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SINGAPORE We regret to learn that the Rev. Mr. Burn, chaplain of Singapore, has been removed by death. The following is the character, and we know it was well deserved, given of him in the Singapore Chronicle. “ 'The character of Mr. Burn is extensively known, and too justly appreciated to require our ealogy; we conld only wish that all in his station were as well qualified for their office, and that to such just and striking views of Divine Truth, were added, in the hearts of all his associates in the ministry, the same enjoyment, and exemplification of its influence, and the same earnest desire that it might be * the power of God to the salvation of all who heard him.' He stood pre-eminent for some of the rarest attainments in Christianity, adding to a powerful inind and fertile imagination the generally dissociated qualities of self-ditiidence and humility, alınost to a fault.
“ He has left a void in the private and social circle, a desolation in the hearts of his dearest friends, which can only be supplied by the widow's God—the friend who sticketh closer than a brother.' Mr. Burn was the son of Major-General Burn, author of “Who fares Best, the Christian or the Man of the World ?"
SIAM AND CHINA. JOURNAL OP A RESIDENCE IN SIAM, AND OF A VOYAGE ALONG The Coast of China TO MANTCHOU TARTARY, BY THE Rev. CHARLES GUTZLAFP.
(Continued from page 96.) Tae navigation of junks is performed without the of charts, or any other helps, except the compass ; it is mere coasting, and the whole art of the pilot consists in directing the course according to the promontories in sight. In time of danger, the men immediately lose all courage ; and their indecision frequently proves the destruction of their vessel. Although they consider our mode of sailing as somewhat better than their own, still they cannot but allow the palm of superiority to the ancient craft of the ‘celestial empire. When any alteration for improvement is proposed, they will readily answer,-If we adopt this measure we shall justly fall under the suspicion of barbarism.
The most disgusting thing on board a junk is idolatry, the rites of which are performed with the greatest punctuality: The goddess of the sea is Ma-tsoo-po, called also Teen-bow, . queen of heaven.' She is said to have been a virgin, who lived some centuries ago in Fuhkeen, near the district of Fub-chow. On account of having, with great fortitude, and by a kind of miracle, saved her brother who was on the point of drowning, she was deified, and loaded with titles, not dissimilar to those bestowed on the Virgin Mary. Every vessel is furnished with an image of this goddess, before which a lamp is kept burning. Some satellites, in hideous shape, stand round the portly queen, who is always represented in a sitting posture. Cups of tea are placed before her, and some tinsel adorns her shrine.
When a vessel is about to proceed on a voyage, she is taken in procession to a temple where many offerings are displayed before her. The priest recites some prayers, the mate makes several prostrations, and the captain usually honors her, by appearing in a full dress before her image. Then an entertainment is given, and the food presented to the idol is greedily devoured. Afterwards the good mother, who does not partake of the gross earthly substance, is carried in front of a stage, to behold the minstrels, and to admire the dexterity of the actors; thence she is brought back, with music, to the junk, where the merry peals of the gong receive the venerable old inmate, and the jolly sailors anxiously strive to seize whatever may happeu to remain of her banquet.
The care of the goddess is intrusted to the priest, who never dares to appear before her with his face unwashed. Every morning he puts sticks of burning incense into the censer, and repeats his ceremonies in every part of the ship, not excepting even the cook's room. When the junk reaches any promontory, or when contrary winds prevail, the priest makes an offering to the spirits of the mountains or of the air. On such occasions (and only on such), pigs and fowls are killed. When the offering is duly arranged, the priest adds to it some spirits and fruits, burns gilt paper, makes several prostrations, and then cries out to the sailors,-“ follow the spirits," -- who suddenly rise and devour most of the sacrifice. When sailing out of a river, offerings of paper are constantly thrown out near the rudder. But to no part of the junk are so many offerings made as to the compass. Some red cloth, which is also tied to the rudder and cable, is put over it; incense sticks in great quantities are kindled; and gilt paper, made into the shape of a junk, is burnt before it. Near the compass, some tobacco, a pipe, and a burning lamp are placed, the joint property of all; and hither they all crowd to enjoy themselves. When there is a calm, the sailors generally contribute a certain quantity of gilt paper, which, pasted into the form of a junk, is set adrift. If no wind follows, the goddess is thought to be out of humour, and recourse is had to the demons of the air. When all endeavours prove unsuccessful, the offerings cease, and the sailors wait with indifference.
