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FEBRUARY 1, 1810. [1 of VOL. 29.
As bung as those who serite are ambitious of making Converts, and of giving their OpinionMaximum ** lai vence asd Celebrity, the most extensively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greater that the # Cariofty of those who read either for Amusement or Inarudion." JOHNSON
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. For the Monthly Magazine. on medicinal a ds, I shall leave Horstils, On the URIGIN and PROGRESS OF ANIMO. Marsilins, Johnsto!l, and their disciples,
sics; and the QCACKERIR of ils' to explain for th:c!n.chves. PROFESSURS in the SIXTEENTII CEN- We now come to a consideration of Ttry.
the third method, which forms indeed the
de en and reviving ideas once impressed tion; the Topical Memory, 'or Lorient the on the mind, is a facolty, whose fullness Ancients, krown by the name of Me of sigour is rarely coeval with the for- monics, and a-kin so tlfe Arsimimoramatrn of the human intellect. Man has' tiva or Artificial Menorý hf the 10then fore recourse to art, for supplying derns. The principles ori «hich this att? those resources, which are denied to him is grounded will be adverted tpi Hedes by nature.
As to the readiest means of after ; and its practice, at least in the efceuig this end, so indispensably re- present day, I shall abstain frilinenliga quisite to the acquisition and retention ing upon, as 'that bas been so ably deof knowledge, the philosophers and veloped on a former occasion T'strall Thetor.cians of every age are found at content myself, therefore, 'with my stunt variance: nor do they differ less widely, mary notice of the origir and prijgress of in pointing out the futest 'mode of cul- this art among the ancients, preyiously! trating and improving the memory, than to entering upon a wider field;' the yach? agriculturists differ as to the mode of cries of its processors, and the partaide cultivating and improving the same coil. conferred on themi' in the prxteenth Sine contend for the natural aids of a century. well-direcied practice and constant ex- The most important of homan diseicke: others scruple not to call in mea coveries owe their birth to accidental. diene to the assistance of the retentive callses; and I know not, therefore, trdiy ficuity; and many insist upon the agency chance should not be acémed Sul of impressions, derived from 'external a mother of invention, as necessits <bjecii, with which a certain association Simonides, the Cean, was indchedd tur piirdeas is connected. In respect to the the invention of Mnemonies to a ca-u. firet of these methods, we find Quinc. alty. We are tudd, ihan this incrcenary
its warnest supporters: poeit being bired at a zupper ro'etli gize; ** If, (says hic,) I should be asked in what the prowess of his patriot, Scripaz, vice' Cirosists the real and greatest art for im- tor in wrestling at vir Olympic Games, proving the memory, I would say, in he was suddenly calle gray fioni cable, labour and exercise; and that nothing is on being informed, that run outis on so efficacious as learning much by heart, white horses were waiting for him at; thinking much, and this daily, if possible.". These maxins are strongly en- Vide, vol. xxiv. p. 105; et seg Monthly forced by various modern writer“; and Mugazine, signed COMMON SENSE. amonust those of our own country, by + So Anacreon, Calimachus, and others, Beartie and knox, who may be consulted designate him, from the ardous with which, with advartaye, by such as fecl an in. he prostituied the Muses for lucre: nor could teresi in this subject. The second ine.
the Romans bound the works of a fe low-poet' thur I have mentioned, as being founded
with a more approbrious epithet, than "Şimonidis Cantilena. To this charge, al.
leged against Simənies even in his Si çois tamen unam maximamque a me
own times, Simonides more artfully than artem Memorize querat, exercitatio est et laban; multa ediscere, multa cogitare, et si where withal for my erenies to prey upon
wittily pleaded :." !id rather leave Geri potest, quotidiè, potentissimum est.
when I am dead, than become a burden to Jau. Orar. lib. xi. c. 2.
my friends in my life-time." MostaLY Mag. No. 194.
