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to the hospital; left him with this promise, and rode to the thanna, and sent a burkendas with a doolee for him. Nearer home, discovered a young Bengalee woman, a widow, laying in the street, ill with the cholera ; called to her, and she raised her head. The disease though apparent in her face was not far advanced; asked where her friends were, and she answered, in conjunction with some neighbours, that her father and friends were in the next house. Looked out, and found her owu father and other relations lodged in a bigb and dry house, from whence they had carried the poor creature as soon as seized, and bad thrown her in the swimming street to die. The old fellow appeared quite careless and unmoved, but we managed to put some life and motion into him. He took up bis poor girl in his arms, and carried her on the verandah. O what hard-hearted creatures the Hindoos generally are ! The girl was a widow, and a burden on his family, as she cannot be married again. Thus the old gentleman bad got rid of his burden, nor have I now any hope that he will use his daughter better ; she will end her days at Pooree. Gave the old fellow a note to the hospital for medicine. The poor girl was grateful for the interest we took in her, and said, she was young and not very ill, and did not wish to die, and therefore, “why laid they her there?" There is much misery in the town :-many such cases as I have mentioned in this journal, but to attempt to relieve them is nearly hopeless. Their friends, if they are with them, will take no interest in them, and if they are left, who is to attend and assist them? O how are their sorrows multiplied who basten after other gods !
3. Out in the town early in the morning ; distributed books along with Mr. S. at Ataranulla. Saw 12 or 14 dead lay (besides those in the hospital), which had been thrown out during the night, or early this morning. The Ruths appear as if they had nearly arrived at the Gundicha. They make a splendid appearance at this distance, ranged abreast, and covered with sparkling English cloth of various colours. The people are mostly gone away. The pundas have established a belief, that to see Moha Probhoo, seated on his Gundicha seat, exceeds in merit ten thousandfold seeing him on his own seat in his own temple. This is a trick to keep the people at Pooree during the whole of the Jattra. This however does not succeed in retaining the people ; commonly the cholera frightens thousands away, and you see them bustling off as though life and death depended, as in fact they do, on their getting away. This afternoon I with my family leit Pooree for Cuttack. The opportunity is over for useful labour, and the mortality, combined with the season, render the place unhealthy. We left early, furnished with a box of pills for cholera cases, by Dr. B. We saw some dead, and others dying in the most miserable condition, all along in the first stage. Afterwards, night veiled the horrors from our sight. One, I felt for most, was a female, laying, rolling about her head in agony of thirst. She was in the midst of a village, but not a soul would relieve her, though there were many about. All were interested in their own profits of the season.
In all the wretched cases I saw, my bearers never expressed sympathy for the sufferers, or regret for the dead; yet, while passing by the end of a village, where lay a bul. lock, drawing near his end, they all cried out, Ah! Ah! We had rather a wet journey; it rained hard the two and three stages, and blew a tempest in the second. The rain drifted through a broken pane in my palanqueen. However, thanks to the Preserver of men, we arrived in safety at our home on the morning of July 4th.
BAPTISM OF A BRAHMIN. Girmaji Appa Joshi, a Bráhman, was baptized in Bombay on Sabbath the 4th Nov. by the Rev. John Wilson. He has enjoyed Christian instruction for upwards of two years, and has been a candidate for admission into the Church for about a year. His replies to the questions addressed to bim were satisfactory, and delivered apparently with every considerable feeling. Mr. W. delivered a sermon in Marathi to the native congregation from Matth. xxviii. 19, which were listened to with the greatest attention; and Mr. Mitchell concluded the services by an impressive prayer. A considerable number of Europeans were present, and were much interested in what took place, and particularly in the public rejection of the Bráhmanical string by the young convert.
SIAM AND CHINA. JOURNAL OF A RESIDENCE IN SIAM, AND OF A VOYAGE ALONG TILE COAST OF CHINA, TO MANTCHOU TIRTARY, BY THE REV. CHARLES CUTZLAFP.
(Continued from page 48.) Great numbers of the agriculturists in Siam are Peguans, or Mons (as they call themselves). This nation was formerly governed by a king of its own, who waged war against the Burmans and Siamese, and proved successful. But having, eventually, been overwhelmed, alternately, hy Burman and Siamese armies, the Peguans are now the slaves of both. They are a strong race of people, very industrious in their habits, open in their conversation, and cheerful in their intercourse. The new palace, which the king of Siam bas built, was principally erected by their labour, in token of the
homage paid by them to the lord of the white elephant.' Their religion is the same with that of the Siamese. In their dress, the males conform to their masters; but the females let their hair grow, and dress differently from the Siamese woman. Few nations are so well prepared for the reception of the Gospel as this ; but, alas ! few nations have less drawn the attention of European philanthropists.
