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numerous villages, to ask what they should do to be saved, both were obliged to retire. The parting scene was truly affecting. The anxious inquirers were loath to part with those to whom they looked for direction in the path to heaven, and in return, the teachers were as loath to leave. Duty, however, was imperative, and all acquiesced.
During the absence of their teachers the Karens were not inactive. • Their conduct,' says Mrs. Boardman,“ reminds us forcibly of what we read respecting the Apostles and primitive Christians. The chiefs, Moung So, and Moung Kyah, have taken such parts of the Scriptures as we could give them, and gone from house to house, and village to village, expounding the word, exhorting the people, and uniting with their exertions, frequent and fervent prayers.'
It was not till near the end of the year 1830, seven months after their departure, that Mr. and Mrs. B. accompanied by a Native Preacher, were able to resume their labours at Tavoy; and then Mr. B. was in a state of very great exhaustion through disease. No sooner had they arrived, however, than his faithful Karens visited him from the country, bringing with them many others who gave satisfactory evidence of piety, and were anxious for baptism. Se veral days in succession were spent in a diligent examination of their feelings and conduct, and in the course of six weeks twentythree were on the best evidence admitted to the sacred rite. While Mr. B. was rejoicing in these trophies of divine grace, information was brought him that in remote villages which he had previously visited, a still larger number had evidently embraced Christ Jesus as their Saviour, and were anxious to be baptized in his name ; they were however unable to come to Tavoy, and earnestly entreated Mr. B. without delay to visit them. Though so enfeebled by sickness as to be unable to ride or walk, the devoted Missionary could not hesitate to comply with their request ; and some necesary, arrangements having been made, he prepared to commence his journey. Just at this juncture Mr. Mason arrived from America to aid in the labours of the station, and though on seeing the emaciated form of his zealous colleague he hesitated respecting his undertaking the journey, he perceived from the ardent desire he manifested on the subject that offering objections was useless. He therefore determined to accompany him, and on the 31st of January, 1831, he and Mrs. B. commenced their journey, Mr. B. being borne on a cot. After three days they reached the place of their destination, and we must record in the language of Mr. Mason the interesting and affecting scene which he was called to witness.
“During our stay, Mr. B. so evidently lost strength, that Mrs. B. on one occasion advised him to return; to which he replied with more than common animation, “ The cause of God is of more importance than my health, and
if I return now, our whole object will be defeated— I want to see the work of the Lord go on !" Wednesday morning, it was apparent, that death was
He consented, provided the examination and baptism of the candi. dates could that day be completed, to return. Accordingly a little before sunset, he was carried out in his bed to the water side, where, lifting his languid head to gaze on the gratifying scene, I had the pleasure to baptize in his presence thirty-four individuals, who gave satisfactory evidence to all that they had passed from death unto life. After this he seemed to feel that his work was done, and said, “Lord ! now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation !" The day but one after, while on the boat that was to bear him to Tavoy, he took his upward flight.”
Thus ended the labours of the first Christian teacher of the Karens—and great was the loss which by this event they sustained. Mr. and Mrs. Mason, however, with Mrs. Boardman, have ever since continued at the station, and have carried on with great diligence and success the work among them so auspiciously begun. The Gospel has been extensively preached, tracts and Scriptures distributed, and boarding and other schools efficiently conducted. Many more have been admitted to baptism since the death of Mr. Boardman, so that the church must now consist of upwards of 100 members ; yet will our readers have with pleasure observed it stated, in the letter from Tavoy inserted in our last No., (pp. 511, 512,) that “not one member has yet caused their pastor grief by turning aside, or walking unworthy of their profession." The Missionaries at Moulmein and
Mergui, have also exerted themselves for the good of the Karens. The Rev. Messrs. Judson, Wade, Kincaid and others, have gone to different villages inhabited by them, some of them not less than 200 miles distant, and many in return have visited their teachers at Moulmein. Deep convictions of sin and lively faith in Christ have been manifested in the hearts of many, who have in consequence with joy been admitted into the church; and to the present time, we believe, the conduct of all, with two exceptions, has been highly exemplary.
Thus in five years, through the blessing of God on the pious labours of his servants employed in different parts of Burmah, have upwards of two hundred of this hitherto unknown people been brought to the knowledge of Christ, and been baptized in his name, while many more are anxiously inquiring for salvation through his blood. May God grant that these may prove but the first-fruits—the assured pledge of a far more abundant harvest.
• Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, who only doeth wonderous things. And blessed be his glorious name for ever, and let the whole earth be filled with his glory; Amen and Amen."
.Lit וְאֹרַח צַדִּיקִים בְּאוֹר נגה הוֹלֵךְ וְאוֹר עַד־נָכוֹן הַיוֹם
II.-Strictures on a former Criticism on Gen. iii. 8.
To the Editor of the Calcutta Christian Observer. Sir,
From the unassuming manner in which your correspondent 8 puts forth his criticisms*, I take the liberty to suggest that the latter part of his critique on Gen. iii. 8. is not tenable. He appears to have been misled by inadvertently taking it for granted that bin in Ex. xix. 19. signifies “ sounded,” but which I think ở will scarcely attempt to prove.
It will not be controverted that “ placed before another verb or participle preceded by 1, 72,7 imports the continuance or increase of the action expressed by such verb or participle.”—Thus,
(2 Sam. iii. 1.) post777? Lit. “ And David went on and strengthened," i. e. increased in strength. There can be no question of the proper rendering here, and the words are the same in Ex. xix. 19. —Hence,,
(Ex. xix. 19.) PID 7310 DUA bip Lit. “ The sound of the horn went on and strengthened,” i. e. increased in strength.
