« ZurückWeiter »
“ In a former number we noticed "the Pulpit;" the publication before us (“The Preacher") is of a similar character. The sermons are taken in short. hand from the mouth of the preacher as they are delivered ; but, as we un. derstand, are submitted afterwards to his inspection, and are published with his knowledge and approbation. Churchmen and Dissenters meet in these pages on one common ground; and we are struck with the general agreement among them on all the great points of doctrinal Christianity. For our part, we wonder where the difference between them lies, and we look in vain for the confirmation of the Popish censure upon Protestantsthat they have almost as many differing sects as congregations. We see variety, but no difference, in the sense of the word which implies dissension and opposition of views. They are all Christians, maintaining for the most part the same creed; and we should be glad to learn why they cannot officiate in each other's pulpits, and live together as one fold under one shepherd ? -If this volume affords, as we imagine it does, a fair average of the kind of Christian teaching dispensed from our metropolitan pulpits, then have we abundant reason to congratulate all parties on the rapid advances which they are making in the science of true religion. We hope the practice will follow; and especially that charity, the bond of perfectness, will be cultivated, to the exclusion, not only of sectarian bitterness, but of unbrotherly feeling."
Macritchie's Meteorological Register, kept at Bancoorah*.-In the last number of the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, conducted by Professor Jameson, we find inserted, " Meteorological Tables, deduced from a Register of the weather, kept at Bancoorah, in the East Indies, during the years 1827 and 1828, by Mr. G. Macritchie.” Bancoorah is situated about 100 miles W. N. W. from Calcutta, on the great Benares road. From Calcutta to Burdwan, a distance of 50 miles, the country is remarkably level ; and it is from this last place that the country ascends in a gradual elevation to Bancoorah, a distance of 50 miles, above which place the ascent is much more rapid and the country becomes hilly, About Bancoorah, the country is covered with low woods, the soil is gravelly, with a clayey sand on the surface. Pieces of trap and also of quartz rock, containing a large portion of mica, are brought down from the hills by the floods of the river Dalkissah, and become imbedded in the soil; but about Bancoorah itself, with the exception of two or three masses of quartz jutting above the surface, there is no rock or stone of any consequence. About 30 miles N. E. there is a considerable bed of coal and freestone. The place is elevated above the sea 215 feet, and is generally accounted to be the healthiest station in that part of India. Mr. M. concluded, that April is the driest month, and July that in which there is the most moisture—that the coldest month is January, and the hottest May—that the healthiest season is during the con
Though this subject does not strictly fall within the limits we have prescribed to ourselves, yet it is one of such universal interest, and the facts stated of a nature so thoroughly local, that our readers may well excuse us for supplying this analysis of Mr. M.'s Journal.
tinuance of the steady N. W. hot wind, when perspiration is copiously produced and speedily evaporated; and the most insalubrious season, during the months of September and October, when the great evaporation that takes place gives an intolerable closeness to the air. He remarked, that in the cold weather, the atmosphere is less dry than the clearness of the sky would indicate, from the heavy 'dew that falls during the night being evaporated by the succeeding day's sun, and remaining in a state of vapour, to condense again after his setting. The greatest range of the thermometer which he observed in the room was from 60° to 98°, and the greatest difference during the day never exceeded 9°, and that only following a severe storm. He never saw the barometer lower than 29.250, nor higher than 30-200; and a variation of 2 lines between the two observations was always looked upon as remarkable, and never happened but in very wet weather. The temperature of the external air in the cold season has been observed so low as 55° or 50° at sun rise : but this coolness only took place after a fall of rain. The heavy dews that fall during the night, at this season, in clear weather, give a chilliness to the succeeding unclouded mornings more sensible to the feelings than a much lower degree of cold in more northern climates.
