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But these facts are fatal to the fundamental propositions

of the Revolutionary dogma; to its doctrine of the

natural, inalienable, and imprescriptible rights of

the individual; to its doctrine of absolute reason ;
to its doctrine of the social contract; to its doctrine
of the aboriginal goodness of man; to its shibboleth
of “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”; to its panacea
of education; and to the optimism underlying it



Religion, and especially Christianity, proclaims Deity and

Immortality as the crown of the moral law, whose

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The word Democracy is commonly used to denote the

polity in contemporary Europe which is informed by
the Revolutionary dogma


This Democracy has very little in common with the demo

cracies of pre-Christian Europe or of the Middle


Ancient and medieval democracies were the result of fierce

struggles, and of the triumph of the most highly
endowed races; they rested upon a basis of fact, and
were, even in their most popular form, essentially
aristocratic; citizenship in them being regarded not
as a natural right but as a hardly won privilege


The Revolutionary Democracy of the present day, on the

other hand, starts with the proposition that man, qui
man, possesses all the highest attributes of citizen-
ship, and is based on Rousseau's theory of the abstract
rights, innate, inalienable, and imprescriptible, of
humanity in an imaginary state of nature


Its issue cannot be doubtful; the doctrines of absolute

political equality, and of the supreme right of the
numerical majority-relatively poor-must issue in


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