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ment is in indolence; and their sole hope is founded upon endless transmigration. We may very easily conclude, what an effect these doctrines must have upon the morals of both priests and laymen, especially, if we keep in mind that they are duly inculcated, and almost every male in Siam, for a certain time, becomes a priest, in order to study them. From the king to the meanest of his subjects, self-sufficiency is characteristic; the former prides himself on account of having acquired so high a dignity for his virtuons derds in a former life; the latter is firmly assured, that hy degrees, in the course of some thousands of years, he will come to the same honor. I regret not to have found one honest man; many have the reputation of being such, but upon nearer inspection they are equally void of this standard virtue. Sordid oppression, priesterast, allied to wretchedness and filth, are every where to be met. Notwithstanding, the Siamese are superior in morality to the Malays. They are neither sanguinary nor bigoted, and are not entirely shut against persuasion.
Favored by an over-ruling Providence, I had eqnal access to the palace, and to the cottage; and was frequently, against my inclination, called to the former. Chow-fa-pooi, the yonnger brother of the late king, and the rightful heir of the crown, is a youth of about 23, possessing some abilities, which are however swallowed up in childishness. He speaks the English ; can write a little ; can imitate works of European artisans; and is a decided friend of European sciences, and of Christianity: He courts the friendship of every European; holds free conversation with him, and is anxious to learn whatever he can. He is beloved by the whole nation, which is wearied out by heavy taxes; but his elder brother, Chow-fa-yay, who is just now a priest, is still more beloved. If they ascend the throne, the changes in all the institutions of the country will be great, but perhaps too sudden.— The son of the Phra Klang, or minister of foreign affairs, is of superior intelligence, but has a spirit for intrigue, which renders him formidable at court, and dangerous to foreigners. He looks with contempt upon his whole nation, but crouches before every individnal, by means of whom he may gain any influence. Chow-nin, the step-brother of the king, is a young man, of good talents, which are however spoiled by his habit of smoking opium. Kroma-sun-ton, late brother of the king, and chief justice of the kingdom, was the person by whom I could communicate my sentiments to the king. Officially invited, I spent hours with him in conversation, principally upon Christianity, and often upon the character of the British nation, Though himself a most dissolute person, he requested me to educate his son, (a stupid boy,) and seemed the best medium for communicating Christian truth to the highest personages of the kingdom. At his request, 1 wrote a work opon Christianity, but he lived not to read it; for he was burnt in his palace in the beginning of 1831. Kroma-khun, brother-in-law to the former king, a stern old man, called in my medical help, and I took occasion to converse with him on religious subjects. He greatly approved of Christian principles, but did not apply to the fountain of all virtue, Jesus Christ. In consequence of an ulcer in his left side, he again called in my aid ; yet his proud son despised the assistance of a barbarian; neither would the royal physicans accept of my advice; and the man soon died. Even a disaster of this description served to recommend me to His Majesty, the present king, who is naturally fond of Europeans: and he entreated me not to leave the kingdom on any account; but rather to become an officer, in the capacity of a physician. — Paya-meh-tap, the commander-inchief of the Siamese army, in the war against the Laos or Chans, returning from his victorious exploits, was honored with royal favour, and loaded with the spoils of an oppressed nation, near the brink of destruction. A severe disease prompted him to call me near his person. He promised gold, wbich he never intended to pay, as a reward for my services. And when restored, he condescended so far as to make me sit down by his side, and converse with him upon various important subjects.-Payarak, a man hated by all the Siamese pobility, on acconnt of his mean, intriguing spirit, and sent as a spy to the frontiers of Cochin China, urged me to explain to him the nature of the Gospel; and as he found my discourse reasonable, he gave me a present of dried fish for the trouble I had taken.—The mother of prince Kroma-zorin, one of the wives of the late king, contrasted evangelical truth with Budhistical nonsense, when she made me meet one of her most favorite priests, of wbom she is a decided patron. Though she had built a temple for the accommodation of the priests of Budha, that mass might be constantly perforned in behalf of her son, who lately died, she thought it necessary to hear, with all her retinue, the new doctrine, of which so much had been said at court of late. The sister of Paya-meh-tap invited me, on purpose to hear me explain the doctrine of the Gospel, which she, according to her own expression, believed to be the same with the wondrous stories of the Virgin Mary.
