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Moved by the Rev. Mr. Boyes, and seconded by the Rev. Mr. Sutton, “That the thanks of the meeting be given to the gentlemen in charge of the Town Hall, for the use of the Hall on the occasion.'
Moved by Lieut. Dalby, and seconded by the Rev. Mr. MacKay,' that the thanks of the meeting be given to the Right Reverend Chairman, for the impartial and able manner in wbich he has conducted the business of the meeting.'
JUGUNNAUTH. 5.-EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF AN ORISSA MISSIONARY. June 13th, 1832. This is the day of the Snan, or bathing festival. We all issued forth at 10 o'clock in the forenoon, to talk with the people, and distribute tracts. To-day Jugunnath will bathe in Gunga water, and hence, to the Ruth, he will be ill, and will have his skin renewed. We brought out with us in the forenoon about 1,000 or 1,200 tracts, of different sorts and sizes. We first made a stand before the temple door under the shade of a large Bur tree, where we mounted on a large log of wood. From this log we distributed about 500 books. In some cases, we made them read a few letters before we gave them the tracts; and in others, we looked out for intelligent looking persons, and gave them away without this trial. Readers are easily distinguished, by a person familiar with the people as we are, either by their superior intelligence of countenance, or the poita, or malla, or other marks, peculiar to informed and higher classes. After an hour spent in this place, we moved lower down the street, and stood in the veranda of Mr. M.'s house, which fronts the street, but is raised 6 or 8. feet high. This was a good spot, as we could pick our men, and address the people to advantage. Here therefore we spoke by turns ; and when we had tired ourselves, we gave away tracts to the number of 3 or 4000. Got home about 1 o'clock. It was somewhat cloudy. Got a little dinner, and went out again early in the afternoon. We took our station Dear the 18 arches, to meet with the people, as they were pressing out of the town. Our principal object was to pat tracts into their hands, accompanied with a few words regarding the subject of them. They could not have stayed to hear a long address. We soon gave away all our tracts - I suppose about 400. Towards evening, we went down into the town, and took a stand amongst the multitude just before the parapet, on which stood their godships. Though at a considerable distance, not less I suppose than 100 yards, the people were engaged in their adorations and service of the idols ; some were standing with united hands, uplifted and stretched towards the images ; others were silently contemplating the idols' appearance, with their eyes fixed on them while others were waving the cow's tail to beat off the flies from their godships' faces. The scene on the parapet was all life and bustle, and tended to produce excitement in the minds of spectators below. Some were offering flowers, some punkering the idols, and some beating away the flies ; while the pundas and poojharees were showing the idol to crowds of women, who as soon as they had seen them, were belaboured over their backs with canes, like so mamy droves of oxen or sheep, to make way for the next group. The pundas are in some measure obliged to be thus rough with the fair ses ; nor is it thonght severe by the people, though it may make them smart keenly; for if it were not done, they could not show the idols to all who wish to see them. The women particularly have a propensity to stop and admire the countenance of the images. Their language of admiration is in the following strain. “What large eyes ! what a fine mouth! what a beautiful nose! what gold and jewels ! what glory do we see, sisters! O moha Probhoo, joya, joya!” This is the principal excellence they admire in their Jugundanth, and his brother and sister. In this place, we argued and conversed with many people on the play-like folly of their worship. They are like children with their toys. When it grew dark, we left the scene and came away.
14th. Had a good congregation, and a very encouraging opportunity this aftervoon. Attention and conviction appeared in the faces of the multitude. Commenced with the following couplet, partly from the Bhagavat, but altered to suit my own purpose.
