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[89 the qualities necessary to the foun- labar coast; whose habits were indation and permanency of a great vincible, though their bodies were empire, were among the carlieft easily subdued. feeds that sprung up in his mind; Nor was he more redoubtable and that he looked forward from as a warrior than as a ftatesman the smallest beginnings, to that and if his actions, and the chain ultimate point which never de and motives of his conduct, had parted from his view. The for- not been too remote from obser: mation of such a native military vation, to be thoroughly known force, as India had never beheld, and comprehended, he might porand was thought incapable of pro- fibly have been considered as one ducing; the conquest of great of the first politicians of his day, countries, and the acquisition of whether in Europe or in Afia. others without the sword; the rai. He was so far from being natusing of these to a degree of power, rally cruel, that he differed in eltimation, and real value, which that respect from all the eastern they never before pofleffed ; af. conquerors of whom we have any forded but a moderåte display of knowledge ; but as he detefted all. Hyder's talents and abilities. Be- private treachery, and was a strict Sides the efablishment of a mighty observer himself of the laws of empire, and the reducing of the war, and of the public faith, so, Europeans to their original state his punishments in the one inof merchants and factors, living, stance, and his retaliations in the as such, entirely under the pro. other, were so extremely severe, tection and government of the as to carry upon some occasions Itate, his vaft defigns reached, not the appearance of cruelty ; cfpeonly to becoming the greatest cially with those who were not commercial power of Asia, but informed of the causes, or who to what the eait had never before were not disposed to consider the beheld, the creation of an invin- motives. Hyder despised, and cible navy, which should for ever dispensed with, so far as it could secure the coasts of India from with propriety be done, the vain the invasions or insults of fo- pageantry and haughty pomp of reigners. If he was not a legis- the Indian courts ; living in haJator, he had, however, the me- bits of great intimacy and famirit of establishing so mild and liarity with his friends, courtiers, equitable a system of government and officers; displaying in his in his dominions, that the new own person the frank manners of subjects of so many countries were a camp, instead of the proud difnot only attached to his person tance and austere reserve of an in a moft extraordinary degree, eastern despot. He had been, but the neighbouring nations greatly through their own fault, Thewed on every occasion their and partly through their interwishes to come under his protec- ference with his designs, a bitter, tion ; excepting only from the and very nearly a fatal enemy, to foregoing part of this conclusion, the English East India company; that most fingular of all people, but it would be disgraceful and the conquered Nairs on the Ma. mean, on that account, to sup5





press his virtues, or endeavour to excited great dissatisfaction conceal his great qualities. Bombay. That government had

General Mathews had received built much of their design in the positive orders from the president invasion of the Bednore country and council of Bombay, that, if upon the fuppofed dilaffection of the reports of Hyder's death were Hyder's subjects, and the disorconfirmed, he should, without de ders which his death, in such a lay, use every posible exertion, to disposition of the people, would penetrate through the Gauts, as the occasion in every part of his domipasses in the mountains on both nions; nothing less than revolulides of the Peninfula are called,, tions in whole kingdoms were into the Bednore, or Canara coun, expected, and even reported, as try, and particularly to gain pof- faćts, to have happened ; and as fellion of the capital ; which, that temper was particularly attrialong with a strong fort on a small buted to the kingdom of Canara, mountain that joins the city, were it was not to be imagined, under the great depofitaries of Hyder's that opinion, that any extraordi. treasures, as well as the grand nary force would be necessary, to magazines of his arms and mili. induce the inhabitants to the ac. tary stores. Thai commander ac- complishment of their own wishes, cordingly, after the taking of in throwing off or rejecting the Onore, proceeded farther down government of Tippoo Saib. the coast, which was still pursu But however dissatisfied the ing the line of conduct proposed, fident and council were, in being where he took the town of Cun- obliged to relinquith their favoudapore, with little loss or diffi- rite object, they did not think it culty.

