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nor any other moral subject, is susceptible. The conclusions of mathematical reasoning amount to what is called demonstration ; moral evidence, strictly speaking, never does ; it arises from probabilities, the amount and quality of which may be such as to make the reverse appear not only improbable, but irrational and absurd. Demonstrative evidence admits of no degrees: moral may advance from that which is barely possible, through every shade and degree of what is probable, up to that which is in the highest degree certain. Demonstrative evidence has little to do with the state of the heart; it may be said almost to compel belief: moral depends greatly upon the state of the mind, whether as averse, or predisposed to the subject. The strongest degree of evidence of which a moral subject is capable may fail to produce conviction in some minds, merely, because the truth itself is opposed to their inclination. “Every one which doth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. Now this is the kind of evidence which enters into almost all the actions of life; but this is the only evidence which can be adduced for Revelation ; the exercise therefore is framed as much as may be to the life of practice; and much, there can be no doubt, would it conduce to mental improvement, were it more generally introduced into systems of education. How suitable an exercise would such a study be for the upper class in schools, on the sabbath afternoon: and we will add, how admirably are these two volumes adapted for that purpose : utility, not ingenuity nor novelty, being the aim of the distinguished Author throughout.
To a cultivated mind we scarcely know of any literary pursuit capable of affording it a higher mental repast than the study of the Evidences of Christianity. In many of the works written on this subject, we meet with the most forcible reasoning, adorned with the most persuasive eloquence, and in the most perspicuous and lucid style. They remind us of the beautiful expression of “ the vantage ground of truth, a hill not to be commanded, where the air is always clear and serene.
But the Christian has vastly higher and nobler motives for the study of this subject, than those adduced. In the volume of Inspiration lie his dearest and his brightest hopes ; his best and his surest treasure; his chief, his everlasting interest. To him in particular would we recommend these volumes, which with God's blessing, will inform his judgment, enlighten his understanding, give stability to his sentiments, and improvement to his heart.
The order in which the Lectures before us are composed, though not on some accounts the most desirable, has this advantage, that it more readily admits of a close practical appeal to the conscience. Of this, the Author has with much ability availed himself, introducing at the conclusion of each lecture, an admirable practical improvement of the whole.
For the Calcutta Christian Observer,
“WATCHMAN, WHAT OF THE NIGHT ?".
11. “Watchman, what of the night? Watchmau, what of the night?
12. The watchman said, " The morning cometh, and also the night : if ye will inquire, inqaire ye ; return, come.”—Isaiah, xxi. 11, 12.
“ Watchman, what of the night?"
“ There is midnight darkness round me.
Strange fear in its spell has bound me,
And the watchman cried,
“ Flee from the wrath to come !"
“ The star of day is waking ;
Aye, as its sweet light goes,
My soul, like a torrent breaking
And the watchman cried,
“ In the living fountain's flow.”
But the watcher's task was ended.
That ne'er in vain descended.
As he rose to heaven.
For the Calcutta Christian Observer,
PARENTS CONVERTED BY THE DEATH OF A CHILD.
.“ In wrath, thou rememberest mercy."
Missionary and Religious Entelligence.
CALCUTTA. THE RISE, PROGRESS, AND FIRST ANNUAL EXAMINATION OF THB TAKEE ACADEMY.
To the Editor of the Bengal Hurkaru and Chronicle. DEAR SIR,
It may be in the remembrance of yourself and many of your readers, that about a twelve-month ago, a notice was inserted in the Hurkaru respecting the establishment of a new Seminary at Takee. The very favourable remarks then made in your editorial encourage me to believe that you will be rejoiced to hear of the contioued prosperity of the Institution. Let me then submit to yon the following statement of facts :
Takee, a rich and populous village, situated about 45 miles E. from Calcutta, on the western bank of the Jummopah, is the property and principal residence of the Roy Chowdry Baboos. The present heads of the family, Baboos Kalinauth and Boyconto. nauth Roy, after frequent consultations with the Rev. A. Duff, resolved early in January, 1832, to found an Institution at Takee, where instruction should be given in the Persian, Bengalee, and English languages. By a mutual written agreement, the expenses of the undertaking were to be defrayed chiefly by the Baboos, and the superintendence of the whole was to be permanently' vested in Mr. Duft, or his coadjutors.' In June, 1832, Mr. Clift was appointed bead master of the Institution, Mr. Blaney his assistant in the Eng. lish department, and moonshees and pundits were engaged for the Persian and Bengalee. In the same month active operations were commenced, under the most favourable auspices. The system of teaching adopted is the same as that which has been pursued with so much success in the General Assembly's school, middle Chitpore, Calcutta. During the past year the seminary has been repeatedly visited and the pupils examined by the superintendent, as also by the Rev. Mr. McKay: and on every occasion, the satisfaction experienced by the examiners was full and unqualified. As the anniversary of the establishmeut of the seminary approached, Mr. Duff devoted several entire days continuously to a private examination of all the classes, and he was delighted to find that, the more thoroughly the boys were interrogated, to the greater advantage did they appear. On Thursday, the 13th instant, the first public annual examination was held in the presence of J. H. Barlow, Esq. and Dr. Temple of Bagundee, W. Sterndale, Esq. the Rev. A. Duff, Baboos Boycontonauth Roy, Bhobanee Roy, Mritunjoy Roy, Chowdries, and many other pative gentlemen, together with numbers of the parents and friends of the scholars. Those present expressed the highest gratification, or rather astonishment at the rapid and signal progress of the boys in so short a time ; and they did not fail to ascribe the resalt mainly to the excellence of the system of tuition adopted, and the ability and indefatigable zeal of the head master in communicating life, and imparting efficiency to every portion, and harmony and strength to the whole. Prizes were after. wards awarded to the most meritorious in each class. These were delivered to the boys by Mr. Barlow, who accompanied the distribution of them with appropriate remarks. At the conclusion of the labours of the day, every countenauce seemed animated and gladdened. And well might joy be diffused through every philanthropic breast. Placed in the centre of a district of vast circumference, which for ages had not been visited by a single ray of light to dispel the gloominess of superstition, or penetrated by a single principle of life to quicken the deadness of enthralled spirits ; and beholding a field, the cultivation of which a year ago was matter of doubtful, untried experiment, already sending forth vigorous shoots; well might the proprietors, superintendants, and teachers rejoice at the early appearance of so many germs of promise-and well might they anticipate the happy period when these must grow up into stems that shall send forth branches and blossoms as the sure indication of a future harvest of fruit. The good work has not only begun, bat prospered beyond the most savguine expectation ; and if all concerned persevere in the discharge of their respective duties, it must progress; it must reach the desired consommation. Let the Baboos retrench not in their liberality ; let the superintendant relax not in his vigilance; let the teachers slacken not in their activity and diligence ; let the gentlemen at Bagundee withdraw not the encouragement of an occasional visit as heretofore ; and there is no let, no hindrance to a steady indefinite advancement. The means that have already crowned the past will crown the future with still richer trinmphs.