In relating these facts, I would only remark, that I maintained intercourse with the individuals here mentioned, against my inclination, for it is burdensome and disgusting to cultivate friendship with the Siamese nobles. They used to call at midnight at our cottage, and would trequently send for me at whatever time it might suit their foolish
fancies. At the same time, it must be acknowledged that, in this manner, Providence opened a way to speak to their hearts, and also to vindicate the character of Europeans, which is so insidiously misrepresented to the king.
I will mention also a few individuals in the humbler spheres of life, but who profited more by our instructions than any of the nobles. Two priests—one of them the favorite chaplain of His Majesty, the other a young man, of good parts, but without experience, were anxious to be fully instructed in the doctrines of the Gospel. They came during the night, and persevered in their application, even with neglect of the study of Bali, the sacred language, and of their usual services in Budhisin. The elder, a most intelligent man, about 20 years of age, continued for months to repair with the Bible to a forest, boldly incurring the displeasure of the pkiug. He also urged his younger brother to leave his native country, in order to acquire a full knowledge of Christianity and European sciences, so as alterwards to become the instructor of his benighted fellowcitizens; a Cambojan priest was willing to embark for the same purpose ; and, finally, a company of friends invited me to preach to them, that they might know what was the religion of the Pharangs, or Europeans.
Siam has never received, so much as it ought, the attention of European philanthropists and merchants. It is one of the most fertile countries in Asia. Under a good government, it might be superior to Bengal, and Bankok would outweigh Calcutta. Bat Europeans have always been treated there with distrust, and even insolence, if it could be done with impunity. They have been liable to every sort of petty annoyance, which would weary out the most patient spirit; and have been subjected to the most unheard of oppression. Some of them proposed to introduce some useful arts, which might increase power and riches; for instance, steam engines, saw mills, cannon fonoderies, cultivation of indigo and coffee: but with the exception of one Frenchman, their offers were all refused; and the latter had to leave the country in disgrace, after having commenced the construction of an engine for boring guns. When works for their benefit were accomplished, their value was lowered, in order to dispense with the necessity of rewarding European industry, and of thereby acknowledging the superiority of European genius.
The general idea, hitherto entertained by the majority of the nation as to the European character, was derived from a small number of Christians, so styled, who, born in the country, and partly descended from Portnguese, crouch before their nobles as dogs, and are employed in all menial services, and occasionally suffered to enlist as soldiers or surgeons. All reproaches heaped upon them are eventually realized ; and their character, as faithful children of the Romish Church, has been fairly exhibited by drunkenness and cock-fighting. No industry, no gepius, no honesty is found amongst them, with the exception of one individual, who indeed has a right to claim the latter virtue as his own. From this misconception has emanated all the disgraceful treatment of Europeans up to the time of the war between Burmah and the Company. When the first British envoy arrived, he was treated with contempt, because the extent of English power was not known. When the English had taken Rangoon, it was not believed by the king, until he had sent a trust-worthy person to ascertain the fact. Still doubts agitated the royal breast as to the issue of the war with the invincible Burmans. Reluctantly did the Siamese hear of the victories of their British allies, though they were protected thereby from the ravages of the Barmans, who surely would have turned the edge of their swords against them, if the British had not conquered these, their inveterate enemies. Notwithstanding, the Siamese government could gladly hail the emissaries of Burmah, who privately arrived with despatches, the sole objoct of which was to prevail upon the king of Siam not to assist the English, in case of a breach, upon the plea of common religion and usages. But the national childish vanity of the Siamese in thinking themselves superior to all nations, except the Chinese and Burmans, has vanished; and the more the English are feared, the better is the treatment which is experienced during their residence in this country. The more the ascendancy of their genius is acknowledged, the more their friendship as individuals is courted, their customs imitated, and their language studied. His Majesty has decked a few straggling wretches in the uniform of sepoys, and considers them as brave and well-diciplined as their patterns. Chow-fa-nooi, desirous of imitating foreigners, has built a ship, on a small scale, and intends doing the same on a larger one, as soon as his funds will admit. English, as well as Americans, are disencumbered in their intercourse, and enjoy at present privileges of which even the favored Chinese cannot boast.