by any means fitting or prudent, That eafy success did not how- to persevere in exacting a strict ever seem to reconcile him to the compliance with their former orenterprize against the Bednore ders, when so decided an opinion country; for immediately after had been given against the design, the taking of Cundapore, he re- by the very officer who was entruftpresented in very strong terms to ed with carrying it into execution, the government of Bombay, the They accordingly, tho’ with great difficulty, if not the impractica- reluctance, relaxed their former orbility of that design; itating the ders, in the new instructions which total insufficiency of his army for they dispathed to Gen. Mathews; the purpose, and the necessary giving him a discretionary power, fatal confequences of a failure, with respect to deferring, or to which he seemed to think inevita- proceeding on the designed expebie.

dition ; but, at the same time, This despondency of their com- strongly recommending to him, mander, in the actual course of that he would, in balancing the fuccess, when the most fanguine difficulties against the advantages, hopes were already formed, and give due weight in the latter scale, no enemy appeared within reach, to the consequences which were nor no untoword accident inter- naturally or probably to be expectvened to prevent their completion, ed from Hyder's death,



EUROPE. [91 But that commander had al. those private letters which have ready taken his measures without appeared from some of the officers waiting for any instructions; and engaged in the expedition, to their it would indeed seem that they friends; but even of this kind of had been determined upon, at the information, the calamity, which very time that he remonstrated so finally involved the destruction of ftrongly to his employers upon the whole army, has occafioned an their impracticability. His conduct unusual paucity. Indeed one offiat and after this time was so ex. cer has since declared, that at that traordinary, that it not only be- unhappy inftant, he tore to pieces came myiterious, but in many in- in the face of the enemy, a regu. stances totally unintelligible. He lar detail which he had written, feemed to forget the government of the whole course of military by which he was employed, and operations throughout the expethat he was under the controul of dition. any. All correspondence with It may be judged from some of Bombay was at an end; and thro' these accounts, that the ideas enthe whole course of the subsequent tertained at Bombay, of conciliatfplendid fuccefies, no military de- ing the good-will of the natives, tail of the proceedings of the army and thereby of encouraging the under his command, was evertrani. disposition of the people to a remitted by him to that or to any voltagainst the governmentof Tipother government. It is with pain poo Saib, were either not at all we recount, that as slaughter, understood, or, at least, were bý cruelty, rapine, and avarice, had no means adopted by the army; disgraced this expedition in its for the furprizing and surrounding commencement at Onore, so the of a few hundreds of the unmilitary same detestable maxims and vices, poligars at their posts, and withcontinued to stain its whole pro

out remorse or pity consigning gress, until they were, at its fa- them to the bayonet, are repretal conclufion, most cruelly requit- sented lightly, without the obed; when the innocent became, servation or reflection which such indifcriminately with the guilty, matters seem to demand. victims to the rage of an exafpe

The officer, indeed, who gives rated and merciless enemy. an account of the massacre at the

Under one of the circumstances fortress of Annampore, which was which we have already stated, and taken by storm, under some preothers which will appear in the ceding circumstances of aggravacourse of the narration, it will be tion on the side of the governor, easily seen, that we are left much and from whence only one horsein the dark as to the detail of the man, desperately wounded, had ensuing military operations. A the fortune to escape the general few leading facts, serve to form slaughter, seems to feel no small an authenticated general outline; compunction and horror, in de. the intervening matter must be scribing the spectacle which was considered either as a deduction there exhibited, of four hundred neceffarily proceeding from these, beautiful ivomen, all bleeding with or as resting upon the authority of wounds of the bayone, and either


adready dead, or expiring in each alarmed at the prodigious number others arms; while the common and firong polition of the enemy; foldiers, casting off all obedience but that as it would be then no to their officers, were stripping off lefs dangerous to repeat than to their jewels, and committing every advance, they attacked them with outrage on their bodies. He says such vigour, that they soon fied, that others of the women, (without leaving about 500 of their killed taking notice whether their lives and wounded behind.

Being were offered or not) rather than flushed by this success, they then to be torn from their relations, made their way with the bayonet, threw themselves into large tanks, notwithstanding a heavy cannoand were drowned. He, however, nade, until they had gained the observes, that the troops were fummit of the Gaut, by which the afterwards severely reprimanded work was completed. He likewise for this action,

inforins us, that having then difSuch enormities undoubtedly patched an account of their suc. deserved a severe vengeance! Whe- cess to the general, he expresied ther in the degree it was soon in- his astonishment no less than his Hicted,

, may be another confidera- satisfaction at the event. tion.