It may not now be uninteresting briefly to review what has been accomplished during the first year of the Institution.
The improvements that have taken place are of two kinds-improvements in temper, and improvements in knowledge. At first the boys were found anxious to learn indeed, but all, except the very young, determined to learn how and when they pleased. The
consequence of this disposition was great irregularity in attendance, and dissatisfaction with the school arrangements. In fact, few of the boys were aware of the restraint and labor which an education on English principles necessarily imposes on the pupils; and few willingly submitted to the discipline.
The measures taken, however, have proved very successful in removing these obsta. cles. The older boys of the school freely confess that from experience they know their improvement is best secured by universal submission to their master. They are aware of the exertions which the attainment of a good education will require from themselves, and prepared to make them. This disposition amongst the elders, naturally determines that of the whole school; and this, it must be admitted, is an important ele. ment in the foundation of every school.
A very similar change has also taken place in the parents and friends. They are willing to trust the teachers, and forbear interfering themselves. Many of them watch the improvement of their children with strict attention, and the most lively pleasure ; and they consider the founders of the school, and the teachers also, as entitled to their gratitude. Some express anxiety to acquire information, and many deeply regret that their time for learning is past. Thus between parents and children, the school is an object of deep interest to the whole neighbourhood—a ceutre on which all eyes are fixed.
With the peculiar prejudices of Hindoos, the managers of the seminary have had very little trouble. Care has been taken not to shock them wantonly ; and when any objection has occurred, the person making it generally discloses, that it results, not from his own scruples, but from deference to those of others. Yet no compromise has taken place. The principles of Christian morals have been constantly inculcated : and in some instances with evident effect. The Hindoo vice lying, has certainly been wounded.
Of course in the English department little can have been attempted hitherto in learning, further than the elements of the English language. The boys appear to be thoroughly grounded in these. So far as they have conquered, the conquest is complete ; at least the endeavour has been to preclude the necessity of ever retracting a step.
The first two classes are reading the third number of the English Instructor, containing reading lessons in the first part, and ancient history in the second. They read these alternately; besides perfectly understanding the lesson, they can spell and parse so well that it is not easy to ask any question on what they have learned that is not answered. These boys in general have learned to write well enough for any situation in life. Many of the boys in the second class are very young, and it is impossible not to admire their ability and industry.
The next two classes learn the second part of the English Instructor, containing easy reading lessons. They know most of the variations of the English nouns, verbs, and pronouns; and they also write ; some of them exceedingly well.
The last two classes read the first part of the English Instructor, and write their les. sons. They know the variations of the verbs and nouns, and they can spell and pronounce what they have read very correctly.
In addition to the classes now mentioned, all of which commenced the a, b, c, in the Institution, there is a small monitorial class ; so called, because the boys, having previously begun the study of English in Calcutta, are more advanced, and have been ena. bled to render some assistance in conducting the junior classes. The boys composing this class acquitted themselves admirably in their examination in Geography, popular Astronomy, ancient History, and English Grammar.
In the Persian school, the usual works are read, and explained by moonshees of great ability, and the proficiency of the boys is in all respects creditable. But as the rumour is abroad, and very generally believed that the Persian will soon be wholly abolished, the pride of being skilled in Persian lore has of late been vastly diminished, and most of the young Persian literati, who at first looked with contempt on the barbarous English, are now resolved to keep pace with the march of events. Many have altogether, and most have partially abandoned the Persian, and betaken themselves to the more manly and invigorating study of the English language. In the mean time, the conductors of the Institution remain in a measure neutral. If they have not positively prohibited the study, they have taken care to extend to it no special encouragement And thus in the course of one year, without any sudden wounding of natural vanity, and without any violence, has the “sublime, darkness-dispelling language" of the Moslem been hurled down, by the mere influence of public opinion as to future expectations, from its lofty pinnacle of dignity and strength, to a lowly basis of comparative decrepitude and dishonour. No where was the Persian more thoroughly idolized than at Takee ; and yet, in the short space of twelve months, has the idol been seen crumbling into decay, almost without a marmar. A fact like this seems to prove, that if an order of the Governor General in Council were to be proclaimed to the effect, that, at the end.