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A memorial tablet, with the following inscription, now marks the spot in Westminster Abbey where the remains of Dr. Livingstone are deposited :

-Brought by faithful hands over land and sea, here rests David Livingstone, missionary, traveller, philanthropist. Born March 19, 1813 ; died May 1, 1873, at Chitambo's village, Ulala. For thirty years his life was spent in an unwearied effort to evangelise the native races, to explore the undiscovered secrets, to abolish the desolating slave-trade of Central Africa, and where, with his last words, he wrote: -“ All I can add in my solitude is, may Heaven's rich blessing come down on every one—American, English, or Turk—who will help to heal this open sore of the world.”' On each side of the tablet are also the following inscriptions :—*Tantus amor veri, nihil est quod noscere malim, quam fluvii causas per sæcula tanta latentes ;' and Other sheep I have which are not of this fold : them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice.'

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'The only thing in the world that is left yet undone, whereby a notable mind might be

made famous and fortunate.' – FroBISHER.

The earliest Arctic Explorers was made commander of the on record are said to have been fileet by Zichmi, their earl. He the hardy Norsemen, who visited visited Greenland and Iceland, the coasts of Greenland, New- describing the volcano and foundland, and several parts of boiling spring in the latter. His the American coasts, in the brother succeeded him at his ninth and tenth centuries. A death, and on his voyage of colony is said to have settled discovery to the westward he in Iceland, and in the district discovered Newfoundland and between Boston and New York, the coast of America, and found about the latter period. Some the remains of the Norman relics of their existence, in the colonies. England was then shape of standing stones carved beginning to be distinguished in with Runic inscriptions, were the school of brave and intrepid discovered in the vicinity of mariners, when John Cabot, a Baffin's Bay in 1824. Their Venetian, arrived and settled intercourse with Europe is sup- in Bristol in the reign of Henry posed to have closed about 1406, vil. A patent was granted him owing to extraordinary accumu- on March 5th, 1496, by this lations of ice on their coasts. king, to go in search of unknown

Towards the end of the four- lands, and to conquer and settle teenth century the Zeni, two them. Of Sebastian, one of Venetian navigators, voyaged Cabot's three sons, we alone to the north and brought home know anything with certainty. a record of their discoveries. He is said to have landed at Sailing through the Straits of Labrador eighteen months beGibraltar, Nicolo Zeni arrived fore Columbus saw the mainat the Faroe Isles in 1380, and land of tropical America. He


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thought of a voyage to the Pole, Jackman and his crew perished,
and sailed up to 671° of north Pet returned home in safety.
latitude. Under the presence The endeavour to find a north-
and influence of Sebastian Ca- west passage to the eastern
bot, an expedition was under- world, next began to engage the
taken in 1553, for the discovery mind of Martin Frobisher, a
of a north-east passage to Ca- mariner of great experience and
thay. Sir Hugh Willoughby was ability. He said, "It was the
appointed captain-general of the only thing of the world that
three ships set apart for this ex was left yet undone whereby a
pedition. The result of this notable mind might be made
voyage was most disastrous, as famous and fortunate.'
the brave captain and his crew 1576, by the patronage of Dud-
miserably perished from the ley, Earl of Warwick, he was
effects of cold and hunger on enabled to fit out two small
a barren and uninhabited part vessels for the voyage. On the
of the eastern coast of Lapland. 11th of July he sighted the
The ships and dead bodies of southern coast of Greenland,
those who perished were dis- but was compelled by the float-
covered in the following year by ing ice to make for Labrador.
some fishermen. Chancelor, in Having discovered the entrance
the Edward Bonaventura, with to Hudson's Strait, and explored
Stephen Burrough, the cele- that still known as Frobisher's,
brated navigator, had better and one of the entrances to
fortune, reaching Wardhuys in Hudson's Bay, he returned to
Norway, and afterwards jour- England, having failed to get
neying to the Russian Court at farther westward. He brought
Moscow, where the then Czar with him an Esquimaux; terming
of Russia sanctioned the trade the whole race, whom they had
between the two countries. We at first mistaken for porpoises or
have not space here to give the strange fish, strange infideles,
details of Russian exploration, whose like was never seen, read,
but to them is assigned the dis- nor heard of before.'
covery of the shores of the Polar "He arrived on the ad of Oc-
Ocean, from Behring's Straits to tober, “highly commended of
Novaya Zemlya. Stephen Bur-all men for his great and notable
rough, with a view of sailing attempt, but specially famous
round the coast of Asia, went out for the great hope he brought
in the Speedthrift in 1556, and of the passage to Cathaia.”
discovered the south coast of One of his seamen chanced to
Nova Zembla across the inter- bring home with him a stone,
vening channel, when ice and as a memorial of his voyage to
easterly winds prevented further those distant countries, report-
progress. Pet and Jackmaning that it contained a
made a like attempt in 1580.siderable quantity of gold.


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