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1749 things unnecessary"; for these had "been the two stratagems Age 46 of Satan, by which he had caused the church, insensibly and by degrees, to err from evangelical simplicity and purity."

Wesley was again involved in trouble with the Moravians. In a collection of tracts, they printed all the passages they could glean from his various writings, that were calculated to prejudice the Lutherans against the Methodists. In the London Daily Post, they ostentatiously announced to the English public, that the Methodists and Moravians were not the same; and sent to the editor of that journal, "the declaration of Louis, late bishop and trustee of the Brethren's church." Wesley writes: "the Methodists, so called, heartily thank brother Louis for his declaration; as they count it no honour to be in any connection either with him or his brethren." He then adds: "but why is he ashamed of his name? The Count's name is Ludwig, not Louis; no more than mine is Jean or Giovanni."

It was probably this scrimmage which led to the publication, in 1749, either by Wesley or his friends, of a small 12m0 pamphlet of twelve pages, with the title, "Hymns composed for the use of the Brethren. By the Right Reverend and Most Illustrious C. Z. Published for the benefit of all mankind. In the year 1749."1 Neither printer nor compiler's name is given; but there is an address "to the reader," as follows: "The following hymns are copied from a collection printed, some months since, for James Hutton, in Fetter Lane, London. You will easily observe, that they have no affinity at all to that old book called the Bible: the illustrious author soaring as far above this, as above the beggarly elements of reason and common sense.' "2

In a list of "Books published by John and Charles Wesley," in 1749, one, numbered 85, is "Moravian Hymns," price a penny; and, in a letter dated 1749, Zinzendorf remarks: "J. Wesley's extract from our hymn-book has done us no injury." ("Memoirs of James Hutton," p. 218.)

2 What a change in eleven years! The following interesting and important letter has not before been published. It was lent to the author by Charles Reed, Esq., M.P.; but too late to be inserted in the proper place. Let the reader compare it with Wesley's Journal of the same date. "WESTPHALIA, GERMANY, July 7, 1738.

"DEAR BROTHER,-I am now with the Count, at his uncle's, the Count of Solmes, five or six hours from Marienborn; and have stolen an

Moravian Balderdash.

Zinzendorf's worst wisher could have published nothing 1749 more calculated to create disgust against him, as the Moravian Age 46 hymnist, than this. The sufferings of the Lord Jesus are represented as "shining from the Moravian handmaid." The believer is "a little bee, resting from the hurry and flurry of earth on the breast of Jesus." The wounded side of the blessed Saviour is "God's side-hole, sparkling with an everlasting blaze," and to which prayer is offered; the poet licks it, like rock salt, and finds no relish to equal it; and, as a snail creeps into its house, so he creeps into it. To multiply such ideas would be criminal. We content ourselves with giving a single verse, intended to be a description of the Moravian church:

"The daughters reverence do,
Christess, and praise thee too


Thou happy Kyria, daughter of Abijah,
Ve-Ruach Elohah, sister of Jehovah.
Manness of the man Jeshuah,

Out of the Pleura hosannah.”1

Is it surprising, that Wesley "counted it no honour" to be connected with a man who could write such profane balder

hour to let you know that God has been very merciful to us in all things. The spirit of the Brethren is above our highest expectation. Young and old, they breathe nothing but faith and love, at all times, and in all places. I do not therefore concern myself with the smaller points that touch not the essence of Christianity, but endeavour (God being my helper) to grow up in these after the glorious example set before me. Having already seen with my own eyes more than a hundred witnesses of the everlasting truth,- Every one that believeth hath peace with God, and is freed from sin, and is in Christ a new creature,'-see, my dear brother, that none of you receive the grace of God in vain ; but be ye also living witnesses of the exceeding great and precious promises, which are made to every one of us through the blood of Jesus. Adieu.-JOHN WESLEY."

1 The Moravian Hymn-Book, published in two volumes, in 1754, is before us; and similar quotations to the above might be given, almost ad infinitum, but no good end would be answered by doing so. Zinzendorf's heart was better than his head. His brain was fertile, but brought forth weeds as well as flowers. His passions were strong, and easily excited; and he was not unwont to assume a superiority, to which he foolishly fancied that his German birth and rank entitled him. He was an enormous worker; and his energy, disinterestedness, and devotion are deserving of praise; but he was far from faultless. His policy was often suspicious, and sometimes had the appearance of dissimulation. He was too anxious to assert his authority, even when it was not called in question; and, though his eccentricities were not surprising, considering his temperament and activity, they were not to be commended.

1749 dash as this? or with a church, which was insane enough, in Age 46 the service of sacred song, to sing it?

The conference of 1749 was held in London, on the 16th of November and following days. The chief subject discussed seems to have been, the possibility of joining all the societies in the kingdom in a general union; and the desirability of investing the stewards of the London society with power to consult together for the good of all.

The conference being ended, Wesley retired to his friend Perronet's, at Shoreham, that he might be at leisure to employ his pen. Here he spent about a fortnight; then a week at Lewisham; and about another week at Newington.

We conclude, as before, with a list of Wesley's publications during 1749.

1. "Excerpta ex Ovidio, Virgilio, Horatio, Juvenali, Persio, et Martiali. In Usum Juventutis Christianæ. Edidit Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ Presbyter." 12mo, 242 pages.