Such are the idolatrous principles of the Chinese, that they never spread sail without having conciliated the favour of the demons, nor return from a voyage without showing their gratitude to their tutelar deity. Christians are the servants of the living God; who has created the heavens and the earth ; at whose command the winds and the waves rise or are still ; in whose mercy is salvation, and in whose wrath is destruction ; how much more, then, should they endeavour to conciliate the favour of the Almighty, and to be grateful to the Author of all good ! If idolators feel dependant on superior beings; if they look up to them for protection and success; if they are punctual in paying their vows; what should be the conduct of nations, who acknowledge Christ to be their Saviour ? Reverence before the name of the Most High ; reliance on his gracious protection; submission to his just dispensations; and devout prayers, humble thanksgivings, glorious praise to the Lord of the earth and of the sea, ought to be habitual on board our vessels; and if this is not the case, the heathen will rise up against us in the judgment, for having paid more attention to their dumb idols, than we have to the worship of the living and true God.
The Chinese sailors are, generally, as intimated above, from the most debased class of people. The major part of them are opium-smokers, gamblers, thieves and fornicators. They will indulge in the drug till all their wages are squandered; they will gamble as long as a farthing remains; they will put off their only jacket and give it to a prostitute. They are poor and in debt; they cheat, and are cheated by one another, whenever it is possible; and when they have entered a harbour, they have no wish to depart till all they have is wasted, although their families at home may be in the utmost want and distress. Their curses and imprecations are most horrible, their language most filthy and obscene; yet they never condemn themselves to eternal destruction. A person who has lived among these men, would be best qualified to give a description of Sodom and Gomorrah, as well as to appreciate the blessings of Christianity; which, even in its most degenerate state, proves a greater check on human depravity, than the best-arranged maxims of men.
The whole coast of China is very well known to the Chinese themselves. As their whole navigation is only coasting, they discover, at a great distance, promontories and islands, and are seldom wrong in their conjectures. They have a Directory; which, being the result of centuries of experience, is pretty correct in pointing out the shoals, the entrances of harbours, rocks, &c. As they keep no dead reckonings, nor take observations, they judge of the distance they have made by the promontories
they have passed. They reckon by divisions, ten of which are about equal to a degree. Their compass differs materially from that of Europeans. It has several concentric cireles; one is divided into four, and another into eight parts, somewhat similar to our divisions of the compass; a third is divided into twenty-four parts, in conformity to the horary division of twenty-four hours, which are distinguished by the same number of characters or signs; according to these divisions, and with these signs, the courses are marked in their directory, and the vessel steered.
China has, for centuries, presented to the Romanists a great sphere for action. Latterly, the individuals belonging to the mission, have not been so eminent for talents as their predecessors, and their influence has greatly decreased. Althongh the tenets of their religion are proscribed, some individuals belonging to their mission, have always found their way into China; at the present time, they enter principally by the way of Fuhkeen. It would have been well, at the time they exercised a great influence over the mind of Kanghe, if,-by representing European character in its true light, and showing the advantages to be derived from an open intercourse with western nations,they had endeavoured to destroy the wall of separation, which has hitherto debarred the Chinese from marching on in the line of national improvement. Their policy did not admit of this; the only thing they were desirous of, was to secure the trade to the faithful children of the mother church, and the possession of Macao to the Portuguese. In the latter, they succeeded; in the former, all their exertions have been baffled by the superior enterprising spirit of Protestant nations ; and their own system of narrow policy has tended, not only to exclude themselves from what they once occupied, but to excite the antipathy of the Chinese government against every stranger.
Protestant missionaries, it is to be hoped, will adopt a more liberal policy: while they preach the glorious Gospel of Christ, they will have to show, that the spread of divine truth, opens the door for every useful art and science ; that unshackled commercial relations will be of mutual benefit; and that foreigners and Chinese, as inhabitants of the same globe, and children of the same Creator, have an equal claim to an amicable intercoarse, and a free reciprocal communication. Great obstacles are in the way, and have hitherto prevented the attainment of these objects; but, nevertheless, some preparatory steps have been taken; such as the completion of a Chinese and English dictionary, by one of the most distinguished members of the Protestant mission; the translation of the Bible ; the publication of tracts on a great variety of subjects; the establishment of the
Anglo-Chinese college, and numerons schools and other different proceedings, all for the same purpose.
