cusual; Lord Her8 Yes, such authors as you quote : you say bert says not that it was rased out, &c. you cannot well defend Sanders. It seems, 1 In this you had a warrant for what you you would if you could. These are soft wrote, but I had a better to correct it by. words concerning that scandalous writer. * I do profess I do not remember that I
All that you say here, is only negative ever mentioned your book to him: and Sir authority; but since the Lord Herbert says Harbottle himself
, when I asked him the ques. he saw the original, though it is not in any of tion, said, he never heard me speak of it. these Collections, you must either believe it, ' This is writ very indecently: neither like or make him a liar: and if it was an original, a divine, nor a Christian. it must either have been subscribed by the hands of the persons deputed, or must have • These words in Italic, are in the Bishop bad the seal put to it. The beginning of it of Worcester's band.
II.- A Letter to Mr. Allsont, which was trans- fully proved : so that no author, elder than
kuted into French, upon his procuring for me Cardinal Cajetan, could be found, to be get a Censure in writing, marte in Paris upon the against such a current of tradition. And in First Volun.e of my History of the Reformation. the disputes of that age, with those they
called heretics, all that wrote of the popish Paris the 10th of August, 1685. side made their appeal always to tradition, SIR
as the only infallible expounder of Scripture : Wuen I came last to Paris, I was told and it was looked on as the character of an there was a censure of the first volume of my heretic, to expound the Scripture by any other History of the Reformation, going about in key, or method. So that King Henry bad this writing. I was glad to hear of this, when I clearly with him. was upon the place, ready either to justify The other particular that I make remarks myself, or to acknowledge such mistakes as on, is, that the Reformation is not at all to should be offered to me: for I am ready, upon be cbarged with King Henry's faults: for, conviction, to retract any thing that may have that unsteady favour and protection, which fallen from my pen, as soon as I see cause for they sometimes found from bim, can signify it, with all the freedom and candour possible. no more to blemish them, than the vices of I should be much more out of countevance, those princes that were the great promoters to persist in an error, when I am convinced of of Christianity, signify to cast a blemish on it, than to acknowledge that in such a multi- the Christian religion. Let the crimes of tude of matters of fact, of which my History King Clovis, as they are related by Gregory makes mention, I might have been misin- of Tours, be compared with the worst things formed in some particulars, and have mistaken that can be said of King Henry; and then let others; which I was resolved to rectify, when any man see, if he finds so much falsehood, discovered, in another edition. This made mixed with so much cruelty, in so many reme very desirous to see, what it was that had peated acts, and in such a number of years, been objected to me. And I am much obliged in King Henry the Villth, as he will ånd in to you, for procuring me a sight of it; for King Clovis. Nor do we see any hints of which I return you my most bumble thanks. Clovis's repentance, or of any restitution made
When I read it over and over again, I con- by bim, of those dominions that he had seized fess, I was amazed to find, that he who cen on in so criminal a manner, to the right heirs; sured me so severely, bad read my book so without which, according to our maxims, his slightly; and yet gires way to his passions, repentance could not be accepted of God. with so little judgment, and with less sin. And this was the first Christian king of the cerity, that, among all the things that he Franks. charges me with, there should not be one sin I do not comprehend what his design could gle particular, that might give me occasion be, in justifying Pope Gregory the Vllth's to shew my readiness to retrac what I had proceedings, against the Emperor, Henry the written.
IV th, with so much heat. One that reads What can be expected from a writer, who, what he writes on this subject, can hardly after the list I had given, of the many gross keep bimself froin thinking, that he had someerrors of which Sanders's History was made thing in his eye, that he durst not speak out up, says, Thut I have proved, that he has failed more plainly : but ibat he would not be sorry, in some circumstances, that may seem to uggra. if Innocent the Xlth should treat the great vate the matter more or less? If any man will monarch, as Gregory the VIlth did the Embe at the pains to read what I have proved, peror, and as Paul the IIId did King Henry of the falsehoods in that author, and compare the VIllth. But wbatsoever his own thoughts it with the mild censure here given ; 'he will may be, I desire he would not be so familiar see cause to be ashamed of it, and will look with my thoughts, as to infer this from any for little sincerity, after so false a step made concession of mine : for I allow no antbority in the beginning. Froin this be goes on to to the bishops of Rome out of their own diohis main design ; and runs out into an invec- cese. The additional dignity that they came tive against King Henry the VIIlth, for his to have filowed from the constitution of incontinencies, and other violences.
the Roman empire: and since Rome is no If I had undertaken to write a panegyric, more the seat of empire, it has lost all that or to make a saint of King Henry, he might primacy, which was yielded to it mer by have triumphed over me as much as he reason of the dignity of the city. So that as pleased. But I, who have neither concealed Byzance, from being a small bishopric, benor excused any of his faults, am no way con came a patriarchal seat, upon the exaltation cerned in all this.
of that city; by the same rule, upon the deThere are only two things that I advance, pression of Rome, the bishops of that see with relation to that Prince.
ought to have lost all that dignity, that was The first is, That whatsoever bis secret mo- merely accidental, Bue suppose I should yield, tives might have been, in thesuit of the divorce, according to the notion commonly received in he had the constant tradition of the church on the Gallican church, that the Pope is the conhis side, and that in all the ages and parts of servator of the canons ; that will signify nothing, it; which was carefully searched into, and to justify their deposing of princes; except
FIRST AND SECOND VOLUMES.
