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$ 11. 1. The Messiah was to make known the hill of his Father, We have already frequently noticed that every part belonging to salvation is matter of pure revelation. The volume of nature affords no light on this subject. The book of redemption is that sealed book which none could open or reveal but the Son of God. Hence the Messiah saith, “I will declare the decree: the Lord hath said unto me, thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee: Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession." Ps. 2:7, 8. He was not only to be “the glory of his people Israel," but also “a light to lighten the Gentiles.", "I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles; to open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house." Isaiah, 42:6, 7.

$ 12. 2. It was required of the Messiah that he should perfectly obey the law of God. Hence the prophet, speaking of the Messiah, saith, “The Lord is well pleased for his righcousness' sake; he will magnify the law, and make it honorable." Isa. 42: 21. The holy law of God, given to inan in innocency as a covenant, being violated and broken, and the authority of the great lawgiver affronted and opposed by man's disobedience, the Messiah, the second Adam, was to be made under the law, to bring in an everlasting righteousness, and not only fulfill the law, both in its precept and penalty, but to magnify it and make it honorable. To add a new lustre and glory unto the law which it never had before, through the dignity of his person who should obey, it behoved the surety of this better covenant, in order to the fulfillment of the conditionary part, to perform a series of universal and spotless obedience to the moral, Jewish, ceremonial and mediatorial laws, from the commencement to the conclusion of his humble state.

8 13. 3. Another article of the covenant was, that the Messiah should make satisfaction for the numerous and aggravated offences of his people. This is one thing in which especially this covenant differs from that made with Adam. Of Adam, it was required only to obey, but the second Adam was both to obey and to die. For this covenant was made with the Messiah as the representative and surety of sinful men, who have not only come short of the obedience which the law requires, but, by the violation of its precepts, hare incurred its penalty. Thus was the work assigned to the surety, far more arduous than that assigned to the head of the first covenant. In order that we might escape eternal death, and obtain eternal life, our surety was not only to spend a holy and meritorious life, but he was also to undergo an accursed and expiatory death. Man was a criminal debtor; the debt must be paid : the Messiah, by agreement, puts himself in the sinner's stead; to pay this debt, submit to the revenging arm of justice, and thereby release the prisoners. He was to be made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law; as we were under the law, so was the surety to bear the curse of the law for us; that whatsoever power the law had over us, in regard to its precepts, the Messiah was to obey; whatsoever, in regard of its curses, he was to undergo; and thus undertaking for us, he was to endure the stroke of his Father's wrath, to which we sinners were liable. As the proper and primary design of sacrifices was to expiate typically for sins, so the Messiah was to expiate really for the sins of his people; God laid their iniquities upon him, and then punished them in him ; so that he bore the penalty which sinners themselves should have undergone. Man having sinned, either he himself or his gurety must suffer the punishment thereby deserved. God would have sin punished somewhere; the Messiah, therefore, having put himself into the sinner's stead, he must bear the punishment due to the sinner. For though God would so far relcase his law as to admit of a substitution or com. anutation as to the person suffering, yet he would have its penalty, inflicted either upon the proper offender himselt, or upon the Savior, who ivas willing to interpose for the offender so as to suffer what he should have suffered. Hence all those predictions which so minutely, emphatically, and pathetically speak of the Messiah as a “ Man of sufferings and acquainted with grief; whose face was marreu more than any man;

who was smitten and stricken of God; wounded and bruised for our iniquities; pouring out his soul unto death ; his soul making an offering for sie; cut off, but not for himself. His hands and feet pierced.” Sec Ps. 22. Isa. 53. Dan. 9. Hence the awful commission of Jehovah," Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts ; smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered.” Zech. 13:7. This was the sacrifice which God required exclusively of all others as to any satisfaction. For, saith the Messiah, “ Sacrifice and burnt-offering thou wouldst not; in them thou hadst no pleasure : then said I, Lo, I come." Ps. 40. He pronounced them utterly useless for the satisfaction of justice, though fit to prefigure the grand sacrifice intended. : $ 14. Our ancient Rabbins were not ignorant of this covenant agreement between Jehovah and the Messiah. Jehovatı is introduced as addressing the Messiah thus : “Righteous Messiah, those who are hid with thee, are such whose sins in time shall bring thee into grief ; thy ears shall hear reproaches, thy tongue cleave to the roof of thy mouth; thou shalt be wearied with sorrow.” The Messiah answercd, “ Lord of the world, I joyfully take them upon me, and charge myself with their torments; but upon this condition, that thou shalt quicken the dead in my day.” “God," saith the Rabbi, "granted him this; and from that time the Messiah charged himself with all kind of torments, as it is written, Isaiah, 53: 5, he was afflicted, &c." R. Hadarshan, in Gen. 1: 1. sec Charnock 2. 191. Mugee on the atonement, vol. 2. 369. Again it is said that the Messiah taketh upon himself the afflictions and punishment of Israel; and if he had not diminished or made light the afflictions, not any one in the world would have been able to bear the punishment of · the law. Whilst Israel dwelt in their own land, they kept off all manner of afflictions and evil diseases by means of sacrifices; but now the Messiah takes them away, as it is writien, “ he was wounded for our transgression." Isa. 53 : 5. Yalkut chadash. No. 29, fol. 154, c. 4.

$ 15. 4. We observe once more, that it was required of the Messiah that he should employ his mighty power and extensive authority for the important purposes of God's glory and man's salvation. The people committed to his charge were not only to be purchased by his blood, but he was to make thein willing in the day of his power; He should rescue them from the hand of the mighty one, should watch over them during their pilgrimage in the wilderness, and, as the true Jehovah, safely conduct them through the river Jordan, and bring them into quiet possession of the heavenly Canaan. Hence the many predictions to that purpose, He shall feed his flock like a shepherd; he shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young." Isaiah, 40: 11. The remainder of this subject we shall consider in our

But O immeasurable grace!
Th'eternal Son takes Adam's place;
Down to our world the Savior flies,
Stretches his arms, and bleeds, and dies.

Amazing work! look down, ye skies,
Wonder and gaze with all your eyes !
Ye saints below, and saints above,
All bow to this mysterious love.

Letter II.


Dear Brother,

g 1. 5. Having shown already the reality, nature, parties and condition of the covenant between the Father and the Son, we proceed now to notice the promissory part of it. As the party with whom the covenant was made comes under a twofold consideration, as the party representing, and the party represented, the promissory part of it must necessarily be viewed in a twofold light also, viz. as it relates to the Mediator himself, and as it relates to those whom he represents. From the Scriptures of the Old Testament it appears that the Father promised to his Son as follows:

§ 2. 1. To fit him for the work, by preparing him a huynan nature to be united with his divine, and by qualifying that human nature for the work the Mediator had to perform. With respect to the first, we observe, that when the covenant of works was made with the first Adam, he was furnished with sufficient strength for performing the condition of it, as has already been stated; when the second Adam was sent into the world to accomplish a superior work, he likewise was to be furnished with every necessary qualification. He needed a human nature. Hence the prophet foretold, Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.” Isaiah, 7: 14. Nay, so eertain and sure are the transactions of this covenant, that the same prophet spake of the incarnation of the Messiah as if it had taken place in his day: "For unto us a child is born, a son is given; and the gorernment shall be upon his

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