The weather becomes warm in February. The hot winds commence about the beginning or middle of March. The heat increases in sultry oppression, until the presence of the rains in the 1st or 2nd week of June abates its violence. The heat of the night exceeds that of the day in closeness for nine months in the year; and the most pleasant part of the 24 hours is an hour or two before sun rise. The rainy season generally sets in with heavy rain from the eastward, attended by severe thunder and lightning; and usually takes its leave with a flood from the east, in a similar style to its commencement. Solar"and Lunar halos are very frequent when the atmosphere becomes hazy and slightly overcast. Lunar rainbows are not uncommon in stormy showery weather. Parrhelia, with bright spots on and around the halos, are of general occurrence in the marestails and mackerel formation, which the clouds so often assume in India. Eclipses do not materially influence the weather.
The years 1827 and 1828, Mr. M. considers to have been extremes-the one in respect of rain and the other of drought. He there fore concludes that the medium of the two may be estimated as the weather commonly to be looked for at the place where he was stationed. Passing by his Tables, shewing the general direction of the winds, the number of days in which each prevailed, and the phenomena of the weather, we here insert the yearly average of Temperature and atmospherical Pressure, and the quantity of rain fallen during the forementioned years, as exhibited by the Tables.
Church Patronage in Scotland.-Every fragment of the Church Universal ought to rejoice at any symptom of reformation that may manifest itself in other sections, however widely scattered. We at least do unfeignedly rejoice. How can ultimate unanimity be attained, but by extirpating the causes of difference? Why then should men fondly hug acknowledged errors in their bosoms; or warmly clasp palpable abuses and corruptions in their embraces ? What though deformities be preserved and perpetuated for ages ? Shall they blight all that is fair and seemly, as with mildew, forever? Impossible. The lustre of truth alone can shine through eternal ages. Then, let us have in time, and without delay, that which will only continue to increase in beauty, as the cycles of eternity revolve. As symptomatic of approaching better days, we gladly extract the following notice.
“A meeting was held, in the Library of the House of Commons, of Scotch members, between forty and fifty in number, (being all in town,) to consider the subject of Church Patronage in Scotland. Mr. Sinclair, the member for Caithness, in the chair. Mr. Sinclair made a neat address on the object of the meeting, and proposed the appointment of a Select Committee to be moved for. Mr. Horatio Ross seconded the motion, and politely gave up the lead to Mr. Sinclair.
“ Mr. Andrew Johnstone asked the Lord Advocate, whether or no the Government proposed to deal with the subject. The Lord Advocate said, that Government were aware of the evils complained of; that the subject had lately occupied their attention, and that they had a measure in contemplation, but perhaps not legislative, in reference to their own patronages, which might set a good example to others, and which might be promulgated in a few weeks. Besides, he had good reason to believe, that the call would be made efficient in the ensuing General Assembly, so that a fair prospect was held out of the evils of patronage being diminished. He objected to a Special Committee-1st, as it would involve questions wherein recent settlements might be adduced, and thereby place present incumbents in an invi. dious position; and 2nd, it might lead to conflicting opinions, which might rather injure than benefit the cause.
“This statement being very favourably received by the meeting, Mr. Johnstone said, that the statement of the learned Lord was calculated very much to disappoint the expectations of himself and many friends, who took a deep interest in this question; but that as it seemed to be the opi. nion of the meeting, that nothing further should be done till the proposition of ministers should be declared, he would not make any motion in the mean time, although he went much farther than the appointment of a committee, and was ready to move for leave to bring in a bill. He added, that a memorial had been presented on the subject to Lord Melville.
“ The presentations since ministers had come into office, he said, had been in several instances most unsatisfactory; and as to the call, he expected nothing at the hands of the General Assembly, considering their division of 120 to 80 on that question last year; and even supposing that the Assembly did do something regarding the call, that ought never to satisfy the country so long as the rights of patronage were suffered to exist.
“After some farther conversation, the meeting broke up: and the subject will come before Parliament again, only when the different anti-patronage petitions now in progress are presented to their house.”
While statesmen are thus contemplating changes, which must prove, at once, beneficial and acceptable to the great mass of the people of Scotland; it is not a little cheering to find that the people themselves are not forgetful of their duty.
At a meeting of the Anti-patronage Society, held at Aberdeen, October 30th, 1832, it was formally announced, that several patrons had resolved to give as a welcome boon, what ere long must be extorted by the right arm of power. Mr. Bridges mentioned the cases of
Thurso, where Sir John Sinclair and Mr. George Sinclair gave the election to heads of families, and these last made a unanimous and excellent choice.
