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his hand, and meted out heaven with a span, and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance? Who hath directed the spirit of the Lord, or, being his counsellor, hath taught him? With whom took he counsel, and who instructed him, and taught him in the path of judgment? Behold, the nations are as a drop of the bucket, and are counted as the small dust of the balance. Behold, he taketh up the isles as a very little thing. And Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient for a burnt-offering. All nations before him are as nothing, and they are counted to him less than nothing, and vanity. To whom, then, will ye liken God? or what likeness will ye compare unto him ?" Verse 22. " It is he that sitteth on the circle of the earth, and all the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers ; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in; that bringeth the princes to nothing, and maketh the judges of the earth as vanity."-If the supreme God is not spoken of here, where shall we find the place where he is spoken of? If it be an infinitely inferior being, where is God's distinguishing greatness, and infinitely superior magnificence? It here follows, verse 25: “ To whom, then, will ye liken me, or shall I be equal ? saith the Holy One." A created being would not use such language, or make such a challenge. He that is created himself, would not say, as it follows in the next verse, “Lift up your eyes on high ; behold who hath created those things." So it is evident, that it is the one only God that is spoken of, whose forerunner John was to be. Malachi ii. 1. “Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before ME. And Jehovah, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come into his temple.” Luke i. 76. " And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest, v1158; for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord, to prepare his way.”
§ 15. It is a great evidence, that Christ is one being with the Supreme God, that the Spirit of the Supreme God is spoken of as his Spirit, proceeding from, and sent and directed by him. The Spirit by whom the prophets of old were inspired, is spoken of as the Spirit of Christ: 1 Pet. i. 11 : “Searching what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, did signify; when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow." But it is very manifest, that this was the Spirit of the one only living and true God; so that we must needs understand, that the word written by the prophets, is the word of the Supreme God. See 2 Pet. i. 21; 2 Tim. iii. 16. And that they spoke by inspiration of the Spirit of the Supreme God, is manifest from Luke i. 69, 70. “ And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David; as he spake by
the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began.” The word Spirit, in the original languages, signifies wind, and sometimes is used to signify
breath. Therefore, Christ breathed on his disciples, when he would signify to them that he would give them the Holy Ghost: John xx. 22. “ And when he had said this, he breathed on them, saying, Receive ye the Holy Ghost.” This plainly teaches us, that the Holy Ghost was his Spirit, as much as man's breath is his breath.
Again, it is evident, that the Spirit of God is the Spirit of Christ, as much as a person's eyes are his own eyes.
Rev. v. 6. “And I beheld, and lo, in the midst of the throne stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.” Alluding to Zech. ii. 9. “Upon one stone shall be seven eyes." But these seven eyes in the next chapter, are spoken of as representing the Spirit of God, and the eyes of Jehovah : chap. iv. 6. "Not by might nor power, but by my
. Spirit, saith the Lord.” Verse 10, " And shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel, with those seven. They are the eyes of the Lord, which run to and fro through the whole earth."
Christ is spoken of as sending the Holy Ghost, and directing him: John xvi. 7. " I will send him unto you.' Verse 13, 14, 15. "Howbeit, when he, the Spirit of Truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth, for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak; and he shall show you things to come. He shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you. All things that the Father hath, are mine; therefore, said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall show it unto you.” But it is spoken of as the peculiar prerogative of God to direct his Spirit. Isai. xl. 13. ' " Who hath directed the Spirit of the Lord ?"**
§ 16. It is true, that creatures are sometimes called gods. The kings and judges of God's Israel, the ancient Church, are called gods ; but no otherwise than as types of Christ. And the angels are called gods. Yet it is very remarkable, that in that only place where they are so called by God, they are commanded to worship Christ; and, in the same verse, a curse is denounced on all such as are guilty of idolatry. Psalm xcvii. 7. compared with Heb. i. 6.
§ 17. God so often speaking of himself as a jealous Godsignifying that he will by no means endure any other husband of his Church-affords a clear evidence, that Jesus Christ is the same God with the Father. For Christ is often spoken of as that person who is, in the most eminent and peculiar manner,
* See Section 8.
the Husband and Bridegroom of his Church. That God, who is the Holy One of Israel, is the husband of the Church, as appears by Isaiah, liv. 5 : “ Thy maker is thy husband, the
; Lord of Hosts is his name; and thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.” Or, as the words are, " Thy Goel, the Holy One of Israel." The goel was the near kinsman, that married the widow who had lost her husband, as appears by Ruth iii. 9— 12. But this Holy One of Israel, is the name of that God who is the Father, as appears by Isaiah xlix. 7. and lv. 5; and so is the Lord of Hosts, as appears by Isaiah xliv. 6.
$ 18. Christ is the Lord, mentioned in Rom. x. 13. “ For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord, shall be saved." That it is Christ who is spoken of, is evident from the two foregoing verses ; and, also, from the 14th. But the words are taken from Joel ii. 32; where the word translated Lord, is Jehovah. See, also, 1 Cor. i. 2.
§ 19. And I Cor. x. 9. “ Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted." By this, it appears, that Christ was that God, that Holy One of Ísrael, whom they tempted in the wilderness. I Cor. x. 22. “Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? are we stronger than He?” It is evident, that by the Lord here, is meant Jesus Christ, as appears by the prece. ding context ; and that, therefore, He is that Being who says, I, the Lord thy God, am a jealous God."
§ 20. Rev. ii. 23. Christ says, “I am he that trieth the reins and the heart, and will give to every one of you according to his works." This is said by the Son of God, as appears by the 18th verse foregoing. Compare this with other passages of Scripture, where those things are spoken of as the prerogative of the Supreme God. Parallel with it, is John xxi. 17.
