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MACBETH.

LITERARY AND HISTORICAL NOTICE.

IN this une chass tragedy Shakspeare has closely adhered to historical fact, excepting that Banquo, out of com pliment to his descendant James I. is excluded from all participation in the murder of Duncan. In the reign of Charles II. the songs of the witches were set to music by the celebrated Matthew Lock, and the play regarded as a semi-opera. The ghosts and witches, though admirably pourtrayed, have been censured as an insult to common sense; and cautions have been held out to the young and uninformed against imbibing the absurd principles of fatalism which are seemingly countenanced in many parts of this piece. But in the time of Shakspeare, the doctrine of witchcraft was at once established by law and by fashion, and it became not ouly unpolite, but criminal, to doubt it.---King James himself in his dialogues of Damonologie, re-printed in London soon after his succession, has speculated deeply on the illusions of spirits, the compact of witches, &c. ; and our dramatist only turned to his advantage a system universally admitted. In representation, some un interesting scenes are omitted; many of the witches' dialogues adapted to beautiful music, and a song or two, probably written by Sir W. Davenant, added to the parts. Betterton, amidst many bad alterations, hit upon the plan of making the witches deliver all the prophecies, by which a deal of the trap-work is avoided, and Garrick substituted some excellent passages to be uttered by Macbeth, whilst expiring, in lieu of the disgust ing exposure of his head by Macduff. The neatest criticism upon the play, and the most concise record of its historical facts, are contained in the following extract from a standard publication: "Macbeth flourished in Scotland about the middle of the tenth century. At this period Duncan was king, a mild and humane prince, but not at all possessed of the genius requisite for governing a country so turbulent, and so infested by the intrigues and animosities of the great Macbeth, a powerful nobleman, and nearly allied to the crown. Not con tented with curbing the king's authority, carried still further his mad ambition; he murdered Duncan at laverness, and then seized upon the throne. Fearing lest his ill-gotten power should be stripped from him, he chased Malcolm Kenmore, the son and heir, into England, and put to death Mac Gill and Banquo, the two most powerful men in his donunions. Macduff, next becoming the object of his suspicion, escaped into England; but the inhuman usurper wreaked his vengeance on his wife and children, whom he caused to be cruelly butchered. Siward, whose daughter was married to Duncan, embraced, by Edward's orders, the protection of his distressed family. He marched an army into Scotland, and having defeated and killed Macbeth in battle, he restored Malcolm to the throne of his ancestors. The tragedy founded upon the history of Macberb, though contrary to the rules of the drama, contains an infinity of beauties with respect to language, character, passion, and incident; and is thought to be one of the very best pieces of the very best masters in this kind of writing that the world ever produced. The danger of ambition is well described, and the passions are directed to their true ends, so that it is not only admirable as a poem, but one of the most moral pieces existing."

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SCENE, in the end of the fourth act, lies in England; through the rest of the play, in Scotland; and, chiefly, at Macbeth's Castle.

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SCENE 11.-A Camp near Fores. Alarum within. Enter King DUNCAN, MALCOLM, DONALBAIN, LENOX, with ATTENDANTS, meeting a bleeding SOLDIER.

Dun. What bloody man is that? He can report,

As seemeth by his plight, of the revolt
The newest state.

Mal. This is the sergeant,

Who, like a good and hardy soldier, fought
'Gainst my captivity :-Hail, brave friend!
Say to the king the knowledge of the broil,
As thou didst leave it.

Sold. Doubtfully it stood;

As two spent swimmers, that do cling together, And choke their art. The merciless Macdonwald

(Worthy to be a rebel; for to that

The multiplying villanies of nature

Do swarm upon him,) from the western isles,
Of kernes and gallowglasses is supplied; *
And fortune, on his damned quarrel smiling,
Show'd like a rebel's whore: But all's too weak:
For brave Macbeth, (well he deserves that
name,)

Disdaining fortune, with his brandish'd steel,
Which smok'd with bloody execution,
Like valour's minion

Carv'd out his passage, till he fac'd the slave; And ne'er shook hands, nor bade farewell to him,

Till he unseain'd him from the nave to the chaps, And fix'd his head upon our battlements.