Ten million suns whose glory is,
Can he in darkness dwell ? Their own books describe the Deity as full of light and glory, and that his dwelling is wbere there is neither day nor night, meaning that he dwells in eternal, unchanging light. This description some of the people unhesitatingly apply to Jugunnath and his dwelling in Pooree. When it was demanded of them to show this splendour, they besitated, and became confounded; and when it was declared to be a trick of their brahmins to extort their money from them, they appeard to think so. To maintain their ground, the latter appealed to the splendid buildings, &c. of the place, but with little success. I spoke of the want of deity in their idols, and consequently inferred their inability to help them. For example, if Rama had been God, why was he de. ceived by the fabulous deer from watching his beloved Sita ; “and when he had lost her, how was it that be knew not who had taken her away, or where she was gone?
but weeping alond asked that bird, and that monkey, and that cow, and that jackal, and that vulture, and that tree, saying, 'Saw you my Sita this way? Where was his omniscience at this time? Alas! he was weak and human as you are, and utterly one able to help you.' After such questions had produced some effect, and they were pre pared, I spoke to them of a more able Saviour, even the Lord Jesus. He was a chosen, and an authorized and able Saviour. Ten books were received, and could have given away more.
15th. Gungadhur joined us from Cuttack, and laboured with us in the bazar this evening. We were therefore five in number, and took a stand before Singh-dwara. After Rama and Gunga had each addressed the multitude for an hour, we all adjourned to my own stand at the temple corner. Here Gunga's appearance (Brahminical) and preaching produced an imposing effect: a great crowd in a few minutes surrounded us, extending to the other side the street, and filling the nearest shops. The multitude were riveted in their attention, and he produced a very powerful and excellent effect. The people received a stirring up of the evil of their own hearts and lives, which it may be certainly aflirmed they never experienced before, and which many of them will not be able soon to forget. Conviction sat in many eyes. As he proceeded they groaned their assent, while some of the Pooree priests bit their lips in malicious rage. After Gunga had given them an address on the evil of their own hearts and lives, with its consequences, he spoke of the grace of the Redeemer, and invited all to him. I never witnessed a more powerful and surprising impression in India. May God render the labours of his servant effectual to the salvation of many! Rama said something in his turn, and I added a little in confirmation. Twenty or more tracts were gladly received.
16th. We acted on the same plan of operations to-day as yesterday, viz, all of us stood together for an hour before Singh dwara, and then spent the rest of the evening at the corner of the temple. Ganga and Rama were chief speakers, and they spoke well. Rama held a New Testament in Oriya in his hand, and read over and explained several passages, and particularly Gal. xix. 20, 21, referring to the works of the flesh. Gunga spoke with great power, and produced an amazing effect. The road, the shops, and the parapet behind where we stood, were crowded with listening Oriyas. Several Telingas collected near us, and appeared well affected towards what they heard: there is a spirit of enquiry among this class of natives. They are more hopeful hearers, because less superstitious than the Oriyas. We refrained from distributing books, lest we should destroy the impression made on the people's minds.
17th. We again occupied onr old stands, and collected numerous audiences, and the people behaved very orderly. While we stood before Singh-dwara, a pretty large piece of pot was thrown at me, but from what hand it came I could not perceive, por did the people lose their attention by it. Gunga spoke with excellent effect on the gracious miracles of our Lord on the lame, blind, and sick. His discourse was evangelical and affectionate. 1 bless God for such belps in his cause, and pray that they may be preserved humble and faithful, and may be made successful.
Preached in English in the evening to a few hearers, and but a few; could uot but contrast the zeal of Jugnnnauth’s votaries with the professed followers of the Saviour. Of the former how strong, leading the people to forsake their homes and their employments; leading them to endure fatigue, hunger, and other evils, as well as to hazard their health and life, to see a log of wood. The latter how weak, yea, dead; for who euquires, “Where is the house of the Lord ?' “Come, let us go up to the house of God, and he shall teach us of his ways ?”.
18th. Rathera wrangling opportunity this afternoon. A dark-looking brahmin annoyed Gungadhur a good deal, by demanding the geographical situation of heaven. In vain did our advocate repeat passages and texts from the Bible and Bhagavat: the man would have heaven shown to him, and not a word would he hear, or allow others to hear, till he had obtained satisfaction. I soon saw that his object was to occupy the attention of the preacher, and distract that of the people ; but he managed his work very artfully, and I could not without violence get him out of the crowd. Another man, one of my hearers, maintained, in spite of the evidence of eyes and hands, that Juguppath, that very image that was in the temple, and would soon be on the Ruth, was Nirákár, i. e. spirit, or more properly, without form or materiality. Some information however was imparted, and though not so good a night as usual, good I hope was done. The opportunity was very long.