One of the greatest inconveniences in our operations has been, that most of our labours, with the exception of those of Drs. Morrison and Milne, were confined to Chinese from the Canton and Fuhkeen provinces, who annually visit the ports of the Indian Archipelago, and of whom many hecome permanent residents abroad. When the junks arrived in those ports, we were in the habit of supplying them with books, which found their way to most of the emporiums of the Chinese empire. As no place, south of China, is the rendezvouz of so many Chinese junks as Siam, that country has been the most important station for the distribution of Christian and scientific books. And, moreover, a missionary residing there, and coming in contact with a great many people from the different provinces, may render himself endeared to them, and so gain an opportunity of entering China, without incurring any great personal risk.
All these advantages had long ago determined the minds of Mr. Tomlin and of myself, to make an attempt to enter China, in this unobtruding way; but indisposition matched from my side a worthy fellow-labourer, and peculiar circumstances prolonged my stay in Siam, till a great loss in the death of a beloved partner, and a severe illness, made me anxious to proceed on my intended voyage. Although I had been frequently invited to become a passenger, yet my first application to the captain of a junk, destined to Teen-tsin, the commercial emporinm of the capital, met with a repulse. This junk afterwards left Siam in company with us, and was never more heard of. The refusal of Jin, the captain, was re-echoed by several others; till, unexpectedly, the Siamese ambassador, who had to go to Peking this year, promised to take me gratis to the capital, in the character of his physician. He had great reason to desire the latter stipulation, because several of his predecessors had died for want of medical assistance. I gladly hailed this opportunity of an immediate entrance into the country, with a desire of doing every thing that Providence should put in my way, and enable me to accomplish. But I was sorely disappointed; for by the intervention of a gentleman, who wished to detain me in Siam, the ambassador did not fulfil his proposals.
During this interval of uncertainty, my indisposition had increased to an alarming degree; when I was surprised by the arrival of one of my mercantile Chinese friends, à native of the eastern part of Canton province, who felt himself interested in taking mo to China. He used every argumeut to prevail on me to embark; but, as I was vergiug so fast to the grave, I was reluctant to comply. Nevertheless Lin-jung (for this was the man's name) succeeded, for his arguments were imperious ; and I agreed with captain Sin-shun, the owner of the junk Shun-le, to embark in his vessel for Teen-tsin. This junk was of about 250 tons burden, built in Siam, but holding its license from Canton ; it was loaded with sapan wood, sugar, pepper, feathers, calicoes, &c., and was manned by about 50 sailors.
The 3rd of June was the day appointed for our departure. Mr. Hunter, Capt. Dawson, and Mr. MacDalnac, had the kindness to accompany me on board the junk. I am under very great obligations to the first of these gentlemen, for his frequent and ready support, to the utmost of his power, of any measures that could tend towards the civilization of the natives. When I got on board, my cabin, in the steerage, was pointed out to me; it was a hole, only large enough for a person to lie down in, and to receive a small box. I had sis fellow-passengers. One of them, a captain, 60 years of age, was obliged to become a passenger, because his own junk was unseaworthy, having sprung a leak whilst moored in the Meinam. He was my declared enemy; a master in opium-smoking (using the drug to the amount of about one dollar per day); a man thoroughly versed in all sorts of villainy; and averse to the instruction of his countrymen ; though, at the same time, he was well aware of the superiority of f ropeans, and knew the value of their arts. His son was an insolent youth, well trained for mercantile transactions, and anxious to amass wealth; he became my friend and neighbour. My mercantile friend, already mentioned, had a cabin beneath mine. He was remarkable for deceitfulness, loquacity, childish pride, and onnatural crime. His companion in trade was wealthy, self-sufficient, and debanched, but polite. In the practice of wickedness and deceit, no one was superior to captain Fo, another of my fellow-passengers. This man had formerly been in command of a Siamese junk, bearing tribute to China, and was shipwrecked on the coast of Palo Way. On his release from that island, he returned to Bankok. Being skilful in various sorts of workmanship, especially in painting and mechanics, he at leagth gained so much property, that he was able, this year, to put some hundred peculs of goods on board a junk, and to proceed to China, where he had two wives still living. He was devoted to opium, and prone to lying ; but, according to his own declaration, my best friend.
