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invalid military pensioners, whose pensions annually amounted to $8,611,854.91, and of 113,518 widows, orphans, and dependent relatives of soldiers, whose yearly pensions amounted to $14,530,778.39, making an aggregate of 208,923 Army pensioners, at a total annual rate of $23,142,633.30. The whole amount paid during the last fiscal year to invalid military pensioners was $10,145,145.49, and to widows, orphans, and dependent relatives, $17,266,156.02, making a grand total of $27,411,301.51, which includes the expenses of disbursement.
During the same year there were examined and allowed 151 original applications for invalid Navy pensions, at an aggregate annual rate of $14,552; 68 applications of the same class for increase of pension, at a total yearly rate of $3,915; 124 new applications of widows, orphans, and dependent relatives of those who died in the Navy, at an aggregate yearly rate of $18,494; and 6 pensions of the same class were increased at an annual rate of $654. On the 30th day of June, 1872, there were borne on the rolls of Navy pensioners the names of 1,449 invalids, at an annual aggregate of $136,545, and of 1,730 widows, orphans, and dependent relatives, at an aggregate yearly rate of $269,208; making the whole number of such pensioners 3,179, at a total annual rate of $405,753. The aggregate amount paid during the last fiscal year to Navy invalids was $149,442.85, and to widows, orphans, and dependent relatives, $295,186.57; a total amount of $444,629.42, which includes the expenses of disbursement.
On the 30th day of June, 1871, there were pending 26,190 applications of soldiers and widows of soldiers of the war of 1812. During the year subsequent to that date there were received 6,546 applications of survivors of that war, and 3,815 applications of widows, in all 10,361 applications, making a grand total of 36,551 claims for pension of this description filed prior to June 30, 1872. Of these there were allowed, during the last fiscal year, 17,021 applications of survivors, at a total annual rate of $1,634,016; and 3,105 applications of widows, at an annual aggregate rate of $298,080, making a total of 20,126 claims allowed, at an aggregate annual rate of $1,932,096. Four thousand eight hundred and forty-five claims were rejected during the year, leaving 11,580 claims pending on the 30th of June last. On the first instant there were pending 8,184 claims, more than half of which are believed to be without merit, and will probably be rejected. The total amount paid during the year to survivors of the war of 1812, $1,977,415.84, and to widows, $335,993.63; a total amount of $2,313,409.47, including the expenses of disbursement.
The number of pensions of all classes, granted during the past fiscal year, was 33,838. During that period there were dropped from the pension-rolls, from various causes, 9,104 names, leaving a grand total of 232,229 pensioners on the rolls June 30, 1872, whose yearly pensions amount to $25,480,578.30. The amount paid during said year for pensions of all classes, including the expenses of disbursements, was
830.169.310.60, being $2,908.043.03 less than the amount paid during the preceding year.
Four hundred and forty-three bounty-land warrants were issued during the year, for 68,040 acres, being 338.120 less than the number of acres issued for the preceding year.
During the same period. 752 persons availed themselves of the benefits of the act of June 30, 1870, providing for artificial limbs and apparatus for resection, or commutation, of whom 458 perferred the latter.
On the 30th of June, 1872, there were on file, unad, asted, 37,176 claims for invalid pension, 33,762 claims of widows, orphans, and dependent relatives, and 11,550 claims of soldiers and widows of soldiers in the war of 1812. making a total of 82.518 claims. The Commissioner estimates that the claims for pension on account of the war of 1812 will be disposed of by the 1st of May next.
The investigation of frauds continues to receive especial attention, with such gratifying results, both in the detection and repression of wrong-doing, as to demand a continuance of the present policy.
. It is estimated that $30,480,000 will be required for the pension service during the next fiscal year.
BUREAU OF EDUCATION.
The great increase of interest in education throughout the country, in the last few years, is gratifying to every sincere patriot. Of this increase I believe the Burean of Education is one of the principal exciting causes; and the hearty indorsement of the office, by educators of every section and every sort of institution, is a titting recognition.
The business of the office has increased so rapidly during the past year, that 2,300 letters have been received and 3,560 have been written by it, an increase of more than 150 per cent, over the same work last year. More than 33,000 documents have been distributed in the same time, an increase of nearly 200 per cent, over last year,
The report of the Educational Bureau will show the amount and character of the work of the office. No previous volume contains such a mine of educational facts and statistics for the guidance and information of the country. I recommend increased appropriations for the office.
The bill, introduced at the last session of Congress by the Committee of the House on Education and Labor, providing for the expenditure of the net proceeds of the sale of public lands in establishing an educational fund and in assisting the States in the universal education of their youth, has received the unanimous approval of the educators of the Union; and I commend it to the favorable attention of Congress.
The report of the Superintendent of the Ninth Census announces the completion of that great national work. All the tables of the census
are now in press, whether for the three quarto volumes authorized, or for the compendium to be published in octavo. The quarto volumes are at the present date wholly in type, except about 150 pages of the volume on Industry. The Population volume will, it is anticipated, be laid upon the desks of members on the assembling of Congress, in December. The other volumes will follow with only such interval as is required for press-work and binding. The early completion of the census is a subject of congratulation, inasmuch as the use to be made of the statistics obtained with so much of labor and expense depends very greatly on the promptitude of publication. With such rapid changes of popula tion and industry as occur in the United States, the census remains even approximately true but very few years after the date of enumeration. Every year, therefore, for which the publication of results is delayed, subtracts a large portion of the actual present utility of the census. There still remains, it is true, a secondary use, namely, for sta tistical retrospect and comparison, which is independent of this consideration. But the main object of the census, in which alone would be found the justification for so great an expenditure of labor and money, is its immediate use in directing the legislation and the industrial and social efforts of the present age. For this purpose, every month saved in publication amounts to a large positive addition to the value of the work.