Gunga afterwards came with Mr. S. and addressed the crowd in a Bengalee hymn, and produced as usual a most powerful impression ; and Mr. S. said, he had been doing the same at their own stand. The eyes of many were filled with tears, while Gunga pronounced the sentiments of the hymn, beating his breast with his right-hand, “ Ở what will you do in the hour of death ?" Here under the very face of Jugunnath, we not only preach the Gospel, but disprove idolatry; and do both without an individual being able to make a reply before the thousands of hearers whom we address.
20th. Both our preachers produced powerful convictions this afternoon. Gunga sung a Bengalee hymo, and occasionally addressed the people as he went along. Rama spoke on all having forsaken the way of life and boliness. The hearers were disarmed and impressed. In the evening, four of the Telinga inquirers came to see and converse with us. We sat and talked with them for a while. After tea, we saw them again, aud sat with them in the native brethren's house. They opened their minds freely to us, and told us their difficulties. We gave them such advice and encouragement as we esteemed best for them, considering their circumstances. Several parables and other parts of the Scriptures were read over to them and explained. They are all hopeful men, and not far from the kingdom of heaven. They cannot remain long as they are: they must soon either come forward, or find some plausible excuse with which to satisfy their ininds. The devil and their idolatrous companions will supply them with excuses; but it must be our business to break the snares into which they may fall, and to lead them on. We sat with them till a late hour, and then Rama prayed, and we dismissed them. They appeared more disposed to stay than go, and were aflected at parting; and so were we. May God bless them, and keep them irom every snare, and from all fear, and carry forward his work in them unto perfection. Two are more forward than the rest, but several are well disposed. Our faith labours with them. Blessed God, commence and carry forward thy kingdom in this place, in this place where Satan's seat is; and by saving precious souls here, show that thou art omnipotent to save. Thine will be the work, to thee shall be all the praise. Amen.
21st. Rather a poor afternoon, owing 1 think partly to my bazar atteudant being away on other work. Two or three ill-disposed men disturbed the congregation : said something about the people's fear of losing caste and offending the brahmins. " When they got into distress or difficulty, would their caste, or the brahmins save them? Why then fear them, or why so anxious to please thein ?" Twelve or fourteen books were given away. Have got a kind of square pulpit erected, of stones and earth, raised by the side of the road, for us to stand on while preaching. It is about two feet high, and serves to raise the speaker above the hearers, and is an advantage to those who are afar off, as they will see and hear better.
22ud. An excellent evening among the people; some appeared much impressed, and I hope from a right quarter. Gunga spoke in rather a desultory mannner, but not the less powerfully for that. He enjoyed much feeling and power. "He closed his address with the parable of the marriage of the king's son, noticing the excuses the guests made. The Telinga, who ereuses himself from coming forward on account of his engagement to marry, telt his remarks keenly, and held down his head. Rama made some impres. sion, but I was half afraid lest the people would think he referred to their wooden Jugunnath, instead of the true ; for he used the term Jugunnath for God. I followed Rama, and attempted to guard them against this mistake, observing, that the words they had heard referred to the true Lord of the world, and not the wooden Jugunnath.
I then commenced afresh with some questions: as Ist, If you gave your apparel to the washerman to be cleansed, but after repeated calls, he returned you them as they were, or rather worse, and said that he had washed them clean; should you not call that . dobha a liar, and not worth encouraging any more? “Certainly we should," say they. Well, you come to Jugannath to have your souls cleansed, and your books altirm they are cleansed by coming here. Now let me seriously ask you, Have you obtained new hearts ? Are your sinful dispositions gone, by all the pilgrimages you have made to Moha Probhoo? “ No,” says some person in the crowd, we are as we were.” What sort of a Juguppath therefore is yours? And, when a person is sick, what does he go to a doctor for ? If in 5, lv, 15, 20, or 40 years he had spent much money, took many remedies, or endured severe operations; but if, at the end of the longest period mentioned, his complaint had rather increased than diminished, what would that man say to the doctor? He would say, “Sir, you have taken my money, but have not cured me; I must try some body else.” Just so, you come here to obtain holy dispositions, I suppose, and feel yourselves troubled with the disease of sin in your hearts. Well, let me ask, have any of you by seeing Jugunnath become freed from lying, adultery, malice, abuse of others, &c. ? Have you become new within? They all with one consent cried out, “ No.” The people behaved very orderly, and we retired in peace. Some of the hearers said they would come and see us to-morrow; however I do not much expect it.