The Siamese are in the habit of stealing Burmans, and making them their slaves. Though the English have of late interposed with some effect, they nevertheless delight in exercising this nefarious practice. There are several thousand Burmans living, who have been enslaved in this way, and who are compelled to work harder than any other of his Majesty's subjects. They are held in the utmost conte:npt, treated barbarously, and are scarcely able to get the necessaries of life.
Perhaps no nation has been benefitted by coming under the Siamese dominion, with the exception of the Malays. These Malays, also, are principally slaves or tenants of large tracts of land, which they cultivate with great care. They generally lose, as almost every nation does in Siam, their national character, become industrious, conform to Siamese customs, and often gain a little property. With the exception of a few Hadjis, they have no priests; but these exercise an uncontrolled sway over their votaries, and know the art of enriching themselves, without injury to their character as saints. These Hadjis teach also the Korân, and have generally a great many scholars, of whom, however, few make any progress, choosing rather to yield to Paganism, even so far as to throw off their turbans, than to follow their spiritual guides.
There are also some Moors resident in the country, who are styled emphatically by the Siamese, Kah, strangers, and are mostly country-born. Their chief and his son, Rasitty, enjoy the highest bouors with his Majesty ; the former being the medium of speech, whereby persons of interior rank convey their ideas to the royal ear. As it is considered below the dignity of so high a potentate as his Siamese Majesty, to speak the same language as his subjects have adopted, the above-mentioned Moor-man's office consists in moulding the simplest expressions into nonsensical bombast, in order that the speech adilressed to so mighty a ruler may be equal to the eulogiums bestowed upon Budha. Yet by being made the medium of speech, this Moor has it in his power to represent matters according to his own interest, and he never fails to make ample use of this prerogative. Hence no individual is so much hated or feared by the nobles, and scarcely any one wields so imperious a sway over the royal resolutions. Being averse to an extensive trade with Europeans, he avails himself of every opportunity to shackle it, and to promote intercourse with his own countrymen, whom he nevertheless squeezes whenever it is in his power. All the other Moor-men are either his vassals or in his immediate employ, and may be said to be an organized body of wily constituents. They do not wear the torban, and they dispense with the wide oriental dress: nor do they scruple even to attend at Pagan festivals and rítes, merely to conciliate the favour of their masters, and to indulge in the unrestrained habits of the Siamese.
In the capacity of Missionary and Physician, I came in contact with the Laos or Chans, a nation scarcely known to Europeans. I learnt their language, which is very similar to Siamese, though the written character, used in their common as well as sacred books, differs from that of the Siamese. This nation, which occupies a great part of the eastern peninsula, from the northern frontiers of Siam, along Camboja and Cochin China on the one side, and Burmah on the other, up to the borders of China and Tonquin, is divided by the Laos into Lau-pung-kau (white Laos), and Lau-pung-dam (black or dark Laos), owing partly to the colour of their skin. These people inhabit mostly mountainous regions ; cultivate the ground, or hunt; and live under the government of many petty princes, who are dependant on Siam, Buriah, Cochin China, and China. Though their country abonnds in many precious articles, and among them, a considerable quantity of gold, yet the people are poor, and live even more wretchedly than the Siamese, with the exception of those who are under the jurisdiction of the Chinese. Though they have a national literature, they are not very anxious to study it; nor does it aiford them a fountain of knowledge. Their best books are relations of the common occurrences of life, in prose; or absurd tales of giants and fairies. Their religious books in the Bali language are very little understood by their priests, who dilter from the Siamese priests only in their stupidity. Although their country my be considered as the cradle of Budhism in these parts, because most of the vestiges of Samo Nakodum, apparently the first Missionary of Paganism, are to be met with in their precincts; yet the temples built in honor of Budha are by no means equal to those in Siam, nor are the Laos as superstitious as their neighbours. Their language is very soft and melodious, and suiticiently capacious to express their ideas.
The Laos are dirty in their habits, sportful in their temper, careless in their actions, and lovers of music and daucing in their diversious. Their organ, made of reeds, in a peculiar manner, is among the sweetest instruments to be met with in Asia. Under the hand of an European master, it would become one of the most perfect instruments in existence. Every noble maintains a number of dancing boys, who amuse their masters
with the most awkward gestures, while music is playing in accordance with their twistings and turnings.