2. "Caii Sallustii Crispi Bellum Catilinarium et Jugurthinum. In Usum Juventutis Christianæ. Edidit Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ Presbyter." 12mo, 110 pages.

3. "Cornelii Nepotis excellentium Imperatorum Vitæ. In Usum Juventutis Christianæ. Edidit Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ Presbyter." 12m0, 100 pages.

4. "A Short Latin Grammar.”

12mo, 48 pages.

5. "A Short Account of the School in Kingswood, near Bristol." 12mo, 8 pages.

6. "Directions concerning Pronunciation and Gesture." 12mo, 12 pages.

This last publication was intended, "in usum juventutis Christiana"; but it was also meant for his helpers, and may still be profitably studied by numbers of Wesley's ministerial successors. "A good pronunciation is nothing but a natural, easy, and graceful variation of the voice, suitable to the nature and importance of the sentiments we deliver." "The first business of a speaker is so to speak, that he may be heard and understood with ease." Persons with weak voices are recommended to strengthen them, by "reading or speaking something aloud, for at least half an hour every morning." "The chief faults of speaking are-1. The speaking too loud. 2. The speaking too low, which is more dis

Rev. Dr. Conyers Middleton.

agreeable than the former. 3. The speaking in a thick clut- 1749 tering manner, mumbling and swallowing words and syllables, Age 46 to cure which defect, Demosthenes repeated orations every day with pebbles in his mouth. 4. The speaking too fast, a common fault, but not a little one. 5. The speaking too slow. 6. The speaking with an irregular, desultory and uneven voice. But, 7. The greatest and most common fault of all, is, the speaking with a tone-in some instances womanish and squeaking; in others singing or canting; in others high, swelling, and theatrical; in others awful and solemn; and in others, odd, whimsical, and whining." In reference to gesture, Wesley remarks, that it is more difficult for a man to find out the faults of his own gesture than those of his pronunciation; because he may hear his own voice, but cannot see his own face. He recommends the use of a large looking glass, after the example of Demosthenes; or, what is better still, to have some excellent pattern constantly in view. Directions are given concerning the motions of the body, of the head, the face, the eyes, the mouth, the hands. The mouth must never be turned awry; neither must a speaker bite or lick his lips, shrug his shoulders, or lean upon his elbow. He must never clap his hands, nor thump the pulpit. The hands should seldom be lifted higher than the eyes; and should not be in perpetual motion, for this the ancients called "the babbling of the hands."


Wesley's tract is small and unpretending; but it would not be a waste of time if the students at Didsbury, Richmond, and Headingley would occasionally give it their serious attention.

7. "An Extract of the Rev. Mr. John Wesley's Journal, from September 3, 1741, to October 27, 1743." 12mo, 123 pages.

8. "A Letter to the Rev. Dr. Conyers Middleton, occasioned by his late 'Free Inquiry.'" 12mo, 102 pages. Middleton was born at Richmond, in Yorkshire, in 1683, and died the year after Wesley wrote his letter. He was a favourite of George I.; was hated by Dr. Bentley, the master of his college; had three wives; was Woodwardian professor, and the university librarian ; a writer of great powers, but more than one of whose productions are debased by the leaven of infidelity. Of an irritable temper, he was always creating

1749 antagonists instead of friends. But for his avowed scep

Age 46 ticism and his quarrelsome disposition, he might have adorned as well as acquired a mitre, instead of which he held, at the time of his decease, no preferment but a small living given to him by Sir John Frederick. The work which gave birth to Wesley's letter had recently been published, and was entitled, "A Free Inquiry into the Miraculous Powers, which are supposed to have subsisted in the Christian Church, from the earliest ages, through several successive centuries." Middleton's professed object was to denounce the practice of taking the primitive fathers as exponents of the Christian faith, because this gave to papists an unassailable advantage in the defence of their superstitions and errors. He rightly contends, that "the Bible only is the religion of protestants"; but, in pushing his principle, he was, perhaps wrongly, suspected of wishing to undermine the authority of the Bible itself. The substance of Wesley's pungent answer may be guessed from the opening paragraph :—

"In your late Inquiry,' you endeavour to prove, first, that there were no miracles wrought in the primitive church; secondly, that all the primitive fathers were fools or knaves, and most of them both one and the other. And it is easy to observe, the whole tenor of your argument tends to prove, thirdly, that no miracles were wrought by Christ or His apostles; and, fourthly, that these too were fools or knaves, or both. I am not agreed with you on any of these heads. My reasons I shall lay before you, in as free a manner, though not in so smooth or laboured language, as you have laid yours before the world."

Bishop Warburton, who was no friend to Wesley, pronounced the answer to Middleton "a scholar-like thing"; though, he adds, "perhaps more temper might have been expected from this modern apostle."

It may be added, that the conclusion of Wesley's letter was afterwards published, in a separate form, under the title of "A Plain Account of Genuine Christianity." 12mo, 12 pages.2

9. "A Plain Account of the People called Methodists. In a letter to the Rev. Mr. Perronet, vicar of Shoreham." 12m0, 34 pages. The substance of this pamphlet has been already

'Nichols' "Illustrations of Literature,” vol. ii., p. 162.
2 This will be noticed in the year 1761.

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