Metal Fatigue: What It Is, Why It Matters

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Springer Science & Business Media, 30.04.2007 - 271 Seiten

This book presents important concepts in metal fatigue in a straightforward manner, for the benefit of readers who must understand more advanced documents on a wide range of metal fatigue topics. The text shows how metal fatigue problems are solved in engineering practice. The book assumes no prior knowledge of metal fatigue, requiring only a basic understanding of stress analysis and mathematics covered in engineering undergraduate courses.

 

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Inhalt

Introduction
1
Historical Background
7
22 Experimental Work
8
222 FATIGUE TESTING OF LABORATORY SPECIMENS
9
223 INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANISMS OF METAL FATIGUE
10
225 FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION RATE TESTING
11
23 The Modern Era
12
233 INFLUENCE OF COMPUTERS
13
75 Variable Amplitude Fatigue Crack Propagation
124
752 INTERACTION EFFECTS
127
76 Fractography
129
761 FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION IN A WELDED JOINT
130
Fatigue Crack Paths
135
811 CLASSES OF FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION
137
82 Crack Paths in Two Dimensions
138
822 CRACK PATH STABILITY
142

Constant Amplitude Fatigue
15
33 Scatter in Fatigue Data
20
34 Mechanisms of Metal Fatigue
24
341 FATIGUE CRACK INITIATION
25
342 FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION
26
343 RATCHETTING
30
35 Effect of Mechanisms on SN Curves
31
Variable Amplitude and Multiaxial Fatigue
34
42 Mathematical Description of Fatigue Loadings
37
421 CONSTANT AMPLITUDE FATIGUE LOADINGS
39
423 BLOCK FATIGUE LOADINGS
42
43 Miners Rule
44
431 WEIGHTED AVERAGE STRESS RANGE
47
432 DAMAGE DENSITY FUNCTIONS
49
433 CYCLE COUNTING
50
44 Standard Load Histories
53
441 APPLICATIONS OF STANDARD LOAD HISTORIES
54
442 DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD LOAD HISTORIES
55
45 Multiaxial Fatigue in Metals
59
452 MULTIAXIAL FAILURE CRITERIA
62
Fatigue Design
67
52 Failure Analysis
68
53 Situations Philosophies and Approaches
69
532 PHILOSOPHIES
70
533 APPROACHES
72
54 Product Liability
77
541 THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT
78
542 ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES
79
551 THE GENERAL PRODUCT SAFETY REGULATIONS
80
The Uncracked Situation
82
62 Effect of Surface Finish
84
63 Effect of Mean Stress
85
631 EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES
88
65 Effect of Notches
89
66 Bicycle Crankshaft Analysis
93
67 Scatter under Variable Amplitude Fatigue Loading
96
68 Improvement of Fatigue Life
97
The Cracked Situation
101
72 Initial Crack Size
102
73 Final Crack Size
103
74 Constant Amplitude Fatigue Crack Propagation
105
741 DETERMINATION OF FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION RATES
106
742 FACTORS AFFECTING FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION RATES
109
743 THRESHOLD FOR FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION
116
744 OVERALL FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION BEHAVIOUR
117
745 SHORT CRACKS
118
746 FATIGUE LIFE IN THE PRESENCE OF A CRACK
122
823 CRACK PATH PREDICTION
148
83 Planar Crack Paths
151
832 LEAK BEFORE BREAK
154
84 Crack Paths in Three Dimensions
155
841 LOWER BOUND MIXED MODE THRESHOLDS
157
842 CRACK PATH DETERMINATION
158
Why Metal Fatigue Matters
160
92 Avoidance of Fatigue Failure
162
93 Research and Development
163
94 The Role of Non Destructive Testing
164
Fracture Mechanics
167
A2 Notation for Stress and Displacement Fields
168
A22 VOLTERRA DISTORSIONI
170
A3 Stress Intensity Factors
172
A31 STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR SOLUTIONS
174
A32 VALIDITY OF STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS
180
A33 EFFECTS OF SMALL SCALE YIELDING
182
A4 Corner Point Singularities
186
A41 CRACK FRONT INTERSECTION ANGLE
189
A42 DERIVATION OF STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS
191
A5 Stress Intensity Factors for Irregular Cracks
195
A51 USE OF SEMI ELLIPSES AND ELLIPSES
196
A52 PROJECTION ONTO A PLANE
197
A53 CRACK FRONT SMOOTHING
199
A55 INTERACTION BETWEEN CRACKS
200
Random Load Theory and RMS
202
B1 Introduction
204
B22 FATIGUE LOADING
207
B3 Some Sinusoidal Processes
208
B32 TWO PARAMETER WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION
210
B33 INCOMPLETE DISTRIBUTIONS AND PROCESSES
212
B34 NON STATIONARY NARROW BAND RANDOM LOADING
216
B4 Broad Band Random Loading
218
Non Destructive Testing
223
C3 Magnetic Particle Inspection
226
C4 Dye Penetrant
228
C5 Radiography
229
C6 Ultrasonics
231
C7 Electromagnetic Fields
234
C71 EDDY CURRENT
235
C72 ALTERNATING CURRENT POTENTIAL DROP
236
C8 Probability of Detection
238
C81 DETERMINATION OF PROBABILITY OF DETECTION
240
C82 PROBABILITY OF SIZING
242
References
244
Index
259
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