. "Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love Thee.'
$ 21. It would be unreasonable to suppose, that there is one Being infinitely greater than all other beings--so that all others are as nothing to him, and infinitely beneath him in powerand
yet, that there is no kind of works, or effects of his power, that is peculiar to him, by which he is greatly distinguished from others. He that appeared sitting on the throne above the cherubims and wheels in Ezekiel's visions, (Ezek. i. 27. and other places,) was undoubtedly Christ; because he appeared in the shape of a man, which God the Father never did. “ No man hath seen God, viz the Father, at any time;": but the person that there appeared, was undoubtedly God. He is represented as one that has heaven for his throne, and sits as Supreme Ruler of the universe. This is undoubtedly the same that rides on the heavens in the help of his people, and in his excellency on the sky; that rides on the heaven of heavens by his name Jah, or Jehovah. And this is called the
appearance of the likeness, or image of the glory of the Lord; Ezek. i. 28. iii. 23. and viii. 4. This, while it shows him to be a person truly divine, also shows him to be Christ. For what can this image of the Lord, with an appearance of brightness round about, (ver. 27, 28.) be, but the same which the apostle speaks of, who is “the brightness of God's glory, and the express image of his person?" And this is evidently the same that sat on the throne in the temple, which was called the Chariot of the Cherubims. And this person is called the God of Israel, Ezek. x. 20; and the whole that this person says to Ezekiel, from time to time, shows that he is truly God.
$ 22. It is a great evidence of the divinity of Christ, that the Holy Ghost is so put into subjection to him, as to become his messenger ; even the Spirit of God, as the Holy Ghost is often called, or the Spirit of the Father, as he is called, Matt. x. 20. The same that is there called the Spirit of the Father, is, in Mark xiii. 11, called the Holy Ghost. low, certainly, it is unreasonable to suppose, that the Spirit of the Supreme God should be put under the direction and disposal of a mere creature, one infinitely below God. The only evasion here, must be this, that the Holy Ghost is also a created spirit inferior to the Son. For if Christ be a mere creature, it would be unreasonable to suppose, that he should have the Spirit of God subjected to him, on any other supposition, whether the Spirit of God be supposed to be only the power and energy of the Most High, or a superior created Spirit. But how does the Holy Ghost, being a creature inferior to the Son, consist with Christ's being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost ? and his being honoured by having the Holy Ghost descending upon him ? and being anointed with it, and working his greatest miracles by the power of the Holy Ghost ? and its being a great honour done to Christ, that the Spirit was given to him not by measure? Besides, the Holy Ghost being a creature, not only infinitely inferior to God, but inferior to the Son, is exceedingly inconsistent with almost every thing said of the Holy Spirit in Scripture; as, his being called the Power of the Highest; his searching all things, even the deep things of God, and knowing the things of God in the most distinguishing manner, as the spirit of man within him knows the things of a man; the Scripture's being the word of God, as it is the word of the Holy Ghost; Christians being the temple of the living God, as they are the temple of the Holy Ghost; lying unto the Holy Ghost, being called lying unto God; the chief works of God being ascribed to the Holy Ghost, as the works of creation, and the forming of man in the womb. (Eccles. xi. 5; Job xxxiii. 4.) Giving the highest sort of wisdom, viz. spiritual understanding; forming the human nature of Christ; being the author of regeneration and sanctification ; creating a new
heart, and so being the author of the new creation, which is spoken of as vastly greater than the old.
Blasphemy against the Father is pardonable ; but not against the Holy Ghost. It is unreasonable to suppose that only the body of Christ was made by the Holy Ghost. It is evident, that
, the whole human nature, the holy thing that was born of the virgin, was by the Holy Ghost ; Luke i. 35. But the Son of the virgin was a holy thing, especially with regard to his soul. The soul of Adam was from the spirit of God, from God's breathing into him the breath of life. But this breath of life signifies the Spirit of God, as appears by Christ's breathing on his disci. ples after his resurrection, saying, “Receive ye the Holy Ghost.” The Spirit of God is called the breath of God; Job xxxiii. 4. - The Spirit of God hath made me; the breath of the Almighty hath given me life." If God's Spirit gives life to other men, or mankind in general, doubtless he gave life to Adam. And if that Spirit of God which gives life to mankind in general, be, in doing that work called the breath of God; we may well suppose, that when we find that which gave life and soul to Adam, called God's breath, thereby was meant God's Spirit.
§ 23. How unreasonable must our notions be of our creation of the world, on Arian principles ? For it is manifest in the Scripture, that the world was made by the Spirit of God, as well as by the Son of God. But the Son of God is, according to them, a created Spirit; and the Spirit of God must there. fore also be a created Spirit inferior to him.—Therefore we must suppose, that the Father created the world by the Son, and that the Son did not create the world by himself
, but by the Spirit of God as his minister or instrument. So that the Spirit of God herein must act as the instrument of an instrument!
$24. It is evident that the same Word, the same Son of God, that made the world, also upholds it in being, and governs it. This is evident, in part, unto reason. For upholding the world in being, and creating it, are not properly distinct works ; since it is manifest, that upholding the world in being is the same with a continued creation ; and consequently, that creating the worid, is but the beginning of upholding it, if I may so say—beginning to give it a supported and dependent existence—and preservation is only continuing to give it such a supported existence. So that, truly, giving the world a being at first, no more differs from preserving it through all successive moments, than giving a being the last moment, differs from giving a supported being this moment. And the Scripture is as express, that the world is upheld by Christ, as that it was created by him ; Colos. i. 16, 17. “ For by him were all things created, and by him all things consist." Heb. i. 2, 3. “By whom also he made the worlds, and upholding all things by the