During his absence, the tificial means, are enumerated Metrochamber in which Scopas and his guests dorus, Hippias, and Theodectes. were carousing, fell in, and in its fall The Romans bestowed no less attenthey were crushed to death. The rela- tion on this art, the subject of Cicéro's tions of these unfortunate revellers, anxi- panegyric and discussion throughout a ous to honour theni with funereal ob- whole chapter of his masterly treatise on sequies, were unable to recognize their Oratory. Yet Cicero's conviction of persons in the mangled and disfigured its utility did not prevent Quinctilian's corpses, which lay strewed around, tiil assertion of its ineficiency, a short tiine Simonides overcame this dilemma, by afterwards; for we find the latter sumremembering the distinct places each ming up bis thoughts upon it, in these had occupied at table; and thus pointing vehement terms:-“Whercfore, both out each individual to those who sought Carneades, and the Scepsius Metrodorus, his remains, * This erent suggested (of whom I have just spoken,) who, as to luis mind the practicability of making, Cicero says, had used this exercise, may external impressious subservient to the keep this method to themselves: we will strengihening of memory, hy selec;ing pass over to a more sinple subject." places and images, as so many repositu. Fabius, the historian, also ridicules this ries and symbols of ideas. Hence, he art in his XIth book. Mneinonics, was led to propound a method of asso- however, still continued in great repute; ciating the ideas of things to be retained and Cicero, strengthening precept by in the inernory, with the ideas of objects example, boasted that they were the conveyed to the mind by that acutest, basis of his excellent memory. It is said, of our senses--the sight; and already their practice was cultivated with suc impressed upon it in a regular series, cess, by others of no less repule; amongst The lension of this method, stamped, whom, Crassus,, Julius Cæsar, and him as the Futher of the Mucinic Artit Seneca, are particularly noticed. Cicero, tells us, that when Simonides, This art appears to have lain dormant offered to instruct Themistocles in his, in after-ages, till that luininary of merhud, his offer was rejected in these science, Raimond Lulle, I thought fit to memorable words: Al! (replied the bring it once more into notice among the hero,) rather teach me the art of forget- learned; and wooed it with such dilicing; for I ofien remember what I would gence, that it has ever since been called, nyt, aud cagnot forget what I would.” Lulle's Art,' I shall not detain your
From this time, Mnemonics became a readers, by entering into an analysis of favourite pursuit with the Greeks; and Lulle's method, which is amply detailed being brought to perfection by Scepsius by Morhof, and, in. Gray's Memoria Metrodorus. I was in great vogue among Technica. their ocators. They are said to have Mnemonics had not yet attained the made use of the statues, paintings, ora meridian of their greatness: this epoch naments, and other external circum- was reserved for the sixteenth century; scances, of the places where they ha- and I question much, whether any art rangued, for reviving, in progressive order, the trpics and matter of their ora
De Oratore, lib. i. secr. 86, 87. tions, which they had already appro
*' Quare et Carneades et Scepsius (de priated to each circunstance, In the quo modo dixi) Metrodorus, quos Cicero dicit, list of those who prided theinselves on
usos hac exercitatione, sibi habeant sua : nos
simpliciora cradamus. '-liste Orat. ut supra. having perfected their memory by ar
Dr. Beattie, also says,, in conclusion of his * This story is handed down to us, both but think with Quinctilian, that the Art was
remarks on Artificial Dlemory, “I cannot. by Cicery and Phaedrus, in his fables. + This system of Siponides, is founded on
100 complex, and that Memory may be im. that theory of emblems, which Bacon so
proved by easier methods.": Diss. Mor, and justly characterizes : “ Emblema verò deducit similar opinion, as well as Morhof, in whose
Crit. chap. ii. sect. 3. Lord Bacon held a intellectucle ad sensibile : sensibile autem semper fortiùs percutit memoriam, deque in ca faciliùs Arte Lulliana, and cap. vi. De Menoriae
- Polyhistor Literar." (lib. il. cap. v. de imprimitur, quam intellectuale." Emblem re. duceth conceits intellectual to images sen
Subsidiisy) is preserved an elaborate account
of the writers on this subject. gible, which always strike the memory more forcibly,' and are therefore the more easily Doctor Illuminacus, terms him, with jiisei
Gaspar Scioppius, speaking of this imprinted, than intellectual conceits. --BA• tice, «lutudentum et ineptum scriptorem, cun's Augm. Scientian. Lib. vi. cap. 2.