Our captain, Sin-shun, was a friendly man, well versed in the art of Chinese naviga. tion; but, unhappily, long habituated to opium-smoking. His younger brother showed
himself to be a man of truth; he was my private friend and associate, in every sort of trouble. One of the captain's brothers-in-law was the clerk; he denominated himself (from the moment I stepped on board), my younger brother; paid attention to the instructions of the Gospel; and abstained from every sort of idolatry. The pilot claimed cousinship with me, being (as he said) of the same clan. He was little versed in the art of navigation, but had never been so unlucky as to sail his junk on shore. He was a man of a peaceful temper, a yielding disposition, and a constant object of raillery to the sailors. To all his good qualities, he added that of opium-smoking, in which art he had made considerable proficiency. His assistant was quarrelsome, but more attentive to the navigation than any other individual on board; and he, also, as is the case with almost all the pilots, was trained up to the use of the drug; after having inspired the delicious funes, he would often, against his inclinatiou, sleep at his watch. All the principal persons, on whom depended the management of the vessel, partook freely of this intoxicatiog luxury; by which they were alternately, and sometimes simultaneously, rendered unfit for service.
When I embarked, thongh in a very feeble state of body, I cherished the hope, that God, in his mercy, would restore me again to health, if it were his good pleasure to employ in his service a being so unworthy as myself—the least, doubtless, of all my fellow-labourers in the Chinese mission. I took with me a large quantity of Christian books, and a small stock of medicines,—the remnant of a large remittance, made, pot long before, by some kind English friends. I was also provided with some charts, a quadrant and other instruments to be used in case of emergency. Long before leaving Siam, I became a naturalized subject of the celestial empire, by adoption into the clan or family of Kwo, from the Tung-an districts in Fuhkeen.' I took, also, the name Shihlae,-wore, occasionally, the Chinese dress, -and was recognized (by those among whom I lived), as a member of the great nation. Now, I had to conform entirely to the customs of the Chinese, and even to dispense with the use of European books. I gladly met all their propositions, being only anxious to prepare myself for death ; and was joyful in the hope of acceptance before God, by the mediatorial office of Jesus Christ. My wish to depart from this life was very fervent, yet I had a sincere desire of becoming subservient to the cause of the Redeemer, among the Chinese ; and only on this account I prayed to God for the prolongation of my life.
In three days after embarking, we passed down the serpentine Meinam, suffering greatly from the swarms of musquitoes, which are a better defence to the country than the miserable forts, built at the mouth of the river. Such was my debility that I could scarcely walk; I could swallow no food; and for some time river-water alone served to keep me alive. During the night of the 8th of June, I seemed to be near my end; my breath almost failed, and I lay stretched out in my bertb, without the assistance of a single individual; for my servant Yu, a Fohkeen man, thought and acted like all his countrymen, who give a man up and leave him to his fate, as soon as he is unable to eat rice. While in this exceedingly depressed state, so much consciousness remained, that I was able, at length, to rally a little strength, and leave my cabin ; scarcely had I reached the steerage, when a strong vomiting tit freed me from the danger of suffocation,
On the 9th day of June, we reached the bar, where there is very little depth of water: here we were detained for some time. Every vessel built in Siam, has a Siamese noble for its patron: the patron of ours was the highest officer in the kingdom, who sent one of his clerks on board, to see us safe out to sea. This man was greatly astonished at seeing me on board a Chinese junk, and expressed some doubts in regard to my safety. In fact, all my friends expressed their fears for my life, which might fall a prey, either to the rapa. city of the sailors, or the villainy of the mandarins. Many fearful dangers were predicted concerning me ; there was not one individual who approved of my course ; and I had no other consolation than looking up to God, under the consideration that I was in the path of duty.
In three days we were able to pass the bar, but it was effected with much difficulty. When the tide was in our favour, a cable was thrown out, by means of which the vesse) was moved forward, in a manner which did high credit to the sailors.
The people treated me with great kindness ; regretted the loss of my wife, whom most of them had seen and knew ; and endeavoured to alleviate my sufferings in a way which was very irksome. The poor fellows, notwithstanding their scanty fare of salt vegetables and dried rice, and rags hardly suflicient to cover their nakedness, were healthy and cheerful, and some of them even strong. They highly congratulated me, that at length I had left the regions of barbarians, to enter the celestial empire. Though most of them were of mean birth, the major part could read, and took pleasure in perusing such books as they possessed. In the libraries of some of them, I was delighted to find our tracts. It has always afforded me the greatest pleasure, to observe the extensive circulation of Christian books; this gives me the contident hope, that God, in his great mercy, will make the written word, the means of bringing multitudes of those who read it, to the knowledge and enjoyment of eternal life.