609 he can shew what those canons were, upon answer for, though I may be defective in the the violation of which princes may be de- Other : but I leave it to you to judge whether posed. If he flies to the canons of the fourth the defect was in his sincerity, or bis judge council in the Lateran, those being made about ment, when he does not bring any one parti150 years after Pope Gregory's proceedings cular against Cranmer, but whao he takes trom against the Emperor, will not justify what me. So if I have confessed all his faults, and was done so long before these were made. yet give a character of him that is inconsis. When he thinks fit to speak out more plainly tent with these, I may be justly charged for upon this bead, it will be more easy to an want of judgment; but my sincerity is still swer him.
untainted. When he reckons up his charges As for the supremacy that King Henry the against Cranmer, he begins with this, that Villth assumed in ecclesiastical matters, he he was put out of his College for his inconshould not have condemned that so rasbly as tinence. He was then a layman, under no he does, as a novelty, till he had first exa. vows, only he held a place, of which he was mined the reasons upon which it was founded; incapable after he was married; now what not only those drawn from the Scriptures, but sort of crime can he reckon this marriage, I tbose that were brought from the laws and leave it to himself to make it out. His next practices, both of the Roman emperors, and charge is, that though I say ho was a Luof the kings of England. His thoughts or his theran, yet he signed the Six Articles, which pen run too quick, when he condemned the he says, proves that he valued his benefice following those precedents, as a novelty, with- more than his conscience. out giving bimself the trouble of inquiring He wrote this with too much precipitation, into the practices of former ages.
otherwise he would have seen that Cranmer He charges me with flying to the rasure of never signed those Articles.
He disputed the registers in Queen Mary's time, and to much against them before they passed into a the burning of others in the fire of London, law: nor could he be prevailed on, though for proving several things, for which I could the King pressed him to it, to abstain from bring no better vouchers; and for relying so coming to the Parliament while that act often on a passionate writer. I suppose Fox passed. He came and opposed it to the is the person hereby pointed at.
last ; and even after the law was made, he When he applies the general censure to wrote a book for the King's use against these any particular in my work, I will then shew Articles. There was no clause in the act that it amounts to nothing. I often stop, and that required that they should be signed. shew that I can go no further, for want of Men were only bound to silence and submis. proof: and when I give presumptions from sion. If he was at all faulty, with relation other grounds, to shew what was done, I may to that act, it was only in this, that he did well appeal to the rasure, or loss of records, not think himself bound to declare openly for the want of further proof. But this I against it when it was published. From never do upon conjectures, or slight grounds. this, be goes next to charge him for consent. And as for Fox, 1 make a great difference be- ing to the dissolution of King Henry's martween relying upon what he writes barely riage with Anne of Cleve, upon grounds upon report, (which I never do) and relying plainly contrary to those upon which his first upon some registers, of which he made ab- marriage with Catherine of Spain was dis
For having observed an exact fide- solved. Since one pretence in the divorce of lity, in all that he took out of such registers Anne of Cleve was, that it was not consumas do yet remain, I have reason to depend on mated, though in the other it was declared such abstracts as he gives of registers that are that a marriage was complete, though not now destroyed. He might be too credulous, consummated. Whatever is to be said of in writing such things as were brought him this matter, the whole convocation was enby report; and in these I do not depend on gaged in it. Gardiner promoted the most of him : but he was known to be a man of pro- any. So the bishops, who were so zealous bity, so I may well believe what he delivers for popery in Queen Mary's time, were as from a record, though that happens now to guilty as Cranmer. I do not deny that he be lost.
sbewed too much weakness in this compli. The censure is next applied to Cranmer's ance. He had not courage enough to swim character. He observes great defects in my against the stream: and he might think that the sincerity, and (to let me see how civilly he dissolving a marriage, the parties being conintends to use me, he says he will not add) tented, was not to be much withstood. But my want of judgment. I am sure be has my censurer is afraid to touch on the chief shewed a very ill judgment in charging me so ground on which that marriage was dis. severely in so tender a point as sincerity, solved ; which was, that the King gave not and using a reserve in another point, that a pure inward consent to it; for this touches does not touch me so much. I am account- a tender point of the intention of the minister able borb to God and man for iny sincerity: in the sacrament; on which I did not reflect but I am bound to have no more judgment when I wrote my History. By the doctrine than God has given me; and so long as I of the church of Rome, the parties are the maintain my sincerity entire, I have little to ministers; so if the intention was wanting,