ses portentosi acuminis. "Comurant. de Style Plinii His. Nat. lib, viii. 4, **.
has ever been the subject of a more self as commissioned by Schenkel, ta tedious and obstinate controversy; or instruct the whole world. has been brought forward under more “A lawyer, (says be,) who bas a bun. illustrious auspices, with greater salem- dred causes and more to conduct, by the nity, or a more bare-faced impudence. assistance of my Mneinonics, may stamp These will be sufficiently manifest in the them so strongly.on bis memory, that he account I shall now render of the Mne- will know in what wise to answer each monistic Duomvirate of Lambert elient, in any order, and at any hour, Schenkel, and his haud indignus' ple- with as much precision as if he had but nipotentiary, Martin Sommer. just perused his brief. And in pleading,
Lambert or Lamprecht Schenkel, he will not only have the evidence and boro at Bois-le-Due, 'in 1547, was the reasonings of his own party, at his fingers' son of an apothecary and philologist. ends, but (mirabile dictu !) all the He went through bris academical course grounds and refutations of his antagonist at Lyons and Cologne, and afterwards also! Let a man go into a library, and became a teacher of rhetoric, prosody, read óne book after another, yet shall ha and gymnastics, at Paris, Antwerp, Ma. be able to write down every sentence lines, and Rouen; not forgetting, as the of what he has read, many days after at custom of the age required, to claim his home. The proficient in this science ude to scholarship, by writing Latin can dictate matters of the most opposite, verses. From these, however, he ac- nature, to ten, or thirty writers, alter.. quired no celebrity proportionate to that nately. After four weeks' exercise, he which was reared on his discoveries in' will be able to class twenty-five thousand the Mnemonic Art. The more etlec. disarranged portraits within the saying tually to propagate these discoveries, le of a paternoster :-aye, and he will do travelled through the Netherlands, Gere this ten times a day, without extraordi-, maay, and France; where his method nary exertion, and with more precision was inspected by the great, and transmit- than another, who is ignorant of the art, led from one university to another. can do it in a whole year! He will no Applause followed every where at his longer stand in need of a library for reheels. Princes and nobles, ecclesiastics ferring to. This course of study may be and laymen, alike took soundings of his completed in nine days"-(perhaps in the depthi and Schenkel brought himself same way that foreign languages are through every ordeal, to the astonishment now-a-days taught in tuelve lessons !) and admiration of his judges. The rece" and an hour's practice daily, will he sufo tor of the Sorbonne, at Paris, having fiçient: but, when the rules are once previously made trial of bis merits, pero acquired, they require but half an hoor's mitted him to teach his science at that exercise daily. Every pupil, who has university; and Marillon, Maitre des alterwards well-grounded complaints to Requets, having done the same, gave alege, shall not only have the premium him an exclusive privilege før practising paid in the first instance, returned to Mnemonics throughout the French do- him, but an addition will be made to it. inimions. His auditors were, however, I'he professor of this art, makes but a prukibited from communicating this art short stay in every place. When called to others, under a serere penalty. As upon, he will subunit proofs, adduce hia time now became too precious to testimonials froin the most eminent admit of his making circuits, he dele- characters, and surprise the ignorant, pated this branch of his patent to the after four or six lessons, (observe!) with liceatiate Martin Sommer, and invested the most incredible displays." Here him with a regular diploma, as his ple- follow testimonials from the most celenipotentiary for circulating his art, under brated universities. Nine alone are procertain stipulations, through Germany, duced from learned men at Leipzig, and France, Italy, Spain, and the neighbour- precede others from Marburg, and ing countries. Sommer now first pub- Frankfort on the Oder.” lished a Lalin treatise on this subject, At the same time was published, which he dispersed in every place he “ Gazypholiuin Artis Memorize, illustratisked, under the title of “ Brevis Deli- tum per Lambertum Schenkelium de Tientin de utilitatibus et efseeribus admi- Strasb. 1619 :" but this is far outdone by rabilibus Artis Memoriæ.” (Venet. 1619, the preceding treatise of Sommer. The 12, 24 pp.) In this he celebrates the rare student, destitute of oral instruction, feats of his master, and announces binus will gather about as much of Mnemonics