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jamin, and Manasses : stir up thy strength, and come, and help us.

3. Turn (A) us again, O God: shew the light of thy countenance, and we shall be whole.

4. O Lord God of hosts : how long wilt thou be angry with thy people that (i) prayeth?

6. Thou feedest them with the bread of tears : and givest them plenteousness of tears to drink.

6. Thou hast made us a very strife (A) unto our neighbours: and our enemies laugh us to scorn.

7. Turn (A) us again, thou God of hosts : shew the light of thy countenance, and we shall be whole.

8. Thou hast brought a vine (J) out of Egypt : thou hast cast out the heathen, and planted it;

9. Thou madest room for it: and when it had taken root, it filled the land.

10. The hills were covered with the shadow of it : and the boughs thereof were like the goodly cedar-trees.

11. She stretched (m) out her branches unto the sea (n) : and her boughs unto the (») river.

12. Why hast thou then broken down her hedge : that all they that go by pluck off her grapes?

13. The (o) wild boar out of the wood doth root it up : and the wild (o) beasts of the field devour it.

14. Turn thee again, thou God of hosts, look down from heaven: behold, and visit this vine;

15. And the place of the vineyard, that thy right hand hath planted : and the branch, that thou madest so strong for thyself.

16. (p) It is burnt with fire and cut down : and they shall perish at the rebuke of thy countenance.

17. Let thy (q) hand be upon the man (r) of thy right hand:

(h) v. 3. 7. "Turn," i. e. " revive." (i) v. 4. *' That prayeth," i. e. (probably) "though they turn to thee: not"withstanding their prayers." (i) v.6. "Strife/ rather "jest." U) v. 8. "A vine,'* i. e. "the house of "Israel;" described (Isaiah v. 7.) under the type of a vineyard, " For the vineyard "of the Lord of Hosts is the house of "Israel, and the men of Judah his plea"sant plant."

(m) v. 11. "Stretched out, &c.M So great was the extent of her dominions.

(n) "Sea," i. e. "the Mediterranean," and "the river," i. e. "the Euphrates." See Ps. lxxii. 8. This was one of the promises for obedience, (Deuter. xi. 24.) "Every place whereon the soles of your "feet shall tread shall be yours: from the "wilderness, and Lebanon, from the "river, the river Euphrates, even unto "the uttermost sea, shall your coast be." The wilderness (of Seir) being the southern boundary, Lebanon the northern, Euphrates the eastern, and the Mediterra

nean the western. The reference to this promise might be intended to intimate to the people why they had been brought into misery, viz. for disobedience, and by . what means they might be reinstated, viz. by obedience.

(o) v. 13. "The wild boar," and "the "wild beast,'' i. e. "the idolatrous Gen"tile powers."

(p) v. 16. Dr. Kennicott reads "con"sume with fire those who are destroying "it, let them perish, &c.;" and Mr. Street, "Those that burn it with fire and "consume it, let them perish, &c." Its state had been described before.

(q) v. 17. "Hand," i. e. (probably) "vengeance."

(r) "The man, &c." i. e. (probably) "those to whom thou hast given strength «' for no other purpose but to make them "instruments of thy wrath." In Ps. xvii. 13,14. the ungodly are called "a sword of "God's," and "the men of God's hand;" and see Isaiah x. 5.

A A 4

and upon the son of man, whom thou madest so strong for thine ownself.

18. And so will not we go back from thee : O let us live, and we shall call upon thy Name.

19. Turn us again, O Lord God of hosts : shew the light of thy countenance, and we shall be whole.

Psulnt lxxxi. (s)

Sing ye merrily unto God our strength : make a cheerful noise unto the God of Jacob.

a. Take the psalm, bring hither the tabret: the merry harp with the lute.

3. Blow up the trumpet in the new moon : even in the time

appointed, and upon our solemn feast day.

4. For this was made a statute for Israel: and a law of the God of Jacob.

5. This he ordained in (t) Joseph for a testimony («) : when he came out of the land of Egypt, and had heard a strange language.

6. " I (x) eased his shoulder "from the burden (j/) : and his "hands were delivered from mak"ing the pots.

7. "Thou (z) calledst upon me "in troubles, and I delivered ** thee: and heard thee, what "time as the storm fell upon thee.

8. "I proved thee (a) also: at "the waters of strife.