The natives of China come in great numbers from Chaou-chow-foo, the most eastern part of Canton Province. They are mostly agriculturists ; while another Canton tribe called the Kih or Ka, consists chiefly of artisans. Emigrants from Tangan (or Tung-an) district, in Fuhkeen province, are few, mostly sailors or merchants. Î'hose from Hainan are chiefly pedlars and fishermen, and form perhaps the poorest, yet the most cheerful, class. Language, as well as customs, derived from the Chaou-chow Chinese, are prevalent throughout the conntry. They delight to live in wretchedness and filth, and are very anxious to conform to the vile habits of the Siamese. In some cases, when they enter into matrimonial alliances with these latter, they even throw away their jackets and trowsers, and become Siamese in their very dress. As the lax, indifferent religious principles of the Chinese, do not differ essentially from those of the Siamese, the former are very prone to conform entirely to the religious rites of the latter. And if they have children, these frequently cut their tails, and become for a certain time Siamese priests. Within or three generations, all the distinguishing marks of the Chinese character dwindle entirely away; and a nation which adheres so obstinately to its national customs becomes wholly changed to Siamese. These people usually neglect their own literature, and apply themselves to the Siamese. To them nothing is so welcome as the being presented, hy the king, with an honorary title ; and this generally takes place when they have acquired great riches, or have betrayed some of their own countrymen. From that moment, they become slaves of the king, the more so if they are made his officers. No service is then so menial, so expensive, so difficult, but they are forced to perform it. And in case of disobedience, they are severely punished, and, perhaps, put into chains for their whole lives. Nothing, therefore, exceeds the fear of the Chinese-tbey pay the highest respect to their oppressors, and cringe when addressed by them. Notwithstanding the heavy taxes laid upon their industry, they labour patiently from morning to night, to feed their insolent and indolent tyrants, who thiuk it below their diguity to gain their daily bread by their own exertions. With the exception of the Hway Hwuy, or Triad Society, implicit obedience is paid to their most exorbitant demands, by every Chinese settler.
Some years back, this society formed a conspiracy, seized upon some native craft at Bamplasoi, a place near the mouth of the Meinam, and began to revenge themselves upon their tyrants; but falling short of provisions, they were forced to put to sea. Fol. lowed by a small Siamese squadron, they were compelled to tlee ; till contrary winds, and utter want of the necessaries of life, obliged them to surrender. The ringleader escaped to Cochin China, but most of his followers were either massacred, or sent to prison for life. From that time, all hope of recovering the nation from abject bondage disappeared ; though there are a great many individuals, who trust that the English (according to their own expression) will extend their benevolent government as far às Siam. Every arrival of a ship enlivens their expectation,-every departure damps their joy.
(To be continued.)
1. Mr. W. H. Jones, of Dinapore, to Mrs. Agnes Jones. 9. At Howra, J. N. Casanova, M. D. to Miss C. M. Laplace, both of Calcutta. 10. At Agra, Lieut. A. Fitzgerald, of B. Horse Art. to Miss Eliza Margaret Gore, 12. Henry Dayus, Esq. of Calcutta, to Miss Mary La Riviere, lately of Loudon. 15. Mr. M. A. Kenyon, Cabinet Maker, &c. to Miss Letitia Long. 17. Ensign E. W. Ravenscroft, 72nd N. I to Miss Georgiana Oram.
At St. John's Church, Futtyghur, by the Rev. Mr. Ewing, Mr. Thos. Fletcher, Assistant Overseer of Public Works, to Miss Eliza Mahaney.
20. Colin Lindsay, Esq. Civil Service, to Margaret, daughter of W. Brown, Esq. 22. Mr. H. P. Grant, to Miss Mary Eleanor Moore.
25. A. Colquonoun, Esq. 28th Regi. to Felicia Maria, only danghter of the late Ardrew Anderson, Esq.
1. Mrs. Henry Smith, of a daughter.
2. At Furreedpore, the lady of T. W. Bur, Esq. Civil Assistant Surgeon, of twin daughters.
3. Mrs. Von Lintzgy, of a daughter.
Mrs. G. D. Elliott, of a daughter.