The southern districts carry on a very brisk trade with Siam, whither the natives come in long, narrow boats, covered with grass ; importing the productions of their own country, such as ivory, gold, tiger skins, aromatics, &c. ; and exporting Enropean and Indian manufactures, and some articles of Siamese industry. This trade gave rise, in 1827, to a war with the Siamese, who used every stratagem to oppress the subjects of one of the Laos tributary chiefs, Chow vin-chan. This Prince, who was formerly so bigh in favour with the late King of Siam, as to be received, at his last visit, in a gilded boat, and to be carried in a gilded sedan chair, found the exorbitant exactions of the Siamese governor on the frontier, injurious to the trade of his subjects, and to his own revenues. He applied repeatedly, to the Court at Bankok for redress : and being unsuccessful, he then addressed the governor himself : but no attention was paid to his grievances. He finally bad recourse to arms, to punish the governor, without any intentop of waging war with the King, an event for which he was wholly unprepared. His rising, however, transfused so general a panic among the Siamese, that they very soon marched en masse against him, and met with immediate success. From that nioment the country became the scene of bloodshed and devastation. Paya-meb-tap, the Siamese Commander-in-chief, not only endeavoured to enrich himself with immense spoils, but committed the most horrible acts of cruelty, butchering all, without regard to sex or
And whenever this was found too tedious, be shut up a number of victims together, and then either set fire to the house, or blew it up with gunpowder. The number of captives (generally country people), was very great. They were brought down the Meidam on rafts; and were so short of provision, that the major part died from starvation: the remainder were distributed among the vobles as slaves, and were treated more inhumanly than the most inveterate enemies; while many of the fair sex were placed in the barems of the King and his nobles.
Forsaken by all his subjects, Chow-vin-chan fled with his family to one of the neighbouring Laos chiefs ; in the mean time, the Cochinchinese sent an envoy to interpose with the Siamese Commander-in-chief on his behalf. The envoy was treacherously mordered by the Siamese, together with his whole retinue, consisting of 100 men, of whom one only was suffered to return to give an account of the tragedy. Enraged at a breach of the law of nations, but feeling themselves too weak to revenge cruelty by cruelty, the Cochinchinese then sent an ambassador to Bankok, demanding that the author of the murder should be delivered up; and, at the same time, declaring Cochinchina the mother of the Laos people, while to Siam was given the title of father. Nothing could be more conciliatory than the letter addressed, on the occasion, to the King of Siam ; but the latter, refusing to give any decisive answer to this and other messages repeatedly sent to him, himself despatched a wily politician to Hue, who however, was plainly refused admittance, and given to understand that the kings of Siam aud Cochinchina ceased henceforth, to be friends. The King of Siam, who was rather intimidated by such a blunt reply, ordered his principal pobles and Chinese subjects to build some hundred war boats, after the model made by the governor Ligore.
But, whilst these war boats, or as they might be more appropriately called, pleasure boats, were building, Chow-vio-chan, with his whole family, was betrayed into the hands of the Siamese. Being confined in cages, within sight of the instruments of torture, the old man, worn out by fatigue and hard treatment, died; while his son and heir to the crown effected his escape. Great rewards were offered for the latter, and he was found out, and would have been instantly murdered, but climbing up to the roof of a pagoda, he remained there till all means of escape failed, when he threw himself down upon a rock, and perished. The royal race of this Laos tribe, Chan-pung-dam, is now extinct, the country is laid waste, the peasants, to the number of 100,000, have been dispersed over different parts of Siam ; and the whole territory has been bronght, notwithstanding the remonstrances of the Court of Hue, under the immediate control of the Siamese, who are anxious to have it peopled by other tribes. Those Laos nobles who yielded to the Siamese at the first onset, are at present kept confined in the spacious buildings of the Samplung pagoda, a temple erected by the father of Paya-meh-tap, on the banks of the Meinam, near the city of Bankok. I paid them a visit there, and found them exceedingly dejected, but open and polite in their conversation. They cherish the hope that they shall be sent back to their native country, relying on the compassion of his Siamese Majesty, who forgives even when no offence has been given.
Although the Laos, generally, are in a low state of civilization, yet there are some tribes amongst their most inaccessible mountains, inferior even to the rest of the nation. One of the most peaceful of these are the Kabs. The Laos, imitating the Siamese, are in the habit of stealing individuals of this tribe, and bringing them to Bankok, for sale. Hence I have been able to converse with some of the Kahs, who stated to me, that their countrymen live peaceably and without wants, on their mountains, cultivating just so much rice as is sufficient for their own use; and that they are without religion or laws,
in a state of society, not far superior to that of herding elephants. Nevertheless, they seem capable of great improvement, and, under the hand of a patient minister of Christ, may be as much benefited by the divine Gospel, as have been the lately so savage inhabitants of Tahiti or Hawaii.