23rd. All of us out in the town, but had a far less encouraging afternoon than yester. day; a large audience hung with attention on Gunga's words, but this was unbearable to Satan, and as certainly as though I had seen him he began to bestir himself to destroy the good that was doing. Several ill-looking interested men put on the most ferocious looks, and threw out some curses on the people for hearing a man who had not only lost caste, but who had betrayed the religion of his forefathers. The people's countenances changed into surprise, and some confusion ensued: some few went away with the disaffected, saying Jugunnauth-ke-joy! Hurreebol ! &c. A knot of Telingas collected
together on our left, and talked on the subject of Christianity before all the multitnde. This was a bold stroke: several regular hearers came forward with them. The folJowing proposition told well among the people. “Well, if Juguonath be God, then let the pundas order the rope-makers to cease preparing the ropes for the car, and let Moha Probboo proceed without ropes. If the cars move without ropes and without the strength of man, as you say they occasionally do, then we will admit he has some claim on your attention. Bat if he move not, then you shall consent to put fire in his face.” They all knew what the result of this trial would be, and hid their faces with their hands and were silent.
[Further extracts from this journal in our next.]
BOMBAY TRACT AND Book SOCIETY. From the Fifth Annual Report of this flourishing and very useful Society, which has just appeared, we have pleasure in laying before our readers the following extracts :
During the year now closing, five new tracts have been approved and printed. These, added to those printed in previous years, make the present number of the Society's tracts, 22.
Of these, No. 18, is called, “ A View of the Origin and Progress of Christianity.” This tract briefly describes the origin of the Christian religion ; its promulgation by the Apostles and others; the opposition and persecution it encountered; its general establishment in the Roman impire ; its subsequent corruption under the popes; the revival of true religion at the time of the Reformation; the efforts now being made to extend it; the success which attends these efforts, and the duty of all to embrace a religion thus established by divine power. The origin of Muhammedanism, and the means by which it was established and extended, are also noticed. This tract contains 32 pages, and 2,500 copies were printed.
No. 19, is called the “ Confessions of Leang Afa," a Chinese convert to Christianity. These Confessions describe his principles and condnct while a follower of the Budhist religion; how he became acquainted with a Missionary, and after hearing his instructions for a considerable time, became convinced of the falsehood of the religious principles he had professed, and the folly of performing such rites aud worship as he had been in the babit of doing. The Confessions describe, in simple but feeling language, his resolution to embrace Christianity; his baptism ; his anxiety for the salvation of his wife and chil. dren; his determination to instruct them in a knowledge of the Christian religion, and to use all the means he could to bring his countrymen to a knowledge of the truth. These Confessions are written in a simple and perspicuous style, and it is an interesting circumstance that they were translated into the Marathi language by a native gentleman, who also defrayed part of the expense of printing them. The tract contains pages 32, and 2,500 copies were printed.
No. 20, is an Analysis of the Bhuguwut-Geeta, a religious work of high authority among the Hindns. Few books are read more than this, and few exert a greater infinence. In this analysis, some of the principles of the work are shown to be absurd. The doctrines it contains, concerning the character and government of God, are shown to be inconsistent with reason and facts. The principles of conduct it inculcates are also shown to be contrary to truth and sound morality. These doctrines and principles are contrasted with the purity and excellence of Christianity, and the tract closes with a brief view of the way of salvation as made known in the Gospel. As this tract is long, (containing 112 pages, and is designed rather for intelligent and educated Natives than for general circulation, only
1,000 copies were printed. No. 21, is entitled “ Remarks on Muhammedanism.” It is a translation, with some slight alterations, of a part of Grotius's celebrated work on the Truth of the Christian Religion. It is designed, as its title imports, for Mussulmans, and some who have read it, have appeared much perplexed with the evidence it exhibits of the truth of Christianity and the falsehood of Muhammedanism. The tract contains 12 pages, and 1,500 copies were printed in the Persian language.