(*) An hymn for the Feast of TrumIH-ts, the first day of the seventh month, culling upon the people to join in praises and thanksgivings to God. It reminds them of the deliverance from Egypt, and insinuates that it was nothing but their own disobedience which kept them from God's protection and from his choicest blessings. According to Numb. x. 10. "In the days of their gladness, in their "solemn days, and in the beginnings of «' their months, they were to blow with "their trumpets over their burnt-offerings,"and over the sacrifices of their peace"offerings;" but in "the seventh month, "on the first day of the month, they ** were to have an holy convocation; they "were to do no servile work, it was «« to. be a day of blowing the trumpets," i. e. "a day of great rejoicing." Numb. xxix. 1. — Levit. xxiii. 23, 24. This day was accordingly called the Feast of Trumpets. On the tenth day of the same month was the day of atonement, (Lev. xxxiii. 27 to 32. — Numb. xxix. 7 to 11.) and from the 15th to the 22d, after they had gathered in the fruit of the land, the Feast of Tabernacles. (Levit. xxiii, 34

to 43 Numb. xxix. 12 to 39.) Bp. Lowth

says, " Throughout this Psalm is an exqui"site union of sublimity and sweetness. "The object appears to be to exhort to "obedience from considering the paternal

"love, the beneficence and the promises "of God: and this is accomplished with "wonderful art, elegance, variety, and in"genuity."

(») v. 5. "In Joseph," i. e. "amongst "Joseph's people, the Israelites."

(«) '' A testimony," i. e. "of their de"liverance," " of the wonders he had "wrought on their behalf."

(x) t>. 6. " I, &c." From hence to the end of the Psalm, God himself is supposed to be the speaker.

(y) " Tne burden." According to Exod. i. 11, the Egyptians set taskmasters over the Israelites, "to afflict "them with their burdens." And according to Exod. v. 4. Pharoah ordered them "totheirburdens,"viz.themakingofbricks.

(*) v. 7. "Thou calledst, 4c." An inducement to make them join more heartily in the solemnity, and to keep them stedfast to God's worship, that in whatever troubles they had been, God had heard when they called.

(a) v. 8. " Proved thee, 8cc." i. e. (per"haps) gave you a proof of my power "and superintending care." When the Israelites murmured for want of water in the wilderness, and Moses smote the rock and produced a supply, he called the place Meribah, because the children of Israel .strove with the Lord. Numb. xx. 1 to 13. — xxvii. 14 Deut. xxxiii. 8. It was »

9. "Hear, O my people, and I will assure thee, O Israel: if thou wilt hearken unto me,

10. " There shall no strange God be in thee: neither shalt thou worship any other god.

11. "I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt: open (b) thy mouth wide, and I shall fill it."

12. "But my people would not hear my voice: and Israel would not obey me.

13. "So I gave them up unto their own hearts' lusts: and let them follow their own imaginations.

14. "O that my people would have hearkened unto me: for if Israel had walked in my ways,

15. " I should soon have put down their enemies : and turned my hand against their adversaries.

16. "The haters of the Lord should have beenfound lia rs(c): but their time should have endured for ever.

17. "He (rf) should have fed them also with the finest wheat flour: and with honey (e) out of the stony rock should I have satisfied thee."

the smiting the rock, therefore, and producing the water, that the allusion here refers.

(b) v. 11. - Open, &c." Whatever be thy wishes, however large, be but obedient, and they shall be accomplished.

(c) v. 16. "Liars," i. e. "in insinuat"ing that he was not the true God."

The same expression occurs, Ps. Ixvi. 2. "Through the greatness of thy power "shall thine enemies be found liars unto "thee?'

(d) v. 17. " He," or "I."

(e) "Honey, &c." a great delicacy in those times; an intimation that nothing should have been withheld.

Lessons for the Sixteenth Day of the Month throughout the Year.


(1) ante, 163. (2) ante, (7) ante, 216

173.170. (3) ante, 14a (4) ante, 30. (5) ante, 163. (6) ante, 224. (8) ante, 55. 70. 60. (9) ante, 98. (10) ante, 164.

Psalm lxxxii. (g)

Ctod standeth in (Ji) the congregation of princes(7): he is a Judge among gods, (t)

2. How long will ye give wrong judgement : and accept (Jc) the persons of the ungodly?

3. Defend the poor and fatherless: see that such as are in need and necessity have right.

4. Deliver the outcast and poor: save them from the hand of the ungodly.

6. They will not be learned nor understand, but walk on still in darkness: all the founda

tions of the earth (/) are out of course.

6. I have said, "Ye are gods(m): "and ye are all the children of "the Most Highest;"

7. But ye shall die like men: and fall like one of the princes, (n)

8. Arise, O (o) God, and judge thou the earth: for thou shalt take all heathen to thine inheritance.

Psalm Ixxxiii. (p)

Hold not thy tongue, O God, keep not still silence: refrain not thyself, O God.

2. For lo, thine enemies make a murmuring: and they that hate thee have lift up their head.

(g) A rebuke to the judges for .corruption and partiality. In 2 Chron. xix. 6, 7. Jehoshaphat gave them this exhortation: "Take need what ye do, for ye judge not "for man, but for the Lord, who is with "you in the judgment: wherefore now "let the fear of the Lord be upon you: "take heed and do it, for there is no ini"quity with the Lord our God, nor respect "of persons, nor taking of gifts." And Isaiah's complaint was this: "Thy princes "are rebellious; every one loveth gifts, "and followeth after rewards; they judge *' not the fatherless, neither doth the cause "of the widow come unto them. Isaiah i. "23." It was probably in Isaiah's time that this Psalm was written.