The mountains being thus scalA fortunate ignorance of the ed, their paffes secured, and a free difficulty and danger of forcing a communication established with passage through the Gauts, seem- the sea-coasts, the rich, and ever ed to be the only apology that yet unspoiled Canara kingdom, could be made for the attempi, at with its capital, Hyder's royal faleast in the manner that it was vourite palace, and as it was sup: conducted ; and the success served posed bis treasures, together with to justify the rashness of the un. many of those things on which he dertaking:. The only account we

had 'moit set hịs heart, now lay have of this transaction, is from open and defenceless to the hands an officer who was one of the party of the invaders. engaged in the attack; and he The city of Bednore, the resi acknowledges that the post would dence through many unknown ages have been impregnable in any other of the antient and fequettered hands than those of the motleycrew, Kings of Canara, had of latę as he calls them, who were appoint. changed its name to Hyder Naed to its defence. He describes gur, or the Royal City of Hyder.; the pass as being about eight feet a name which the English did not wide, three miles in length, and at this time admit, and which they strongly fortified. The party sent hoped entirely to annihilate. This on fo desperate and important a capital was to be ranked among Service, confifted only of the Bom- the largest and finest cities in India; bay light company of Europeans, its extent being so congderable, and between three and four hun- that some of its streets run nearly dred sepoys. He says they took in a right line two leagues in the first barrier with little oppofi- length; while its greatness was tion ; but that when they were forgotten in the consideration of arrived at the second, they were its beauty. Eat its population


was not proportioned to its extent; ranfom which was the price of for being the favourite residence their falvation. of the nobility, their fpacious pa If it was upon this principle laces and extensive gardens; en- that Hyat Saib acted, and none closing vaft basons or reservoirs of other is apparent, that could at water, (one of the favourite and all accord with his conduct, he most pleasing luxuries of the East) certainly displayed great art, adtook up much, and probably, the dress and knowledge of mankind greater part of the ground." The in his management of the bufi. Christian religion had been early ness. As soon as the Englifh arpropagated (undoubtedly by the my had pafled the Gauts, he dirPortuguese) and ftill flourished fo patched agents to the camp, who exceedingly in this city, that a entered into a private negociation majority of its inhabitants, efti- with the general, and some fort mated at 30,000, were of that pro. of a strange treaty was concluded, fellion.

the particulars of which, so far as The government and command our information goes, are not yet of the city and country, were perfectly known. It was however lodged in the hands of Hyat Saib, understood in the army, and acwho seems to have most worthily cords pretty generally with the discharged the trust reposed in private accounts received by the him; and to have acted with a government of Bombay, even very extraordinary degree of judg- after they had seen the principal ment and policy in those measures officers of the king's forces who which he pursued for the prefer- returned thither, that the capital, vation of both from that impend- the country, the fortress at Bed. ing ruin, which, all things con nore, with the public treasures fidered, it is not probable that and property, were to be deliver. any others could at that time have ed up to the English ; that the averted,

persons and property of the inhaThis man, sensible of his totalbitants were to be fully secured inability to oppose the enemy, and from all molestation and injury ; of the certain destruction which and that Hyat Saib was to coneither that attempt or a fight tinue in the government, under would inevitably and immediately the authority of the English, holdoccasion, seems at once to have ing much the same powers that be wisely directed his thoughts, to had done under Hyder. cast about the means, by which The army then advanced to the he might fo judiciously apply a capital, which, as well as the part or the whole of those trea- fortress, they were put in postersures in his care, and which would fion of, pretty early in the month otherwise become a spoil, as that of February. The government of they might serve to preserve the Bombay were informed, that not country, and more particularly withstanding this treaty and capi. the capital from defolation and culation, the general, immediate. ruin, until his sovereign could ar- ly upon getting possession of Bed. rive to their rescue, and might nore, broke through them, by ther perhaps recover the very suddenly seizing and confining

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