Lit. “ The way of the (Prov. iv. 18.)
righteous as the shining light goes on and shines, (i. e. increases to shine) unto mid-day. li will not be deemed necessary to write out the parallel passages. Est. ix. 4; Jonah i. 11; 2 Chron. xvii. 12.
It does not appear quite certain that our translators ought to have given the reflective signification of Hithpael to np in Gen. iii. 8. That Hithpael frequently does not differ in signification from Kal must be admitted ; and that the precise shade of meaning attached to any given verb in this conjugation can be determined only by reference to the actual usage will not be denied by any one conversant in the Hebrew language.
The Hithpael of the verb in question does not, in the following passages, appear to require any difference of rendering from the same verb in Kal. (Job xxii. 14.) 09 o'w an “ He walks
canopy of heaven." (. )
And he walked upon the roof of the king's house."
(Ex. xxi. 19.) yna honom 17DX “ If he arise and walk without.”
(Ez. xxviii. 14.) mobniny wymax nina “ Thou hast walked in the midst of precious stones.”
* See Calcutta Christian Observer, vol. i. 1832. p. 300.
In the passages below, Hithpael differs from Kal in signifying not only to walk, but to walk to and fro; and under this head possibly some of the examples above may be ranked. (. ) )
" And he said, from roving on the earth, and from walking to and fro in it.”
וַיֹּאמַר משׁוּט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֶהתהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ (.7 .Job i) הָאֲמצים יָצְאוּ וִבקשוּ לָלֶכֶת לְהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ וַיֹּאמֶר לְכוּ התהלכו
בָאָרֶץ וַתִּתְהַלֵכְנָה בָאָרֶץ
But ở says,
182722brinn yg (Zec. vi. 7.) “And the strong went forth, and sought to go that they might walk to and fro on the earth: and he said, Go walk to and fro on the earth. And they walked to and fro on the earth.” (See also Zec. i. 10, 11.)
When this verb is used figuratively, there is no difference in signification between Hithpael and Kal. Thus, in the first example below, the verb is in Kal; in the second, in Hithpael. ()
“ He who walks uprightly." (Ps. xxvi. 3.) imani naman “And I have walked in thy truth."
There are passages parallel with the last in Gen. v. 22, 24. vi. 9; xvii. 1 ; xxiv. 40; xlviii. 15; Ps. xxxv. 14 ; ci. 2; Prov. xx. 7; xxiii. 31, and in all of which the word is used in the same signification.
“ How can it be said that thunder walks, and that in a garden too?" A difficulty truly. Sip however is not the word with which the participle in can naturally be made to agree, when a nearer subject is found in die mit and thus we are unavoidably brought back to the construction and rendering of the English version : with which the best Hebrew scholars of the present age, as Gesenius, Stuart, and Rosenmuller nearly or wholly coincide. The latter renders the passage thus, “ Tum audiverunt vocem Jovæ Dei gradientis per hortum ad auram diei.” In English it might be paraphrased as follows, “ And they heard the noise that precedes the approach of Jehovah God, who was walking in the garden on the evening of the day (in which they had committed the transgression."] That “a visible manifestation of the Divine Being on this occasion” was expected, is rendered almost certain by the language of the tenth verse, “ And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and was afraid, because I was naked, and I hid myself.” If no visible manifestation was expected, why should he be afraid (of being seen] because he was naked?
May 7, 1833.
P. S. Should my remarks be thought late, let me observe that the number containing the article commented on reached me only four days ago
III.-On the Connection between Prayer and the Success of
the Gospel. In all the works of God, the connexion between the use of means and the attainment of an object, is nearly invariable: sometimes indeed events may seem to be almost entirely accidental, but when more closely observed they will generally appear to be only the results of well known principles, or the effects of definite causes.
One thing in nature follows another with a regularity which admits of few interruptions ; so that by observing one event of a series we can often calculate on subsequent events, long before their actual existence.
But what takes place in the system of external nature, appears equally in that system of Providence, connected with man's salvation and the spiritual kingdom of God. Though the regular dependence of one event or class of events on another may sometimes not appear as striking as that observable in the material universe : yet the connexion of cause and effect is no less generally invariable, and the results no less generally certain. Thus the connexion
of the preaching of the gospel with the salvation of men, is constantly referred to in Scripture as one of an essential nature. Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God; while the soul's ultimate salvation is entirely dependant on the belief of that truth, which the preaching of the gospel brings to the mind. Without the gospel being heard it can not be believed, and without its being believed, there can be no salvation. For though to us, there may appear to be no necessary connexion between the exercise of faith and the reception of the pardon of sin ; yet we are assured that the providence of God has indissolubly united the one to the other. We are assured, that, in the moral world, justification follows true faith, as regularly as the principles of gravitation operate in the natural :--but why one of these events so invariably follows the other, can be resolved only into the will of him, who reigns supreme over both the kingdoms of nature and of grace.
Our present object, however, is not to dwell on the connexion subsisting, generally, between the different parts of the system of revealed truth or the dispensation of divine Providence; but to make some remarks on the connexion that exists between the fervent believing prayers of the people of God, and the success of the gospel in the world. Few subjects of so much practical importance have been more frequently overlooked. . The existence of such a connexion has not been denied,-nay it has been often insisted on,-but still there has been a sad practical neglect of the duties involved in the principle admitted.