Some Laos, who were sent by their chiefs, a few years ago, with a Chinese Mandarin from the frontiers of China, appeared a superior class of people, though speaking the same language as the other tribes. They have been greatly improved by their inter. course with the Chinese, to whose Emperor they are accustomed to send regular tribute, by the hands of an ambassador.
Amongst the various_races of people who inhabit Siam, there are also Kamehs or natives of Camboja. This country, situated to the south-east of Siam, is doubtless of higher antiquity than any of the surrounding states. The name Camboja occurs in the Ramayan and other ancient Hindoo poems; and in the earliest accounts of the rountry, Hindoostan is mentioned as the cradle of Budhism. The language of the Cambojans differs materially from the Siamese, and is more harsh, but at the same time also more copious. Their literature is very extensive, and their books are written in a character called Khom, which is used by the Siamese only in writing their sacred Bali books. Most of their books,-and, with the exception of the national laws and history, perhaps all,- are in poetry. They treat generally on very trivial subjects, abound in repeti. tions, and are often extremely childish. I have seen a geographical work, written some centuries ago, which is more correct than Chinese works of the same kind.
Camboja was very long ruled by its own princes; but lately, disunion induced two brothers to take up arms against each other. Cochinchina and Siam both profited by this discord, and divided the country between themselves, while one of the princes fled to Cochinchina, and three to Siam. I was acquainted with two of the latter, the third having died. They entertain the hope that their country will yet be restored to them, since they did nothing to forfeit it. The younger of the two is a man of gepius, and ready to improve his mind, but too childish to take advantage of any opportunity which may offer to him. The Cambojans are a cringing, coarse people, norrow-minded, inso. lent, and officious, as circumstances require. They are, however, open to conviction, and capable of improvement. The males are many of them well-formed, but the females are very vulgar in their appearance. They are on equality with their neighbours, in regard to filth and wretchedness, and are by no means inferior to them in laziness. They carry on scarcely any trade except in silk stuffs, which they fabricate themselves, although to do so is contrary to the institutes of Budha, because the life of the silk worm is endangered during the process. To spend hours before their nobles in the posture of crouching dogs, to chew betelnut, and to converse in their harsh language, are the most agreeable amusements of this people.
Camboja is watered by the Meinam kom, a large river, which takes its rise in Thibet. Like the southern part of Siam, the land is low and fertile, and even well-inbabited. The principal emporium is Luknooi (so called by the natives), the Saigon of Europeans. This place has many Chinese settlers within its precincts, and carries on, under the jurisdiction of the Cochinchinese, a very brisk trade, (principally in betelnut and silk), both with Singapore and the northern parts of China. The capital of Camboja is surrounded by a wall erected in high antiquity. The country itself is highly cultivated, though not to the extent that it might be ; for, as the people are satisfied with a little rice and dry fish, they are not anxious to improve their condition by industry.
Hitherto Camboja has been the cause of much hostility between Siam and Cochinchina ; each pation being anxious to extend its own jurisdiction over the whole country. Even so late as last year, a Cochinchinese squadron, collected at Luknooi, was about to put out to sea in order to defend the Cambojan coast arainst an expected descent of the Siamese ; while at the same time, the Cambojans are anxious to regain their liberty, and to expel' the Cochinchinese, their oppressors.
Cochinchina, or Annam, united by the last revolution with Tonquin, has always viewed Siam with the greatest distrust. Formerly, the country was divided by civil contests; but when a French bishop had organized the kingdom, and amplified its resources under the reign of Coung Shung, Annam could defy the prowess of Siam. Even when the French influence had ceased, and the country had relapsed into its former weakness, the Cochinchinese continued to keep a jealous eye on Siam. The Siamese, conscious of their own inferiority, burnt, on one occasion, a large quantity of timber collected for ships of war, which were to have been built in a Cochinchinese harbour ; they have also been successful in kidnapping some of the subjects of Annam; and the captives have mostly settled at Bankok, and are very able tradesmen. If the character of the Cochinchinese was not deteriorated by the government, the people would hold a superior rank in the scale of nations. They are lively, intelligent, inquisitive, and docile, though uncleanly and ratber indolent. This indolence, however, results from the tyranny of the government, which compels the people to work most of the time for its benefit. The Cochinchinese pay great regard to persons acquainted with Chinese literature. Their written language differs materially from their oral; the latter is like the Cambojan, while the former is similar to the dialect spoken on the island of Hainan.