(A) v. 1. " Standeth in, &c." i. e. (as in 2 Chron. xix. 6.) "is with them in ihejudg"tnent."

(«') "Princes," and " gods," i. e.«« the "highest earthly tribunals."

(£) v. 2. Accept the persons." A Scripture phrase for «' deciding partially, out of "regard to one of the contending parties."

See Levit. xix. 16. — Deut. 1. 16, 17

Jobxiii.7,8.10.—xxxii. 21.—Luke xx. 21. —GaL ii. 6. — and James ii. 9.

(/) v. 5. " Foundations of the earth," i.e. (probably) "the principles of justice and "rectitude, the basis of all government." It is probably in the same sense that the expression is used, Ps. xi. S." Thejbund11 ations will be cast down; and what hath "the righteous done?"

(m) v. 6. "Gods," i. e. "as gods; su"preme in power."

(») v. 7. " Princes," or "first parents," (Just. M. Dial, cum Tryph. 353.): or«'poor," "outcasts." It is saying nothing, (at least nothing in unison with the context,) to say of the princes, that they should fell like one of the princes.

(o) o. 8. "God:" referring possibly to the Messiah, by whom all should be judged. See Just. M. Dial, cum Tryph. 353.

(jo) A prayer to God for assistance, at the time of some powerful combination of the heathen against Israel or Judah. It is generally supposed to have been written in the time of Jehoshaphat, when the children of Moab, and the children of Amnion, and others, came up against him to battle, and he proclaimed a fast, and all Judah gathered themselves together to ask help of the Lord. See 2 Chron. «• It might perhaps belong to an earlier period, before the people were divided into two kingdoms, and whilst they passed under the general name of Israel, fo David's time the children of Amnion sent to hire chariots and horses out of Mesopotamia, and out of Syria Maachah, and out of Zoba; and they hired 32,000 chariots, and went up against David: (see 2 Sam. x. 6. and 1 Chron. xix. 6.) and it is observable, that the instances referred to in the 9th and 11th verses all occurred before David's time.

3. They have imagined craftily against thy people: and taken counsel against thy secret (y) ones.

4. They have said, "Come, "and let us root them out, that "they be no more a people: "and that the name of Israel (r) "may be no more in remem"brance."

5. For they have cast their heads together with one consent: and are confederate against thee j

6. The tabernacles of the Edomites, and the Ishmaelites: the Moabites, and Hagarens;

7. Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek: the Philistines, with them that dwell at Tyre.

8. Assur also is joined with them: and have holpen the children of Lot (s)

9. But do thou to them as unto the Midianites (/): unto Sisera (w), and unto Jabin, at the brook of Kison;

10. Who perished at Endor: and became as the dung of the earth.

11. Make them and their princes like Oreb and Zeb (.r): yea, make all their princes like as Zeba and Salmana (.r);

12. Who say, "Let us take to "ourselves: the houses of God "in possession."

13. O my God, make them like unto a wheel (y): and as the stubble before the wind;

14. Like as the fire that («) burneth up the wood: and as the flame that (z) consumeth the mountains, (a)

15. Persecute them even so with thy tempest: and make them afraid with thy storm.

16. Make their faces ashamed, O Lord: that they may seek thy Name.

17. Let them be confounded and vexed ever more and more: let them be put to shame, and perish.

18. And they shall know, that, thou, whose Name is Jehovah: art only the Most Highest over all the earth.

Psalm lxxxiv. (b)

O How amiable are thy dwellings: thou Lord of hosts!

2. My soul hath a desire and longing to enter into the courts of the Lord: my heart and my flesh rejoice in the living God.

(?) v. 3. "Secret," i. e. "chosen."

(r) o. 4. "Israel." Jehoshaphat was king of Judah only. The kingdom of Israel, or of the ten tribes, was in his time under Ahab and Ahaziah.

(«) v. 8. " Children of Lot," i. e. " the "Moabites and Ammonites."

(«) o.9. "Midianites." All their males and part of their women were slain; the rest were carried away captive; their cities were burnt; and their cattle and goods spoiled. This was in the time of Moses. See Numb. xxxi. There was another great slaughter of them by Gideon: *ere fell 120,000 that drew sword. Judges viii. 10.

(«) "Sisera," and "Jabin." See Judges iv.

(x) v. 11. " Oreb and Zeb," "Zeba and "Salmana." See Judges vii. 24, 25. and viii. 4 to 21.

<g) v. 13. "A wheel" or " chaftV' See Isaiah xvii. 13.

(z) v. 14. The Bible translation omits "that" and " that;" and then the meaning is this: " Destroy them with thy "tempest and storm as effectually as fire "destroy eth wood, as flame desolateth "the mountains."

(a) " The mountains," i. e. "the dry "wood or grass upon them."

(/>) Upon the blessings of attending the temple. It is supposed to have been written when David, or some other person, was prevented attending the temple worship; or it might have been written

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