On the 14th of June, some Siamese came on board to search for me; not knowing their intentions, I withdrew. If, at this moment, the message they brought had been delivered to me, my feeble frame would perhaps have fallen; but it was not till long afterwards that I heard, that my dearest infant daughter had died soon after I embarked. The mournful tidings excited the deepest grief. After this, I passed several days alone in my cabin, which was constantly filled with the vile smell of opium fumigation. As 8000 as the men laid down their pipes, they would indulge in the most obscene and abominable langnage ; thus adding offence to offence. All this I had to bear patiently, till I acquired sufficient strength to talk with them; I then admonished them, in the plainest terins; and, contrary to my expectations, received, from some, apologies for their ill conduct towards me.
At length our passengers had all come on board, and the men were beginning to heave the anchor, when it was discovered that the junk was overloaded ; a circumstance which very frequently occurs, as every individual takes as many goods on board as he pleases. The captain had now to go back to Bankok; immediately on his return, some of the cargo was discharged; and on June the 18th, we finally got under weigh. But we moved very slowly along the coast of the Siamese territory, attempting to sail only when the tide was in our favour. Proceeding eastward, we anchored near the promontory and city of Bamplasoi, which is principally inliabited by Chinese, and is celebrated for its fisheries and salt works. Here the Siamese have some salt inspectors, and keep the country in complete subjection. On the 19th, we espied Kokram,- formerly the resort of pirates ;-it is an island with a temple on its summit, in which is a representation of Badha in a sleeping posture. On arriving at this place, the Chinese generally make an offering to this indolent idol. Those on board the richly laden junks, make an offering of a pig ; poor people, are satisfied with a fowl or duck ; both which offerings, are dnly consumed by the sailors, after having been exposed a short time to the air. Concerning this practice, so repugnant to common sense, I made sone satirical remarks, which met with the approbation of the sailors, who, however, were not very anxious to part with the offerings.
I now began to cherish the hope that my health was recovering, and turned my attention to Chinese books; but great weakness soon compelled me to abandon the pursuit, and to pass my time in idleness. My fellow-passengers, meantime, endeavoured, by various means, to keep up my spirits, and to amuse me with sundry tales about the beauty of the celestial empire. My thoughts were now more than ever directed to my heavenly abode : I longed to be with Christ, while I felt strong compassion for these poor beings who have no other home to hope for than an earthly one.
After having passed Cape Liant, which in most charts is placed too far west by two degrees, we approached Chantibun, a place of considerable trade, and inhabited by Siamese, Chinese, and Cochin-chinese. Pepper, rice, and betelnut, are found there in great abundance ; and several juoks, principally from Canton, are annually loaded with these articles. Ships, proceeding to China, might occasionally touch here, and trade to advantage.
When my strength was somewhat regained, I took observations regularly, and was requested, by the captain and others, to explain the method of finding the latitude and longitule. When I had fully explained the theory, the captain wondered that I brought the sun upon a level with the horizon of the sea, and remarked, “ If you can do this, you can also tell the depth of the water.” But as I was unable to give him the soundings, he told me plainly, that observations were entirely useless, and truly barbarian. So I lost his contidence ; which, however, was soon recovered, when I told him that in a few boars we should see Palo Way. On this island, 100 years ago, a British fort was erect. ed; but it was afterwards abandoned, on account of the treachery of some Bugees troops, who murdered the English garrison. During the civil wars in Cochin-china, near the close of the last century, Kaungchung, the late king, took refuge here, where he lived, for several years, in a most wretched condition. In the year 1790, be made a descent upon his own territory, gained over a party, expelled the usurpers, conquered Tonquin, and by the assistance of Adran, a French missionary, improved the condition of his whole empire. Some time back, the island was the retreat of Malay pirates ; but at present, it is the resort only of a few fishermen, and is wholly covered with jungle.
With tae atmost ditficulty we arrived at the mouth of the Kang-kau river, in Camboja, where there is a city, which carries on considerable trade with Singapore, principally in rice and mats. The Cochin-chinese, pursuing a very narrow policy, shut the door against improvement, and hinder, as far as they can, the trade of the Chinese. They think it their highest policy to keep the Cambojans in utter poverty, that they may remain their slaves for ever. Among the several junks at this place, we saw the "tribute bearer," having on board the Siamese ambassador. Though the Siamese acknowledge,