It remains now to make some remarks on the introduction of Christianity into Siam. When the Portuguese first came to this country, in 1622, they immediately propagated their own religious tenets. The French missionaries came to the country sometime afterwards, by land. They had high anticipations of success from the assistance of the Cephalonian Phaulkon ; and, as soon as the French embassy arrived, and French influence gained the ascendancy, they increased the number of able labourers. Two of then even shaved their heads, and conformed to the customs of the Siamese talapoys or priests, ander pretence of learning the Bali language. But, when the treachery of Phaulkop had been discovered, he himself killed and the French expelled, the influence of the priests vanished ; the number of their converts, instead of increasing, rapidly diminished; and the two individuals, who went to live with the Siamese priests, were never more heard of. Though the French missionaries have maintained their station here to this day, yet at times they have been driven to great straits, and subject to frequent imprisonments.
It is astonishing that, while in all other countries where Romanists have entered, their converts have been numerous, there have never been but a few in Siam.
At present, only a small number,-mostly the descendants of Portuguese, who speak the Cambojan and Siamese languages,-constitute their flock ; they have at Bankok, four churches, at Chantiban, one ; and lately, a small one has been built at Jutaya, the ancient capital. Yet, all this would be of little consequence, if even a few individuals had been converted to their Saviour, by the influence of the Holy Spirit. But, to effect this change of heart and life, seems, alas ! never to have been the intention of the spiritual guides, or the endeavour of their followers. I lament the degradation of the people, who so disgrace the name of Christians; and would earnestly wish that never any convert of such a description was made.
The labours of the Protestant mission have hitherto only been preparatory, and are in their incipient state. However, the attention of all the different races of people who inhabit Siam, has been universally roused ; and they predict the approach of the happy time, when even Siam shall stretch forth its hands to the Saviour of the world.
A country so rich in productions as Siam, offers a large field for mercantile enterprise. Sogar, sapanwood, beche de mar, birds' nests, sharks' tius, gamboge, indigo, cotton, ivory, and other articles, attract the notice of a great number of Chinese traders, whose junks every year, in February, March, and the beginning of April, arrive from Hainan, Canton, Soakah, (or Soo-ae-kea, in Chaou-chow-Foo,) Ainoy, Ningpo, Seang-bae, (or Shang-hea. heen, in Keangnan,) and other
places. Their principal imports consist of various articles for the consumption of the Chinese, and a considerable amount of bullion. They select their export cargo according to the different places of destination, and leave Siam in the last of May, in June, and July. These vessels are about 80 in number. Those which go up to the Yellow sea, take mostly sngar, sapanwood, and betelnut. They are called Pak-tow-sun (or Pih-tow-chuen, white-headed vessels), are usually built in Siam, and are of about 290 or 300 tons, and are manned by Chaou-chow men, from the eastern district of Canton province. The major part of these junks are owned, either by Chinese settlers at Bankok, or by Siamese nobles. The former put on board as supercargo, some relative of their own, generally a young man, who has married one of their daughters; the latter take surety of the relatives of the person, whom they appoiut supercargo. If any thing happens to the junk, the individuals who secured her are held responsible, and are often, very unjustly, thrown into prison. Thongh the trade to the Indian archipelago is not so important, yet about 30 or 40 vessels are annually dispatched thither from Siam.
Chinese vessels have generally a captain, who might more properly be styled a supercargo. Whether the owner or not, he has charge of the whole cargo, buys and sells as circumstances require; but has no command whatever over the sailing of the ship. This is the business of the Ho-chang or pilot. During the whole voyage, to observe the shores and promontories, are the principal objects, which occupy his attention, day and night. He sits steadily on the side of the ship, and sleeps when standing, just as it suits his convenience. Though he has, nominally, the command over the sailors, yet they obey him only when they find it agreeable to their own wishes ; and they scold and brave him, just as if he belonged to their own company. Next to the pilot (or mate) is the To-kung (helmsman), who manages the sailing of the ship; there are a few men under bis immediate command. There are, besides, two clerks ; one to keep the accounts, and the other to superintend the cargo that is put on board. Also, a comprador to purchase provisions ; and a Heang-kang, (or priest, who attends to the idols, and burns, every morning, a certain quantity of incense, and of gold and silver paper. The sailors are divided into two classes ; a few, called Tow-muh (or head men), have charge of the anchor, sails, &c.; and the rest, called Ho-ke, (or comrades,) perform the menial