Dun. O valiant cousin! worthy gentleman! Sold. As whence the sun 'gins his reflection Shipwrecking storms and direful thunders break; So from that spring, whence comfort seem'd to come,

Discomfort swells. Mark, king of Scotland,

mark:

No sooner justice had, with valour arm'd,
Compell'd these skipping kernes to trust their

heels;

But the Norweyan lord, surveying vantage, With furbish'd arms and new supplies of men, Began a fresh assault.

Dun. Dismay'd not this

Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo?

Sold. Yes;

As sparrows, eagles; or the hare, the lion.
If I say sooth, § I must report they were
As cannons overcharg'd with double cracks;
So they

Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe:
Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds,
Or memorize another Golgotha, ¶

I cannot tell :

But I am faint, my gashes cry for help.

Dun. So well thy words become thee, as thy

wounds;

They smack of honour both :-Go, get him surgeons. [Exit SOLDIER, attended. Enter Rosse.

Who comes here?

Mal. The worthy thane of Rosse.

Len. What a haste looks through his eyes!
So should he look,

That seems to speak things strange.
Rosse. God save the king!

Dun. Whence cam'st thou, worthy thane ?
Rosse. From Fife, great king,

Where the Norweyan banners flout** the sky,
And fan our people cold.

Norway himself, with terrible numbers,
Assisted by that most disloyal traitor
The thane of Cawdor, 'gan a dismal conflict:
Till that Bellona's bridegroom,tt lapp'd in proof,‡‡

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Confronted him with self-comparisons,
Point against point rebellious, arm 'gainst arm,
Curbing his lavish spirit: And, to conclude,
The victory fell on us;-

Dun. Great happiness! Rosse. That now

Sweno, the Norways' king, craves composition;
Nor would we deign him burial of his men,
Till he disbursed, at Saint Colmes' inch,
Ten thousand dollars to our general use.

Dun. No more that thane of Cawdor shall deceive

Our bosom interest :-Go, pronounce his death,
And with his former title greet Macbeth.
Rosse. I'll see it done.

Dun. What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath [Exeunt.

won.

SCENE III-A Heath.-Thunder.

Enter the three WITCHES.

1 Witch. Where hast thou been, sister? 2 Witch. Killing swine.

3 Witch. Sister, where thou?

1 Witch. A Sailor's wife had chesnuts in her lap,

And mounch'd, and mounch'd, and mounch'd :Give me, quoth 1:

Aroint thee, witch! the rump-fed ronyon
cries.

Her husband's to Aleppo gone, master o'the
But in a sieve I'll thither sail,
[Tiger:
And, like a rat without a tail,
I'll do, I'll do, I'll do.

2 Witch. I'll give thee a wind.
1 Witch. Thou art kind.

3 Witch. And I another.

1 Witch. I myself have all the other;
And the very ports they blow,
All the quarters that they know
I'the shipman's card. §

I will drain him dry as hay:
Sleep shall, neither night nor day,
Hang upon his pent-house lid;
He shall live a man forbid : ||
Weary sev'n-nights, nine times nine,
Shall he dwindle, peak, and pine:
Though his bark cannot be lost,
Yet it shall be tempest-toss'd.
Look what I have.

2 Witch. Show me, show me.

1 Witch. Here I have a pilot's thumb, Wreck'd, as homeward he did come. [Drum within.

3 Witch. A drum, a drum; Macbeth doth come.

All. The weird sisters, ¶ hand in hand,
Posters of the sea and land,
Thus do go about, about;

Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine,
And thrice again, to make up nine:
Peace!-the charm's wound up.

Enter MACBETH and BANQUO.
Macb. So foul and fair a day I have not seen.
Ban. How far is't call'd to Fores ?-What

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By each at once her choppy finger laying
Upon her skinny lips :-You should be women,
And yet your beards forbid me to interpret
That you are so.