No. 22, is nearly the same as the tract last mentioned, only it is printed in the Hindustani language. It contains 16 pages, and 2,500 copies were printed.
During the year, the Society printed in Marathi, 19,500 copies, containing 604,500 pages-in Goojurattee, 2,500 copies, 30,000 pages;-in Persian, 1,500 copies, 18,000 pages; and in Hindustani, 2,500 copies, 40,000 pages-- Total 26,000 copies—692,000 pages.
Issues from the Depository, in Marathi, 17,270; in Goojurattee, 1,400; other tracts in the native languages, 3,200, and in English, 6,500, copies. --Bombay Christian Spectator.
TO MANTCHOO TARTARY, BY THE Rev. CHARLES GUTZLAFF.
May, 1831. During a residence of almost three years in Siam, I had the high gratifi. cation of seeing the prejudices of the natives vanish ; and perceived with delight, that a large field, amongst the different people who inhabit Siam, was opening. As long as the janks from China stayed, most of the time was taken up by administering to the spiritual and bodily wants of large numbers of Chinese. We experienced this year the pecnliar blessings of our divine Saviour. The demand for books, the inquiries after the truth, the friendship shown, were most favourable tokens of divine approbation upon our feeble endeavours. The work of translation proceeded rapidly; we were enabled to illustrate the rudiments of languages hitherto unknown to Europeans, and to embody the substance of our philological researches in small volumes, which will remain in manuscript, presuming that they may be of some advantage to other Missionaries. Some individuals, either prompted by curiosity, or drawn by an interest for their own eternal welfare, applied for instruction, and one of them made an open profession of Christianity:
When we first arrived, our appearance spread a general panic. It was well known by the predictions of the Bali books, that a certain religion of the west would vanquish Budhism; and, as the votaries of a western religion had conquered Burmah, people presumed, that their religious principles would prove equally victorious in Siam. By and by, fears subsided; but were, on a sudden again roused, when there were brought to Bankok, Burman tracts, written by Mr. Judson, in which it was stated, that the Gospel would very soon triumph over all false religions. Constant inquiries were made about the certain time, when this should take place ; the passages of Holy Writ, which we quoted in confirmation of the grand triumph of Christ's Kingdom, were duly weighed, and only few objections started. At this time, the Siamese looked with great anxiety upon the part which the English would take, in the war between Quedah and them selves. When the king first heard of their neutrality, he exclaimed; I behold finally, that there is some truth in Christianity, which, formerly, I considered very doubtful. This favourable opinion influenced the people to become friendly with us. The consequence was, that we gained access to persons of all ranks, and of both sexes. Under such circumstances, it would have been folly to leave the country, if Providence had not ordered otherwise, in disabling me by sickness, from farther labour there. A pain in my left side, accompanied by head-ache, great weakness, and want of appetite, threw me upon my couch. Though 'I endeavoured to rally my robust constitution, I could readily perceive, that I was verging, daily, with quick strides, towards the grave; and a burial place was actually engaged.
Bright as the prospects were, there were also great obstacles in the way, to retard the achievement of our endeavours, the salvation of souls. The Siamese are very fickle, and will often be very anxious to embrace an opinion to-day, which to-morrow they will entirely reject. Their friendship is unsteady; their attachment to the Gospel, as the word of eternal life, has never been very sincere ; neither could we fully succeed in fixing their minds on the Saviour. Though all religions are tolerated in Siam, yet Budhisin is the religion of the state, and all the public institutions are for the promotion of this superstition. A system of the grossest lies, which can find champions only in the biassed minds of some scholars in Europe, engrosses, theoretically, as well as practically, the minds of its votaries, and renders every step towards improvement most difficult. We were allowed to preach in the temples of Budha; and the numerous priests were anxious to engage with us in conversation ; yet their hearts were, generally, steeled against divine truth.
Budhisin is Atheism, according to the creed which one of the Siamese high-priests gave me; the highest degree of happiness consists in annihilation; the greatest enjoy.