7. At Loodiana, the lady of Major R. C. Faithful, of a daughter, still born. 7. Sophia, wife of Mr. R. Gordon, of a daughter.
Mrs. Geo. Cattell, of a daughter.
At Banda, the lady of Lieut. A. Mercer, 70th Regt. N. I. of a son. 8. The wife of Capt. A. B. Benoist, of a still-born boy.
Mrs. E. Webb, of a daughter. 9. At Barrackpore, the lady of Capt. F. E. Manning, 16th Regt. N. I. of a son. 10. Mrs. W. Cornelius, of a daughter.
Mrs. C. Morrison, of a daughter.
At Benares, the lady of R. N. Barnard, Esq. Civil Asst. Surgeon, of a daughter. 12. At Azimghur, the lady of Asst. Surgeon Boswell, of a daughter. 13. At Goruckpore, the lady of Lieut. I. S. Bagshaw, 7th Regt. N. I. of a son. 13. The lady of J. C. C. Sutherland, Esq. of a daughter.
The wife of Mr. M. De Silva, of a son and heir. 16. Mrs. R. K. McNees, of a daughter.
The lady of Mr. W. Purves, of a still-born child.
The lady of Lieut. C. Boulton, 47th Regt. N. I. of a son. 17. In the Governor General's Camp, in Bundlecund, Mrs. J. Nyss, of a daughter. 19. At Berhampore, the lady of Capt. McKie, H. M. 3rd Regt. of a daughter.
The lady of H. F. McKenzie, Esq. 64th N. I. of a daughter.
The wife of Mr. W. Peat, H. C. Marine, of a daughter. 20. At Mozufferpore, Jessore, the lady of T. J. Dashwood, Esq. of a daughter. 21. The lady of W. C. Dunn, Esq. of a daughter. 22. At Cawnpore, the lady of W. Jackson, Esq. Snrgeon, 8th Light Cavalry, of a son. 25. At Dacca, the lady of Lieut. and Adjutant Span, 53d Reg. of a son. 27. The lady of Lieut.-Col. Battine, of Artillery, of a son. 27. Near Allahabad, the lady of Capt. G. I. Bower, H. M. 31st Regt. of a daughter.
Mrs. R. Jacob, of a daughter.
Mrs. J. Peter Dowling, of a daughter.
3. On board the Pilot Brig Jane, off Saugor, Mr. Geo. Pritchard. He was buried at Edmonstone's Island.
Mrs. Gertrude Lawson, widow of the late Mr. J. Lawson, aged 48 years. 4. At Sultanpore, Benares, Capt. Alex. M. Key, 9th Light Cavalry, aged 27 years. 4. Eliza Modie, daughter-in-law of Mr. Conductor E. Townsend, aged 11 years.
6. Mr. William D’Monte Sinaes, Superintendant, Civil Pay Office, aged 11 years, 1 month, and 24 days. 8. Mrs. T. C. DeSouza, wife of Mr. C. DeSouza, aged 33 years and 19 days.
Master J. Carrow, the son of Mr. C. R. Carrow, aged 8 years. 10. Mr. R. Thompson, Merchant, aged 59 years.
Mrs. Maria Priestly, aged 66 years.
Samuel Theophilus, son of the late Mr. T. Swaine, aged 4 years. 12. Rev. W. Tweddle, aged 33 years. 13. Master J. H. Pereira, the infant son of Mr. and Mrs. J. Pereira, aged 3 years. 14. J. Latour, Esq. Junior, aged 47 years, 6 months, and 20 days.
Miss Leonora Priscilla Hollow, aged 6 years, 7 months, and 27 days. 16. Mr. W. J. Rooney, of the Bengal Pilot Service, aged 25 years, 11 months.
Josepha, wife of Mr. Charles Peters, aged 48 years. 19. The infant daughter of Lieat. R. Angels, 34th N. I. aged 9 months and 25 days. 22. Margaret Rachael, the infant daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Pittar.