Macb. Speak, if you can ;-What are you?
1 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee,
thane of Glamis !

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2 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, thane of Cawdor!

3 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! that shalt be king hereafter.

Ban. Good Sir, why do you start, and seem to fear

Things that do sound so fair?-I'the name of truth,

Are ye fantastical or that indeed
Which outwardly ye show? My noble partner
You greet with present grace, and great pre-
diction

Of noble having, † and of royal hope, [not:
That he seems rapt withal; to me you speak
If you can look into the seeds of time,
And say which grain will grow, and which will
not;

Speak then to me, who neither beg nor fear
Your favours nor your hate.

1 Witch. Hail!

2 Witch. Hail!

3 Witch. Hail!

1 Witch. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. 2 Witch. Not so happy, yet much happier. 3 Witch. Thou shalt get kings, though thou

be noue:

So, all hail, Macbeth and Banquo !

1 Witch. Banquo and Macbeth, all hail! Macb. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me

more:

By Sinel's death § I know I am thane of Glamis; But how of Cawdor? the thane of Cawdor lives, A prosperous gentleman; and, to be king, Stands not within the prospect of belief, No more than to be Cawdor. Say, from whence You owe this strange intelligence? or why Upon this blasted heath you stop our way With such prophetic greeting ?-Speak, I charge [WITCHES vanish. Ban. The earth bath bubbles, as the water has, [nish'd? And these are of them :-Whither are they vaMacb. Into the air; and what seem'd corporal melted

you.

As breath into the wind.-'Would they had staid !

Ban. Were such things here, as we do speak about;

Or have we eaten of the insane root,
That takes the reason prisoner?

Macb. Your children shall be kings.
Ban. You shall be king.

Macb. And thane of Cawdor too; went it
not so?
[here?
Ban. To the self-same tune and words. Who's

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Ang. Who was the thane, lives yet;
But under heavy judgment bears that life
Which he deserves to lose. Whether he was
Combin'd with Norway; or did line the rebel
With hidden help and vantage; or that with
both

He labour'd in his country's wreck, I know not;
But treasons capital, confess'd and prov'd,
Have overthrown him.

Mach. Glamis and thane of Cawdor: The greatest is behind. Thanks for your pains.

Do you not hope your children shall be kings,
When those that gave the thane of Cawdor to
Promis'd no less to them?
[me,

Ban. That trusted home,

Might yet enkindle you unto the crown,
Besides the thane of Cawdor. But 'tis strange :
And oftentimes, to win us to our hari,
The instruments of darkness tell us truths;
Win us with honest trifles, to betray us
In deepest consequence.-
Cousins, a word, I pray you.

Macb. Two truths are told,
As happy prologues to the swelling act
Of the imperial theme.-I thank you, gentle-
This supernatural soliciting
[meu.-
Cannot be ill; cannot be good :-If ill,
Why hath it given me earnest of success,
Commencing in a truth? I am thane of Caw-
dor: $
If good, why do I yield to that suggestion ||
Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair,
And make my seated heart knock at my ribs,
Against the use of nature? Present fears
Are less than horrible imaginings: [tical,
My thought, whose murder yet is but fantas-
Shakes so my single state of man, that function
Is smother'd in surmise; ** and nothing is,
But what is not.

Ban. Look, how our partner's rapt. Macb. If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown ine,

Without my stir.

Ban. New honours come upon him

Like our strange garments; cleave not to the mould,

But with the aid of use.

Macb. Come what come may;

Time and the hour ++ runs through the roughest day.

Ban. Worthy Macbeth, we stay upon your leisure.

Macb. Give me your favour: -my dull brain was wrought [pains With things forgotten. Kind gentlemen, your Are register'd where every day I turn The leaf to read them.-Let us toward the [time, Think upon what hath chanc'd; and, at more The interim having weigh'd it, let us speak Our free hearts each to other.

king;

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† Estate.

↑ Stimulate.