The appropriation made at the last session of Congress for illustrating graphically the quarto volumes of the census has been expended with results which, it is believed, will meet with cordial recognition and approval from Congress and the country. No authority or appropriation exists for maps and charts to accompany the compendium in octavo, the copy for which is to-day sent to the Congressional Printer from the Census Office. The expense of illustrating in this style a work of which so large an edition is to be printed as of the compendium, would be very considerable, and I do not feel justified in making a distinct recommendation to that effect, but content myself with suggesting the matter, leaving it to Congress to determine whether the expenditure will be consistent with other calls upon the revenue. I do, however, strongly recommend that a statistical atlas of the United States, based upon the results of the Ninth Census, to contain a large number of maps, with appropriate text and tables, be authorized in an edition not exceeding five thousand, to be prepared under the direction of the Superintendent of the Census, for distribution to public libraries, learned societies, colleges, and academies, with a view to promote that higher kind of political education which has heretofore been so greatly neglected in this country, but toward which the attention of the general public, as well as of instructors and students, is now being turned with the most lively interest. The exact knowledge of our country should be the basis of this education; and it is in the power of Congress, by authorizing such a publication as is here recommended, to practically
naugurate the study of political and social statistics in the colleges and higher schools of the land.
The recommendation made by the Superintendent for a census to be taken in 1875 will, I trust, receive the early and earnest attention of Congress. Such an account of the national numbers, wealth, and industry, would form an invaluable catalogue and guide-book to the American sections in the International Exposition to be held in Philadelphia in 1876, as well as constitute a noble monument to the progress of the United States during the first century of its political life.
The additional reason urged by the Superintendent that a census in 1875 would go far to secure the taking of the Federal census thereafter at intervals of five years has even stronger claim to consideration. It is unquestionably true that the interval at present established between the Federal censuses is too long for the proper information of Congress and the body of citizens, as to the material condition, wants, and resources of the nation. No one will dispute this. In the present stage of political and social science, no intelligent person would, were the question a purely original one, propose a longer interval between the periodical enumerations of the country than five years. It is simply a question now, whether the constitutional provision shall be enlarged to meet the manifest requirements of this later time. Regarding, as I do, the provision of the Constitution in respect to the census as a minimum provision, guaranteeing to the growing States that not less than once in ten years shall the representation in Congress be apportioned according to a new determination of the population of the several States, I see no didicuity in making the intermediate census thus proposed the equivalent in all respects for the decennial census authorized and res quired by the Constitution. But, in view of the doubts which might not unreasonably arise in the minds of some as to this construction, and of the jealousy of the States more stable in population, arising from the fear of parting prematurely with portions of their representative power, I would recommetal that the census of 1875, if authorized and provided for, should be distinctly divested of a political character, and the next redistribution of congressional representation be left to follow the census of 1880, as in due course by the Constitution.
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES.
The operations of the United States geological survey have been very much extended the past season, owing to the increased appropriations by Congress. It was deemed advisable by the Department to continue the work of exploration in the little-known region of the Northwest about the sources of the Yellowstone, Missouri, and Snake Rivers. Aecordingly, the chef geologist was directed to org mize two properlyequipped parties. One party, under the immediate direction of Mr. James Stevenson, took, as its mitial point, Oden, Utah, and proceeded thence to Fort Hall, Idaho. From this point a careful survey of the
Snake River Valley was commenced. The party ascended the valley on the east side to the sources of Henry's Fork, thence to the sources of the Madison, where they crossed the divide to the head-waters of Snake River, and descended this river to Fort Hall. The great Teton range was minutely explored and located. Madison Lake, which has hitherto been regarded as the source of the Madison, has proved to be the source of Snake River. Many very important changes were made in the geography of this interesting region. The second party, under the direc tion of Professor Hayden, proceeded to Bozeman, Montana, and there commenced an examination of the Yellowstone to its sources. The Gallatin and Madison Rivers, with their numerous branches, were carefully mapped. The National Park, with its unique borders, was examined in more detail, and great numbers of sketches, photographs, specimens, &c., were secured. A great mass of observations in astronomy, meteorology, and topography were obtained, and the collections in geology, botany, and natural history were more extensive and interesting than those of any preceding year. The materials for a report, both of a practical and scientific character, exceed those of any previous season. . Besides the two parties mentioned above, there were five small parties making special examinations, under the auspices of the survey, in different parts of the West. The parties have all returned from the field, and are busily engaged in preparing their reports, to be submitted to Congress at an early day.
The subscriptions to the stock of the Union Pacific Railroad Company amount to $36,783,000, of which $36,762,300 has been paid. The receipts for the year ending June 30, 1872, from the transportation of passengers, were $3,067,808.17; of freight, $4,122,651.20; and from miscellaneous sources, $771,711.41; total, $7,962,170.78. The entire cost of the road and fixtures to said date, (unadjusted balances with contractors not included,) was $114,258,535.97. The indebtedness of the company at the same date amounted to $75,894,512, of which $27,236,512 is due to the United States.
The Central Pacific Railroad Company, by consolidation now embraces, besides the original company of that namé, also the Western Pacific, the San Francisco and Oakland, the San Francisco and Alameda, and the California and Oregon companies. Stock to the amount of $59,644,000 has been subscribed, and $54,283,190 paid. The receipts. for the year ending June 30, 1872, from transportation of passengers, were $3,620,519.33, and of freight, $5,753,246; total, $9,373,765.33. The expenses were $4,317,332.32, leaving net earnings to the amount of $5,056,433.01. At the close of said year the indebtedness of the company amounted to $80,900,132.37, of which $27,855,680 was to the United States.
The stock subscription of the Central Branch Union Pacific Railroad