Mrs. Mary Goldspring, aged 70 years,
1. Recovery, T. Wellbank, from London 27th June, and Falmouth 9th July.
Passengers per Recovery, from London :- Hugh Pearson, Esq. and George Pear. son, Esq. Civil Service; Major W Blundell, 11th Light Dragoons; Capt. T. H. Pearson, 16th Lancers; Lieut. Geo. Butcher; Messrs. C. Patterson and G. W. Key, Cornets; Mr. R. Bain, Surgeon; A detachment of H. M. 11th Dragoons, consisting of 35 men, 5 women, and 2 children; 30 men, I woman, and I child of H. M. 16th Lancers. 2. Alcide, (F. Brig,) Quinard, from Havre de Grace 26th July.
Per Alcide :- Mrs. Stacy and Miss Payne. 4. Red Rover, (Bark,) W. Clifton, from China 7th Nov. and Singapore 16th ditto.
Passengers :- Mrs. Davidson and child, Mrs. Clifton ; and 3 children: T. R. Da. vidson, Esq. Civil Service; W. P. R. Shedden, Esq.; H. Holdsworth, Esq. ; W. Shand, Esq.
7. Mercury, (Bark,) P. H. Holmes, from China 6th Oct. and Singapore 1st, and Malacca 7th, November.
Passengers from Singapore :-E. Macnaghten, Esq., R. Torrens, Esq., and N. St. G. Tucker, Esq. Civil Service ; Lieut. Malcosh, B. Engineers ; Mr. H. Lagriu, died on the 13th Oct.
Hammon Shaw, (Brig.) R. G. Wilson, from Acheen 3rd November.
Futta Salam, J. Keys, from China 16th Oct. and Singapore 6th Nov.
8. Baretto, Junior, R. S. Laws, from London 22nd July and Madras 7th Novem. ber.
Passengers from London :- Mrs. McDongal; Mrs. Mansell; Mrs. Bryce ; Mrs. Laws and child ; Mrs. Sim; Mrs. O'Dwyer; Misses Dun, White, Monsell, M. Monsell, Thomas, Wilkinson, and E. Wilkinson : A. Bryce, Esq. ; Captains Duncan and Farmer; G. Forbes and G. O'Dwyer, Esqs. Assistant Surgeons ; Ensigo Frith, H. M. 38th ; Messrs. Omen, Dunlop, Thomas, May, and Thomson.
Mellekel Bebar, (Arab,) Mahomed Rajab, from Mocha 7th August and Penang 3rd November.
Pattel Moin, (Ditto,) Syed Mahomed, from Muscat Ist August and Penang Ist November.
Enterprize, (H. C. Steamer,) C. H. West, from Khyouk Phoo 4th December. 9. Malcolm, J. Eyles, from London 28th July.
Passengers :-Mrs. Col. Biggs; Mrs. Vantheytheusen; Misses Biggs, B. Biggs, Mout, Baynes, Sealy, Ward, Chamberlain, and La Naviere; Col. Biggs, B. Artillery ; Captain Downy Vantheytheusen; H. M. Green, Esq.; Mr. A. J. F. Lyell, Monsieurs E. Berges and F. Robion.
Jessy, (Brig,) J. Auld, from Penang 12th November. 10. Will Watch, (Bark,) Wm. Barrington, from Singapore 20th Oct. and Malacca and Penang 11th November.
Passengers from Singapore :-J. Cook, Esq. From Malacca :-Mrs. Higgs; Misses Greenway, Anglebeck, Cook, D’Wind, and Henrick ; Rev. Mr. Higgs, died on the 3rd Inst. From Penang :- T. Spears, Esq. Merchant; Tonkoo Abdullah, late Prince of Queda, with eight followers, from Malacca.
15. Haidee, (Bark,) James Taylor, from Madras 30th Oct. and Vizagapatam 19th November
Passengers :-Lieut. W. C. Fisher, H. M. 46th, and Mr. J. French.
Arnold Wells, (Amr.) F. Dawson, from Bsoton 23rd July.
Penang Merchant, Younghusband, from China, Singapore, and Malacca, date not mentioned, and Penang 28th November.
Passengers from China :-Mrs. Younghusband and 2 children; Ensign Youngbusband, B. N. I. From Penang :-W. Smith, Esq. Attorney at Law, J. Blackburn, Esq. and Mr. W. Thomas.
21. Roxburgh Castle, Geo. Denny, from Portsmouth 10th August and Madeira Ist September.