Kirkwall, the magistrates of which proceeded in a similar way.
Dundee, where it has been resolved by the magistrates, that all future appointments shall be by the choice of the Church people.
Aberdeen, the same.
Others were expected soon to follow the excellent example. Petitions without number were preparing : the voice of the people seemed about to be made known in a tone of decision that reminds us of better days. The call was made from the south : it has been heard : it shall be answered. The reformers and founders of the Church of Scotland were “the boldest champions for the rights of their country, when the coronets of her Barons, and the might of her sturdiest yeomen quailed before the blast of tyranny : for the rights of their country and the holier cause of their God, they contended amid the fastnesses of their native hills, until their blood watered the plant of Scotia's liberty, and their dying testimony bequeathed to others their Zion, whose future triumphs cheered their hours of suffering.” And it seems to us, as if the mighty genius of this land of liberty, this sanctuary of freedom, which long slumbered, has again awakened out of sleep. If it has; advance it shall, despite of stormy strife, and unrelenting persecution : advance it shall, till lordly domination quake, and the high places of corruption totter: advance it shall, till the liberties of the people, encircling the ark of the covenant, shall be enshrined in unsullied purity, and challenge an appeal to the thrilling voice that ever rises unto heaven from the graves of Scotia's martyred children.
The Observance of the Sabbath Medically considered.—Most of our readers are aware, that some time ago a Select Committee of the House of Commons was appointed to examine into the existing state of the laws or statutes relative to the Sabbath—as well as into the prevailing practice in regard to the observance or nonobservance of the sacred day of rest. The Committee drew up, as the result of their laborious examination, a report eminently characterized by solemnity of feeling, soundness of judgment, and comprehensiveness of view. Our limits alone preclude the insertion of it. But we cannot refrain from giving a place to the following interesting remarks, extracted from the evidence of J. R. Frere, M. D.
“ You have practised as a physician for many years ? — Yes.
“ Have you had occasion to observe the effect of the observance and nonobservance of the seventh day of rest, during that time?-I have been in the habit, during a great many years, of considering the uses of the Sabbath, and of observing its abuses. The abuses are chiefly manifested in labour and dissipation. The use, medically speaking, is that of a day of rest. In a theological sense, it is a holy rest, providing for the future state.- As a day of rest, I view it as a day of compensation for the inadequate restorative power of the body, under continued labour and excitement. A physician always has respect to the preservation of the restorative power, because if this once be lost, his healing office is at an end. If I show you from the physiological view of the question, that there are provisions in the laws of nature which correspond with the Divine commandment, you will see from the analogy, that “the Sabbath was made for man,” as a necessary appointment. A physician is anxious to preserve the balance of circulation, as necessary to the restorative power of the body. The ordinary exertions of man run down the circulation, every day of his life; and the first general law of nature by which God, (who is not only the giver, but also the preserver and sustainer of life,) prevents man from destroying himself, is the alternating of day with night, that repose may succeed action. But although the night apparently equalizes the circulation well, yet it does not sufficiently restore its balance for the attainment of a long life. Hence one day in seven, by this bounty of Providence, is thrown in as a day of compensation, to perfect, by its repose, the animal system. You may easily determine this question as a matter of fact, by trying it on beasts of burden. Take that fine animal the horse, and work him to the full extent of his powers every day in the week, or give him rest one day in seven, and you will soon perceive, by the superior vigour with which he performs his functions on the other six days, that this rest is necessary to his well-being. Man possessing a superior nature, is borne along by the very vigour of his mind, so that the injury of continued diurnal exertion and excitement on his animal system is not so immediately felt as it is in the brute: but in the long run he breaks down more suddenly; it abridges the length of his life, and that vigour of his old age, which (as to mere animal power) ought to be the object of his preservation. I consider, therefore, that in the bountiful provision of Providence, for the preservation of human life, the sabbatical appointment is not, as it has been sometimes theologically viewed, simply a precept, partaking of the nature of a political institution, but that it is to be numbered amongst the natural duties, if the preservation of life be admitted