1 Encitement,

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turity,

tt Pardon.

oppressed by conjecture.

powers of action are 1 Time and oppor

Mal. My liege,

They are not yet come back. But I have spoke
With one that saw him die; who did report,
That very frankly he confess'd his treasons;
Implor'd your highness' pardon; and set forth
A deep repentance: nothing in his life
Became him, like the leaving it; he died
As one that had been studied in his death,
To throw away the dearest thing he ow'd,▾
As 'twere a careless trifle.

Dun. There's no art,

To find the mind's construction in the face: †
He was a gentleman on whom I built
An absolute trust.-O worthiest cousin!

Enter MACBETH, BANQUO, ROSSE, and ANGUS.
The sin of my ingratitude even now
Was heavy on me: Thou art so far before,
That swiftest wing of recompense is slow

To overtake thee. 'Would thou hadst less deserv'd ;

That the proportion both of thanks and payment Might have been mine! only I have left to say, More is thy due than more than all can pay.

Mach. The service and the loyalty I owe, In doing it, pays itself. Your highness' part Is to receive our duties; and our duties Are to your throne and state, children, and servants,

Which do but what they should, by doing every thing

Safe toward your love and honour.
Dun. Welcome hither:

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I have begun to plant thee, and will labour
To make thee full of growing. --Noble Banquo,
That hast no less deserv'd, nor must be known
No less to have done so, let me infold thee,
And hold thee to my heart.

Ban. There if I grow,
The harvest is your own.

Dun. My plenteous joys,

Wanton in fulness, seek to hide themselves
In drops of sorrow.-Sons, kinsmen, thanes,
And you whose places are the nearest, know,
We will establish our estate upon
[after,
Our eldest Malcolm; whom we name here.
The prince of Cumberland: which honour must
Not, unaccompanied, invest him only,
But signs of nobleness, like stars, shall shine
On all deservers.-From hence to Inverness, §
And bind us further to you.

Macb. The rest is labour, which is not us'd for you:

I'll be myself the harbinger, and make joyful
The hearing of my wife with your approach;
So, humbly take my leave.

Dun. My worthy Cawdor!

Macb. The prince of Cumberland!-That is a step,

On which I must fall down, or else o'er-leap,
[Aside.
For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires!
Let not light see my black and deep desires:
The eye wink at the hand! yet let that be,
Which the eye fears, when it is done, to see.

[Exit. Dun. True, worthy Banquo; he is full so valiant;

And in his commendations, I am fed;
It is a banquet to me. Let us after him,
Whose care is gone before to bid us welcome :
It is a peerless kiusman. [Flourish. Exeunt.

SCENE V.-Inverness.-A Room in
MACBETH'S Castle.

Enter Lady MACBETH, reading a letter. Lady M. They met me in the day of success; and I have learned by the perfectest

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report, they have more in them than morta, knowledge. When I burned in desire t question them further, they made themselves -air, into which they vanished. Whiles I stood rapt in the wonder of it, came missives ↑ from the king, who all-hailed me, Thane of Cawdor; by which title, before, these weird sisters saluted me, and referred me to the coming on of time, with Hail king that shalt be! This have I thought good to deliver thee, my dearest purtner of greatness; that thou mightest not lose the dues of rejoicing, by being ignorant of what greatness is promised thee. Lay it to thy heart, and farewell. Glamis thou art, and Cawdor; and shalt be What thou art promis'd :-Yet do 1 fear thy

Hature ;

It is too full o'the milk of human kindness, To catch the nearest way: Thou would'st be great;

Art not without ambition; but without
The illness should attend it. What thou would'st
highly,
[false,
That would'st thou holily; would'st not play
And yet would'st wrongly win; thou'd'st have
great Glamis,
[have it;
That which cries, Thus thon must do, if thou
And that which rather thou dost fear to do,
Than wishest should be undone. Hie thee
hither,

That I may pour my spirits in thine ear;
And chastise with the valour of my tongue
All that impedes thee from the golden round, ‡
Which fate and metaphysical aid doth seem
To have thee crown'd withal.What is your
tidings?

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That tend on mortal || thought, unsex me here;
And fill me, from the crown to the toe, top full
Of direst cruelty! make thick my blood,
Stop up the access and passage to remorse, ¶
That no compunctious visitings of nature
Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between
The effect and it! Come to my woman's breasts,
And take my milk for gall, you murd'ning
ministers,

Wherever in your sightless substances

You wait on nature's mischief! Come, thick night,

And pall** thee in the dunnest smoke of hell! That my keen knife tt see not the wound it makes;

Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark, Cawdor! To cry, Hold, Hold!--Great Glamis ! worthy

Enter MACBETH

Greater than both, by the all-bail hereafter !
Thy letters Lave transported me beyond
This ignorant present, I and I feel now
The future in the instant.

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↑ Messengers. Supernatural.

Pitr.

a mantle." + Knife truth

meant a sword or dogger.

11 Ie. Beyond the present time, which is according to the process of na ture ignorant of the future.

Mech. My dearest love,

Duncan comes here to-night.

Lady M. And when goes bence?

Macb. To-morrow,-as he purposes.
Lady M. Oh! never

Shall sun that morrow see!

Your face, my thane, is as a book, where men May read strange matters :-To beguile the time,

Look like the time; bear welcome in your eye, Your hand, your tongue: look like the innocent flower,

But be the serpent under it. He that's coming
Must be provided for and you shall put
This night's great business into my despatch;
Which shall to all our nights and days to come
Give solely sovereign sway and masterdom.
Macb. We will speak further.
Lady M. Only look up clear;
To alter favour ever is to fear:
Leave all the rest to me.

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SCENE VII.-The same.-A Room in the Castle.

Hautboys and torches. Enter, and pass over the stage, a Sewer, and divers Servants with dishes and service. Then enter MACBETH.

Macb. If it were done, when 'tis done, then 'twere well

It were done quickly: If the assassination
Could trammel up the consequence, and catch,
With his surcease, success; that but this blow
Might be the be-all and the end-all here,
But here, upon, this bank and shoal of time,
We'd jump the life to come.-But, in these

cases,

We still have judgment here; that we but teach Bloody instructions, which, being taught, returu To plague the inventor: This even-handed jusCommends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice

tice

canl

To our own lips. He's here in double trust:
First, as I am bis kiusman and his subject,
Strong both against the deed; then, as his host,
Who should against his murderer shut the door,
Not bear the knife myself. Besides, this Dua-
Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been
So clear in his great oflice, that his virtues
Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against
The deep damnation of his taking-off':
And pity, like a naked new-born babe,
Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'd
Upou the sightless couriers of the air,
Shal! blow the horrid deed in every eye,
That tears shall drown the wind.-I have no
spur

To prick the sides of my intent, but only
Vaulting ambition, which o'er-leaps itself,
Aud falls on the other.-How now, what news?
Enter Lady MACBETH.

Lady M. He has almost supp'd; Why have
you left the chamber?
Macb. Hatn he ask'd for me?
Lady M. Know you not, he has ?

Macb. We will proceed no further in this

business:

Golden opinions from all sorts of people,
He hath honour'd me of late; and I have bough:
Not cast aside so soon.
Which would be worn now in their newest gloss,

Lady M. Was the hope drunk,

Wherein you dress'd yourself? hath it slept since?

And wakes it now, to look so green and pale At what it did so freely? From this time, be the same in thine own act and valour, Such I account thy love. Art thou afeard As thou art in desire ? Would'st thou have that

Were poor and single business, to contend
Against those honours deep and broad, where-To

with

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Which thou esteem'st the ornament of life,
And live a coward in thine own esteem;
Like the poor cat i'the adage?
Letting I dare not wait upon I would,

I dare do all that may become a man ;
Macb. Pr'ythee, peace:
Who dares do more, is none.

Lady M. What beast was it then,
That made you break this enterprize to me?
And, to be more than what you were, you
When you durst do it, then you were a man ;
[place,
Be so much more the man. Nor time, not
Did then adhere, and yet you would make
both:

would

They have made themselves, and that their fit.

ness now

[know Does unmake you. I have given suck; and

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